Presentation on theme: "Contending with Isolation: ca"— Presentation transcript:
1 Contending with Isolation: ca. 1000-1200 Chapter 11Contending with Isolation:ca
2 Focus QuestionsHOW DID geography influence the spread of culture and state-building in North America and Mesoamerica?WHY WAS the Indian Ocean so important for the spread of culture?WHY WERE the land routes across Eurasia less significant than the sea routes across the Indian Ocean?WHICH AREAS of India were most prosperous in the tenth and eleventh centuries and what was the basis of their prosperity?HOW DID their relative cultural isolation affect Japan andWestern Europe during these centuries?
3 Geography and the Americas American isolation: sporadic contact w/Asia, Europe in pre-Columbus eraN/S travel inhibited by mountain ranges, riversCivilizations develop in Andes (S. America), Mesoamerica, N. American SWDramatic shifts in climate/geography inhibit contact with other regionsArctic RegionsThule Inuit (indigenous peoples of Arctic) migrate across Arctic and North Atlantic oceans using walrus skin boatsInuit settle Greenland, Western North America (Alaska)Migrations by Scandinavians (Norse) to America, Iceland, GreenlandExploitation of sea resources, transformation of Greenland’s environment: farming, grazingIsolation, changing climate dooms settlementsSouthwest and Mississippian Regions: 800 to 1300 C.E.Large scale residential, ceremonial centers in SW: Chaco canyon, Pueblo Canyon culturesCahokia, mound cultures of Northern Mississippi regionMixed agriculture, trade: extensive networks reaching to SW, Mesoamerica, Northern plains, SE
4 The Indian Ocean Trading System Richest and most diverse system of the timeSpices, textiles, precious metals and stones, animals, agricultural goods, etc.Monsoons made navigation across thousands of miles easy.Rise of the Khmer EmpireAngkor Wat: 12th centuryWriting system, ideas about Buddhism and HinduismChola kingdom in southern India: 11th-12th centuryClearing forest, combining agriculture & commercial tradeMaritime imperialism: merchants with private armiesEthiopiaTrade, but identifies more with Judeo-Christian traditions, as opposed to the Islamic traditions of its neighbors.
5 What is different about American cultural regions as compared with the Indian Ocean? Trade not impossible, but more difficultMore variety in climatic zones, terrainsEasier for communications to be brokenWidely dispersed populationsMixed nomadic hunter/gatherer and farming communitiesLack of technologies more common in Eurasia
6 Does Everyone Wants to be Connected? JapanBorrows from China: Confucianism and Buddhism, ideas about government and religion, system of writing, literature, architecture, etc.Reaction in 838 C.E. with suspension of tradeDevelopment of these ideas in unison with native Japanese practiceWhy would a society want to look inward in such a fashion?
7 Western Europe: On the Margins with Few Resources Develops a siege mentality and military solutions to opening up tradeThe Reconquest of Spain and Sicily from MuslimsCrusades in the Levant and into Eastern EuropeCrusades open Mediterranean trade networks with the Levant and Egypt, more cultural influencesNorthern trade networks tie in with developing trade/travel networks on the Volga River (Novgorod).With influx of new goods and technologies, Europe develops manufacturing in finished tools and textiles that gives it more to trade with the East
8 Are gender preferences in culture inevitable? Today’s QuestionAre gender preferences in culture inevitable?ConsiderVarious forms of art, including the novel, arose as “women’s art”: either for women or, as in Heian Japan, by women.Divisions in the arts reflected inequalities in the status of women and the limited opportunities available to them in traditional societies.But gendered differences in artistic taste—from “chick flicks” and romance novels to the heavily male audience for many video games—persist in the modern world.Do these facts suggest that inequalities persist?Or is “sexual stereotyping” in childhood is responsible, with parents inculcating different values in children of different sexes?Or are there underlying biological differences, which really do pre-dispose men and women to contrasting preferences in art and life?