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802.11: Quality-of-Service Reference: “Quality-of-service in ad hoc carrier sense multiple access wireless networks”; Sobrinho, J.L.; Krishnakumar, A.S.;

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Presentation on theme: "802.11: Quality-of-Service Reference: “Quality-of-service in ad hoc carrier sense multiple access wireless networks”; Sobrinho, J.L.; Krishnakumar, A.S.;"— Presentation transcript:

1 802.11: Quality-of-Service Reference: “Quality-of-service in ad hoc carrier sense multiple access wireless networks”; Sobrinho, J.L.; Krishnakumar, A.S.; IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Volume: 17 Issue: 8, Aug. 1999; Page(s): 1353 –1368 (802.11QoS-1.pdf)

2 2 Introduction Packet collisions are intrinsic to CSMA Hidden nodes –Two transmitting nodes outside the sensing range of each other may interfere at a common receiver Many flavors of CSMA –Nodes that participate in a collision schedule the retransmission of their packets to a random time in the future, in the hope of avoiding another collision –This strategy does not provide QoS guarantees for real-time traffic support

3 3 Related Works MACA Protocol  CSMA/CA –Multiple Access Collision Avoidance –RTS minipacket + CTS minipacket –In the environments without hidden nodes, MACA may improve the throughput of the network over that attained with CSMA because collisions involve only short RTS minipackets rather than normal data packets as in CSMA –MACA also alleviates the hidden nodes problem because the CTS sent by the destination also serves to inhibit the nodes in the neighborhood

4 4 Related Works (cont) FAMA protocol –Floor Acquisition Multiple Access –Includes several variants of MACA, one of which is immune to hidden nodes –Have not been designed for QoS  Control minipackets are subject to collisions  Retransmissions are randomly scheduled

5 5 Related Works (cont) GAMA protocol –Group Allocation Multiple Access –Attempt to provide QoS guarantees to real-time traffic in a distributed wireless environment –In GAMA, there is a contention period where nodes use an RTS-CTS dialog to explicitly reserve bandwidth in the ensuing contention-free period –A packet transmitted in the contention-free period may maintain the reservation for the next cycle –The scheme is developed for wireless networks where all nodes can sense and receive the communications from their peers

6 6 Related Works (cont) MACA/PR –MACA/packet reservation protocol –Similar to GAMA, but an acknowledge follows every packet sent in contention-free periods to inform the nodes in the neighborhood of the receiver whether or not another packet is expected in the next contention-free cycle Summary for these QoS protocols –These schemes deviate from pure carrier sensing methods in that every node has to construct channel state information based on reservation requests carried in packets sent into the channel

7 7 Black-Burst (BB) Contention Features –1. Distributed and is based only on carrier sensing. It gives priority access to real-time traffic and ensure collision-free transmission of real-time packets –2. When operated in an Ad Hoc wireless LAN, it further guarantees bounded real-time delays –3. Can be overlaid on current CSMA implementation, with only minor modifications required to the real-time transceivers:  The random retransmission scheme is turned off, and in substitution, the possibility of sending BB’s is provided

8 8 Carrier Sense Wireless Network Characteristics –1. The range at which a node can sense carrier from a given transmitter is different and typically larger than the range at which receivers are willing to accept a packet from that same transmitter –2. Carrier from a transmitter can usually be sensed at a range beyond the range in which the transmitter may cause interference

9 9 Carrier Sense Wireless Network (cont) Three different types of links –1. Communication link  Node i has a communication link with node j, if and only if in the course of time, it has packets to send to node j –2. Interfering link  Node i has a interfering link with node j, if and only if any packet transmission with destination j that overlaps in time at j with a transmission from i is lost.  The lost packets are said to have collided with the transmission from i. –3. Sensing link  Node i has a sensing link with node j, if and only if a transmission by node i prevents node j from starting a new transmission, i.e. node i inhibits node j.

10 10 Carrier Sense Wireless Network (cont) –G C = (N, L C ): communication graph –G I = (N, L I ): interference graph –G S = (N, L S ): sensing graph –If node i has a communication link with node j, then i and j also have an interfering link between them –An interfering link is also a sensing link, but not conversely. L I  L S : G I is a spanning sub- graph of G S –Any node has an interfering and sensing link with itself  Since whenever a node transmits, it cannot simultaneously receive or start another transmission

11 11 Carrier Sense Wireless Network (cont) Path delay –Associated with each sensing link to account for the propagation delay separating nodes, the turn-around time of the wireless transceivers, and the sensing delay –Denoted by  ij –  ij > 0, and  ik +  kj >  ij, for ik, kj, ij  L S –Let  = max (  ij )

12 12 Carrier Sense Wireless Network (cont) N I (i) –The nodes that are neighbors of i (i included) in the interfering graph N S (i) –The nodes that are neighbors of i (i included) in the sensing graph Hidden nodes from i  j = N I (j)  (N – N S (i)) In a wireless network without hidden nodes –We have N I (j)  N S (i) for every i j  L C

13 13 Carrier Sense Wireless Network (cont)

14 14 Carrier Sense Wireless Network (cont) Wireless LAN –G I = G S, all nodes can sense each other’s transmissions 802.11 three interframe spacing –t short, t med, t long –t med >= 2  + t short, t long >= 2  + t med A node learns of the success or failure of its transmission through a positive ACK scheme –The recipient of a correctly received packet sends back an acknowledgement minipacket within an interval of length t short

15 15 BB Contention: Basic idea Basic idea –1. Real-time nodes contend for access to the channel after a medium interframe spacing of length t med, rather than after the long interframe spacing of length t long, used by data node.  Thus, real-time nodes as a group have priority over data nodes –2. Instead of sending their packets when the channel becomes idle for t med, real-time nodes first sort their access rights by jamming the channel with pulses of energy, denominated BB’s  The length of a BB transmitted by a real-time node is an increasing function of the contention delay experienced by the node, measured from the instant when an attempt to access the channel has been scheduled until the transmission of its BB

16 16 BB Contention: Basic idea (cont) –Length of black slot: t bslot  Not smaller than the max. round-trip path delay 2  –Idea: we would like the BB’s sent by distinct real-time nodes when the channel becomes idle for t med to differ by at least one black slot  the node with longest BB’s wins the access right to the channel –3. Following each BB transmission, a node senses the channel for an observation interval of length t obs to determine without ambiguity whether its BB was the longest of the contending BB’s

17 17 BB Contention: Basic idea (cont) –4. The winning node will transmit its real-time packet successfully and schedule the next transmission attempt –5. The nodes that lost the BB contention wait for the channel to once again become idle or t med, at which time they send new longer BB’s –In summary  Once the first real-time packet of a session is successfully transmitted, the mechanism ensures that succeeding real-time packets are also transmitted without collision  Real-time node appear to access a dynamic TDM transmission structure without explicit slot assignment or slot synchronization

18 18 BB Contention Assumption –Every real-time packet transmission lasts at least a certain time t pkt, t pkt >= 2  –At the beginning of a session, a real-time node uses conventional CSMA/CA rules, possibly with a more expedited retx algorithm, to convey its first pkt until it is successful –Real-time nodes only schedule their next transmission attempts– to a time t sch in the future– when they start a packet transmission –t sch is the same for all nodes

19 19 BB Contention (cont) The length b of the BB sent by the node –Is a direct function of the contention delay it incurred, d cont – –Where t bslot is the length of a black slot –t unit is the unit of time used to convert contention delays into an integral # of black slots

20 20 BB Contention (cont) –Correct operation of the scheme requires that t unit <= t pkt –After exhausting its BB transmission, the node waits for an observation interval t obs, the length of which has to satisfy t obs <= t bslot and t obs < t med –To see if any other node transmitted a longer BB, implying that it would have been waiting longer for access to the channel –If the channel is perceived idle after t obs, then the node (successfully) transmits its packet –If the channel is busy during the observation interval, the node waits again for the channel to be idle for t med and repeats the algorithm

21 21 BB Contention (cont) Explanation –The start of packet transmission from different nodes are shifted in time by at least t pkt  Since it is only when a node initiates the transmission of a packet that it schedules its next transmission attempt to a time t sch in the future, the contention delays of different nodes will likewise differ by at least t pkt –Taking t unit <= t pkt, the BB’s of different nodes differ by at least one black slot, and thus every BB contention period produces a unique winner  The winner is the node that has been waiting the longest for access to the channel

22 22 BB Contention (cont) –The observation interval t obs cannot last longer than the black slot time, t obs <= t bslot, so that a node always recognizes when its BB is shorter than that of another contending node –t obs also has to be shorter than t med (t obs < t med ) to prevent real-time nodes from sending BB’s by the time that a real-time packet transmission is expected. –Overall, the BB contention scheme gives priority to real-time traffic, enforces a round- robin discipline among real-time nodes, and results in bounded access delays to real-time packets

23 23 BB Contention (cont)

24 24 BB Contention (cont) Extension: different BW requirements –1. Packets of different sizes –2. Different scheduling intervals (two phases)  As long as the set of values allowed for the scheduling interval t sch is finite and small  Real-time nodes first sort their access rights based on contention delays as before (1 st phase)  However, it is now possible for two nodes with different scheduling intervals to compute BB’s with the same number of black slots  Hence, real-time node contends again with a new BB (2 nd phase), the length of which univocally identifies the scheduling interval being used by the node

25 25 Correctness of BB Contention Proposition 1 –Any real-time packet that contends with BB’s does not collide with either data packets or real-time packets that start a session Proposition 2 –Real-time packets that contend with BB’s do not collide with one another or with BB’s Proposition 3 –A real-time node that sees the channel idle for t med after a medium busy condition will access the channel to transmit a BB and will prevent neighboring data nodes from transmitting a packet Proposition 4 –A real-time node that sees the channel idle for t med after a medium busy condition will access the channel to transmit a BB and will exclude from contention any neighboring real-time nodes that have a smaller number of black slots in their BB’s

26 26 BB Contention (cont)

27 27 Chaining Idea –The number of real-time nodes contending for access to the channel can be reduced by grouping real-time packet transmissions into chains –A chain is a sequence of real-time packets where each packet invites the next for transmission To supporting chains –Each real-time packet is endowed with two new fields:  A send node ID (SID): contains the identity of the node transmitting the packet  A next node ID (NID): contains the identity of the node invited to transmit next

28 28 Chaining (cont) Setting of SID and NID –The SID field is set to NIL (empty field) in the first and last packets of a session –A real-time node relies on the round-robin discipline enforced by BB contention to choose a temporary ID to be used during a session –After sending the 1 st packet of a session, a real- time node observes the channel during the ensuing round to determine the identity of all other active sessions –Therefore, by the time it transmits its 2 nd packet, it is able to choose a unique identifier for itself which it keeps for the duration of the session –The NID field is NIL at every packet that is at the tail of a chain

29 29 Chaining (cont) Invitation –A node has to respond within an interval of length t short to an invitation from another real- time node in order to ensure that the real-time packets comprising a chain are transmitted in sequence without being disturbed by either BB’s or data packet transmission –The dynamics of chain creation and segregation are achieved through a distributed algorithm running at each node Two basic operations on chains –splitting & concatenation

30 30 Chaining (cont) Splitting –Occurs when a node ends a session and leaves the chain to which it belongs, possibly dividing it into two new chains –It may also occur when a packet is corrupted, e.g. due to link outage –Since real-time nodes are always prepared to contend with BB’s at every scheduled access attempt, even when they are part of a chain, an abrupt break in a chain does not deprive them of their access rights to the channel  It only reduces the efficiency with which the channel is used.

31 31 Chaining (cont) Concatenation –Occurs when two distinct chains are merged into a longer one for the purposes of efficiency –It is up to the tail node of a chain to decide whether or not to pull toward itself the next chain the comes onto the channel  The tail node monitors the channel during a round  It first identifies the candidate node to be invited in the next round by looking for the first packet with an SID field not NIL  At the end of the round, when the tail node finally transmits another real-time packet, the tail node invites the candidate node immediately after sending its real-time packet

32 32 BB Contention (cont)

33 33 Simulation Parameters

34 34 Simulation Results

35 35 Simulation Results (cont)

36 36 Simulation Results (cont)

37 37 Simulation Results (cont) CSMA/CA Total

38 38 Simulation Results (cont) BB Contend

39 39 Simulation Results (cont) Table IV Max. packet delay and percentage of real-time packets that exceed that delay under CSMA/CA, for a total load of 0.544

40 40 Simulation Results (cont)

41 41 Simulation Results (cont) Discussion from Figures 9 & 10 & 11 –1. For BB contention, we confirm that the maximum real-time delay is typically small, even at network loads as high as 0.672 (Fig. 10) –2. Under CSMA/CA, the average data packet delay increases as we trade data load for real- time load (Fig. 11)  With BB’s, the average data packet delay does not increase as much as with CSMA/CA (Fig. 11)  As we trade data for real-time load, a larger volume of traffic gets priority over data, but the new traffic is efficiently served through BB contention

42 42 Simulation Results (cont) Chaining provides a moderate improvement in data delay performance (but not significant)

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