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Concurrent Programming Without Locks Keir Fraser & Tim Harris Adapted from an earlier presentation by Phil Howard.

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Presentation on theme: "Concurrent Programming Without Locks Keir Fraser & Tim Harris Adapted from an earlier presentation by Phil Howard."— Presentation transcript:

1 Concurrent Programming Without Locks Keir Fraser & Tim Harris Adapted from an earlier presentation by Phil Howard

2 Motivation Locking precludes parallelism Recall “A Lock-Free Multiprocessor OS Kernel” by Massalin et al –Extensive use of CAS2 (aka DCAS, DCADS) –instruction does not exist on today’s CPUs Need a practical and general non-blocking solution

3 Solutions? Only use data structures that can be implemented with CAS? –Limiting RCU –Still uses locks for writers –Still limited to CAS data structures Software MCAS Transactional Memory

4 Goals Concreteness Linearizability Non-blocking progress guarantee Disjoint access parallelism Read parallelism Dynamicity Practicable space costs Composability

5 Caveats “It remains possible for a thread to see a mutually inconsistent view of shared memory if it performs a series of [read] calls.”

6 Definitions Obstruction freedom – a thread will make progress as long as it doesn’t contend with other threads access to any location Lock-freedom – The system as a whole will make progress Wait-freedom – Every thread makes progress Focus is on Lock-free design Whole transactions are lock-free, not just the sub- components

7 Design considerations Need to update multiple locations atomically – using only “real” instructions The secret? –Indirection! –Use descriptors to access values

8 New ValueOld ValueAddress Status Memory Descriptor

9 Implications of Descriptors Commit operation atomically updates status field All accesses are indirect –Need to distinguish between descriptor or value –Need to choose “actual”, “old”, or “new” value Once a descriptor is made visible, only the status field changes Once an outcome is decided, the status value doesn’t change –Retries use a new descriptor Descriptors are managed via garbage collection

10 Other requirements Descriptors must be able to own locations Uncontended commits must work –Prepare phase –Decision point –Update status value –Clean up –Status values: UNDECIDED, READ- CHECK,SUCCESSFUL, FAILED

11 Other Requirements Contended Commits must make progress –Decided, but not complete Help the other thread complete –Undecided, not read-check Abort contending transactions –Without contention management can lead to live-lock Help contending transactions –Sort memory addresses to prevent looping –Read-check Abort at least one contender Prevent live-locks by totally ordering transactions

12 Algorithms MCAS Multiple Compare And Swap WSTM Word Software Transactional Memory OSTMObject Software Transactional Memory

13 MCAS CAS(word *address, // actual value word expected_value, word new_value); (logically) MCAS(int count, word *address[], // actual values word expected_value[], word new_value[]); (but an extra indirection is added) (pointers must indirect through the descriptor!)

14 MCAS Operates only on aligned pointers Lower 2 bits used to distinguish value/descriptor Descriptors contain –status –N –address[] –expected[] –new_value[]

15 Data Access New ValueOld ValueAddress Status: SUCCESS descriptor value descriptor New Value Old ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN

16 CCAS Conditional CAS built from CAS - takes effect only if condition == undecided - used to insert descriptor references CCAS(word *address, word expected_value, word new_value, word *condition); return original value of *address

17 Word *MCASRead(word **addr) { word *v; retry_read: v = CCASRead(addr); if ( !IsMCASDesc(v)) return v; for (int i=0; i N; i++) { if (v->addr[i] == addr) { if (v->status == SUCCESS) if (CCASRead(addr) == v) return v->new[i] else goto retry_read; else // FAILED or UNKNOWN if (CCASRead(addr) == v) return v->expected[i]; else goto retry_read; } return v; }

18 MCAS(3, {a,b,c}, {1,2,3}, {4,5,6})‏ a b c

19 MCAS(3, {a,c,b}, {1,3,2}, {4,6,5}) c 52b 41a 3 UNKNOWN a b c

20 1 2 3 MCAS(3, {a,b,c}, {1,2,3}, {4,5,6}) c 52b 41a 3 SUCCESS a b c

21 bool MCAS(int N, word **a[], word *e[], word *n[]) { mcas_descriptor *d = new mcas_descriptor(); d->N = N; d->status = UNDECIDED; for (int i=0; ia[i] = a[i]; d->e[i] = e[i]; d->n[i] = n[i]; } address_sort(d); return mcas_help(d); }

22 bool mcas_help(mcas_descriptor *d) { word *v, desired = FAILED; bool success; // Phase 1: acquire for (int i=0; i N; i++) { while (TRUE){ v = CCAS(d->a[i], d->e[i], d, &d->status); if (v = d->e[i] || v == d) break; if (IsMCASDesc(v) ) mcas_help( (mcas_descriptor *)v ); else goto decision_point; } desired = SUCCESS; decision_point:

23 mcas_help continued // PHASE 2: read – not used by MCAS decision_point: CAS(&d->status, UNDECIDED, desired); // PHASE 3: clean up success = (d->status == SUCCESS); for (int i=0; i N; i++) { CAS(d->a[i], d, success ? d->n[i] : d->e[i]); } return success; }

24 Claiming Ownership New ValueOld ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN CCAS Descr &MCAS_Descr &mcas->status 999

25 Claiming Ownership New ValueOld ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN CCAS Descr &MCAS_Descr &mcas->status 999

26 word *CCAS(word **a, word *e, word *n, word *cond) { ccas_descriptor *d = new ccas_descriptor(); word *v; (d->a, d->e, d->n, d->cond) = (a,e,n,cond); while ( (v = CAS(d->a, d->e, d)) != d->e ) { if ( IsCCASDesc(v) ) CCASHelp( (ccas_descriptor *)v); else return v; } CCASHelp(d); return v; } void CCASHelp(ccas_descriptor *d) { bool success = (*d->cond == UNDECIDED); CAS(d->a, d, success ? d->n : d->e); }

27 word *CCASRead(word **a) { word *v = *a; while ( IsCCASDesc(v) ) { CCASHelp( (ccas_descriptor *)v); v = *a; } return v; }

28 Conflicts New ValueOld ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN New Value Old ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN

29 bool mcas_help(mcas_descriptor *d) { word *v, desired = FAILED; bool success; // Phase 1: acquire for (int i=0; i N; i++) { while (TRUE){ v = CCAS(d->a[i], d->e[i], d, &d->status); if (v = d->e[i] || v == d) break; if (IsMCASDesc(v) ) mcas_help( (mcas_descriptor *)v ); else goto decision_point; } desired = SUCCESS; decision_point:

30 Conflicts New ValueOld ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN New Value Old ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN

31 Conflicts New ValueOld ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN

32 bool mcas_help(mcas_descriptor *d) { word *v, desired = FAILED; bool success; // Phase 1: acquire for (int i=0; i N; i++) { while (TRUE){ v = CCAS(d->a[i], d->e[i], d, &d- >status); if (v = d->e[i] || v == d) break; if (IsMCASDesc(v) ) mcas_help( (mcas_descriptor *)v ); else goto decision_point; } desired = SUCCESS; decision_point:

33 Conflicts New ValueOld ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN New Value Old ValueAddress Status: UNKNOWN

34 bool mcas_help(mcas_descriptor *d) { word *v, desired = FAILED; bool success; // Phase 1: acquire for (int i=0; i N; i++) { while (TRUE){ v = CCAS(d->a[i], d->e[i], d, &d- >status); if (v = d->e[i] || v == d) break; if (!IsMCASDesc(v) ) goto decision_point; mcas_help( (mcas_descriptor *)v ); } desired = SUCCESS; decision_point:

35 mcas_help continued // PHASE 2: read – not used by MCAS decision_point: CAS(&d->status, UNDECIDED, desired); // PHASE 3: clean up success = (d->status == SUCCESS); for (int i=0; i N; i++) { CAS(d->a[i], d, success ? d->n[i] : d->e[i]); } return success; }

36 CCAS “failure modes” Someone helped us with the CCAS –call CCASHelp with our own descriptor –next time around, return MCAS descriptor –MCAS continues Someone else beat us to CCAS –help them with their CCAS –next time around, return their MCAS descriptor –Help with their MCAS –Our MCAS likely aborts Source value changed –return new value –MCAS aborts

37 word *CCAS(word **a, word *e, word *n, word *cond) { ccas_descriptor *d = new ccas_descriptor(); word *v; (d->a, d->e, d->n, d->cond) = (a,e,n,cond); while ( (v = CAS(d->a, d->e, d)) != d->e ) { if ( !IsCASDesc(v) ) return v; CCASHelp( (ccas_descriptor *)v); } CCASHelp(d); return v; } void CCASHelp(ccas_descriptor *d) { bool success = (*d->cond == UNDECIDED); CAS(d->a, d, success ? d->n : d->e); }

38 CCASHelp “failure modes” MCAS aborted so status isn’t UNKNOWN –old value put back in place MCAS aborted, CCASHelp doesn’t restore value –MCAS cleanup will put old value back in place Race: status switches to SUCCESS between check and CAS –CAS will fail because CCAS descriptor already removed –CCAS return will not cause MCAS failure Race: status switches to FAILURE between check and CAS –CAS will always fail because for MCAS to fail, someone must have read beyond us

39 Cost 3N + 1 CAS instructions (plus all the other code) “it is worth noting that the three batches of N updates all act on the same locations” “[improvements] may be useful if there are systems in which CAS operates substantially more slowly than an ordinary write.”

40 Deep Breath

41 WSTM Remove requirement for space reserved in values being updated WSTM keeps track of locations rather than caller Provides read parallelism Obstruction free, not lock free nor wait free

42 Data Structures version 52 Status: Undecided a1: (100,15) -> (200,16)‏ a2: (200,52) -> (100,53)‏ Orecs

43 Logical contents Orec contains a version number: –value comes direct from memory Orec contains a descriptor reference –descriptor contains address value comes from descriptor based on status –descriptor does not contain address value comes direct from memory

44 Transaction Process Call WSTMRead/WSTMWrite to gather/change data –Builds transaction data structure, but it’s NOT visible WSTMCommitTransaction –Get ownership – update ORecs –Read-Check – check version numbers –Decide –Clean up

45 version 52 version 15 version 53 version 16 Data Structures Status: UNKNOWN a1: (100,15) -> (200,16) a2: (200,52) -> (200,52)‏a2: (200,52) -> (100,53) Status: SUCCESS

46 Complications Fixed number of Orecs Hash collisions lead to false sharing

47 Issues Orec ownership acts like a lock, so simple scheme is not even obstruction free Can’t help with “cleanup” because might overwrite newer data Can’t determine value during READCHECK, so we’re forced to shoot down force_decision() might be circular causing live lock helping requires stealing of transactions Uncontended cost is N+2

48 OSTM Objects are represented as opaque handles –can’t use pointers directly –must rewrite data structures Get accessible pointers via OSTMOpenForReading/OSTMOpenForWr iting Eliminates need for Orecs/aliasing

49 Evaluation “We use … reference-counting garbage collection” Evaluated with one thread/CPU “Since we know the number of threads participating in our experiments…”

50 Uncontended Performance

51 Contended Locks

52 Data Contention

53 Data/Lock Contention

54 Spare Slides

55 word WSTMRead(wstm_transaction *tx, word *addr) { if (entry_exists) return entry->new_value; if (orec->type != descriptor)‏ create entry [current value, orec version] else { force_decision(descriptor); // can’t be ours: not in commit if (descriptor contains our address)‏ if (status == SUCCESS)‏ create entry [descr.new_val, descr.new_ver] else create entry [descr.old_val, descr.old_ver] else create entry [current value, descr.aliased.new_ver] } if (aliased) { if (entry->old_version != aliased->old_version)‏ status = FAILED; entry->old_version = aliased->old_version; entry->new_version = aliased->new_version; } return entry->new_value; }

56 void WSTMWrite(wstm_transaction *tx, word *addr, word new_value { get entry using WSTMRead logic entry->new_value = new_value; for each aliased entry { entry->new_version++; }

57 bool WSTMCommit(wstm_transaction *tx) { if (tx->status == FAILED) return false; sort descriptor entries desired_status = FAILED; for each update if (!acquire_orec) goto decision_point; CAS(status, UNDECIDED, READ_CHECK); for each read if (!read_check) goto decision_point; desired_status = SUCCESS; decision_point:

58 status = tx->status; while (status != FAILED && status != SUCCESS) { CAS(tx->status, status, desired_status); status = tx->status; } if (tx->status == SUCCESS)‏ for each update *addr = entry->new_value; for each update release_orec return (tx->status == SUCCESS); }

59 bool read_check(wstm_transaction *tx, wstm_entry *entry)‏ { if (orec is WSTM_descriptor) { force_decision()‏ if (SUCCESS)‏ version = new_version; else version = old_version } else { version = orec_version; } return (version == entry->old_version); }

60 Data Structures version 52 Status: Undecided a1: (100,15) -> (200,16)‏ a2: (200,52) -> (100,53)‏ a3: (300,15) -> (300,16)‏ Orecs a1 a2 a3


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