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Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 5 Learning Disabilities This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 5 Learning Disabilities This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 5 Learning Disabilities This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental lease, or lending of the program. Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6th Edition

2 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Focus Questions What are the key features of most definitions of learning disabilities? What are the key features of most definitions of learning disabilities? Why is there a call for a new definition, and how might it be different? Why is there a call for a new definition, and how might it be different? Why is it correct to consider learning disabilities a lifelong condition? Why is it correct to consider learning disabilities a lifelong condition? What are some learning characteristics that contribute to these students’ poor academic performance? What are some learning characteristics that contribute to these students’ poor academic performance? How might the array of services be re-conceptualized for students with learning disabilities? How might the array of services be re-conceptualized for students with learning disabilities?

3 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Challenge Question What constitutes an appropriate education for these students, and in what setting should it be provided? What constitutes an appropriate education for these students, and in what setting should it be provided?

4 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Thinking About Dilemmas to Solve Think about whether: Think about whether: This disability area should be discontinued and replaced with a “high incidence” category combining all mild disabilities This disability area should be discontinued and replaced with a “high incidence” category combining all mild disabilities The size of the category should be limited The size of the category should be limited The operational definition should become more restrictive The operational definition should become more restrictive Research findings are leading to effective practices for unique sets of learners Research findings are leading to effective practices for unique sets of learners Learning disabilities range from mild to severe cases Learning disabilities range from mild to severe cases

5 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon History of the Field 1919 Kurt Goldstein worked with young men from WWI 1919 Kurt Goldstein worked with young men from WWI Alfred Strauss and Heinz Werner worked at Wayne County Training Center in Michigan with pupils thought to be brain injured Alfred Strauss and Heinz Werner worked at Wayne County Training Center in Michigan with pupils thought to be brain injured During the 1920s and 1930s, Samuel Orton, a neurology specialist, developed theories and remedial reading techniques for children he called “dyslexic” During the 1920s and 1930s, Samuel Orton, a neurology specialist, developed theories and remedial reading techniques for children he called “dyslexic” Laura Lehtinen developed systematic and direct teaching methods similar to the methods used today Laura Lehtinen developed systematic and direct teaching methods similar to the methods used today Sam Kirk and colleagues published the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) which was used to identify students with disabilities Sam Kirk and colleagues published the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) which was used to identify students with disabilities “Learning Disabilities” coined by Professor Sam Kirk in 1963 “Learning Disabilities” coined by Professor Sam Kirk in 1963

6 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon History of the Field In the 1960s, Marianne Frostig developed materials designed to improve students’ visual perceptual performance In the 1960s, Marianne Frostig developed materials designed to improve students’ visual perceptual performance In the 1970s, the field of learning disabilities debated the best way to remediate student’s academic deficits In the 1970s, the field of learning disabilities debated the best way to remediate student’s academic deficits Process/product debate Process/product debate In 1974, Don Hammill and Steve Larsen showed that perceptual approaches were seldom effective in teaching academic skills, but direct instruction techniques do make a difference In 1974, Don Hammill and Steve Larsen showed that perceptual approaches were seldom effective in teaching academic skills, but direct instruction techniques do make a difference Many fads and invalidated practices have been proposed for solving a learning disability including: Many fads and invalidated practices have been proposed for solving a learning disability including: Teaching students to crawl again, regardless of age Teaching students to crawl again, regardless of age Special diets Special diets Removing florescent lighting Removing florescent lighting Plants placed on desks Plants placed on desks These fads were promoted by the media, but had little scientific evidence to support their claims These fads were promoted by the media, but had little scientific evidence to support their claims

7 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Learning Disabilities Defined Two definitions Two definitions US Department of Education’s IDEA US Department of Education’s IDEA National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) IDEA v. NJCLD IDEA v. NJCLD – Federal definition is older and has a medical orientation – The NJCLD definition allows for co-existing disabilities – The NJCLD definition acknowledges problems many individuals have with social skills

8 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Need for a New Definition? Neither definition directly stated the defining characteristic of LD: unexpected underachievement Neither definition directly stated the defining characteristic of LD: unexpected underachievement Great dissatisfaction existed with definitions of LD because of: Great dissatisfaction existed with definitions of LD because of: The great inconsistency in the percentage of students in this category The great inconsistency in the percentage of students in this category The concern of this category’s size The concern of this category’s size IDEA 2004 addresses this by stating that a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement is not required to determine eligibility for a learning disability. If a student is unresponsive to research-validated instructional interventions, then the classification of learning disability may be appropriate IDEA 2004 addresses this by stating that a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement is not required to determine eligibility for a learning disability. If a student is unresponsive to research-validated instructional interventions, then the classification of learning disability may be appropriate

9 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Learning Disabilities Defined Reading Reading Students identified with LD have much lower reading abilities than students who are low achievers Students identified with LD have much lower reading abilities than students who are low achievers Reading is the most common reason for referrals to special education Reading is the most common reason for referrals to special education Reading/learning disabilities cause pervasive academic problems Reading/learning disabilities cause pervasive academic problems Math Math Fifty percent of students with LD have disabilities with math (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2001) Students with a math disability have trouble retrieving information from long-term memory Students need graphic representations and real- world examples to help them solve problems Learning disabilities often co-exist with ADHD Learning disabilities often co-exist with ADHD

10 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Identifying Learning Disabilities Discrepancy formulas are used to determine whether a student’s gap between achievement and potential is significant and accounts for the student’s learning failures Discrepancy formulas are used to determine whether a student’s gap between achievement and potential is significant and accounts for the student’s learning failures Two tests are needed Two tests are needed IQ IQ Standardized Achievement Test Standardized Achievement Test Use of discrepancy formulas provide objectivity in the identification process Use of discrepancy formulas provide objectivity in the identification process

11 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Criticisms of Discrepancy Formulas IQ tests are not reliable and are unfair to many groups of children IQ tests are not reliable and are unfair to many groups of children Results have little utility in planning a student’s educational program Results have little utility in planning a student’s educational program The process is not helpful in determining which interventions might be successful The process is not helpful in determining which interventions might be successful Outcomes do not relate to performance in the classroom, general education curriculum, or on statewide assessments Outcomes do not relate to performance in the classroom, general education curriculum, or on statewide assessments Children must fail before they qualify for needed services Children must fail before they qualify for needed services

12 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Characteristics of Learning Disabilities Unexpected underachievement Unexpected underachievement Lack of motivation or poor attribution Lack of motivation or poor attribution Attention deficits Attention deficits Inability to generalize Inability to generalize Faulty information processing Faulty information processing Insufficient problem solving strategies (Rivera & Smith, 1997) Insufficient problem solving strategies (Rivera & Smith, 1997) Students with LD may also develop learned helplessness and be inactive in the learning process Students with LD may also develop learned helplessness and be inactive in the learning process Poor language and/or cognitive development Poor language and/or cognitive development Immature social skills Immature social skills Disorganization Disorganization

13 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Locus of Control Students with LD have a greater reliance on external factors for accomplishment which interferes with their motivation Students with LD have a greater reliance on external factors for accomplishment which interferes with their motivation Motivation is the inner drive that causes individuals to be energized and directed Motivation is the inner drive that causes individuals to be energized and directed Attributions are the self-explanations about the reasons for one’s success or failure Attributions are the self-explanations about the reasons for one’s success or failure Lack of Effort Increased Persistence Lack of Ability Pessimism High Ability Positive Effort Ease of Task Luck Success Failure ExternalInternal

14 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Processing Information Educators can help when they: Educators can help when they: Repeat important information Repeat important information Organize content systematically Organize content systematically Provide students with relevant information Provide students with relevant information Anchor examples to their experiences Anchor examples to their experiences Associate content with familiar information Associate content with familiar information Teach students to use thinking skills such as classifying, associating, and sequencing Teach students to use thinking skills such as classifying, associating, and sequencing

15 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Social Skills About 25% of students with LD are typical or above average in social skills About 25% of students with LD are typical or above average in social skills This area affects most of the student’s life This area affects most of the student’s life Many students with LD are naïve and unable to accurately judge other people’s intentions (Donahue, 1997) Many students with LD are naïve and unable to accurately judge other people’s intentions (Donahue, 1997) To improve social skills To improve social skills Students must be assessed Intervention must be implemented Intervention includes: Intervention includes: Structured and explicit social skills instruction such as modeling, coaching, practice and specific feedback Peer tutoring, reinforcement, and contingencies that reward the entire class Can help with generalization of new skills

16 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD is estimated to affect 10–20% of the school-age population in U.S. ADHD is estimated to affect 10–20% of the school-age population in U.S. Students with ADHD can be served at school through: Students with ADHD can be served at school through: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act “Other health impairments” category “Other health impairments” category EBD or LD category EBD or LD category Interventions include medical, behavioral techniques, direct and systematic instruction, and providing a highly structured environment Interventions include medical, behavioral techniques, direct and systematic instruction, and providing a highly structured environment

17 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon

18 Causes and prevention of Learning Disabilities Little is actually known about the causes of LD Little is actually known about the causes of LD Some students may have proven brain damage Some students may have proven brain damage Some experts are studying the interactive relationship between several genes that may be involved in reading disabilities (Wood & Grigorento, 2001) Some experts are studying the interactive relationship between several genes that may be involved in reading disabilities (Wood & Grigorento, 2001) There may be neurological problems in the area of the brain associated with sounds and symbols (Gilger, 2001) There may be neurological problems in the area of the brain associated with sounds and symbols (Gilger, 2001) There is also a strong relationship between low socio-economic status (SES) and learning disabilities There is also a strong relationship between low socio-economic status (SES) and learning disabilities Many factors associated with poverty could be contributing to LD such as: Many factors associated with poverty could be contributing to LD such as: Little access to health care Little access to health care Lack of supportive environment Lack of supportive environment Teachers need to recognize the uncertainty about the causes of LD and keep their expectations high for students Teachers need to recognize the uncertainty about the causes of LD and keep their expectations high for students

19 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Assessments Curriculum based measurement (CBM) Curriculum based measurement (CBM) Uses direct and frequent measurements of students’ performance Uses direct and frequent measurements of students’ performance Sensitive to students’ learning patterns and growth Sensitive to students’ learning patterns and growth Provides useful feedback to teachers about the effectiveness of their instruction Provides useful feedback to teachers about the effectiveness of their instruction Use of comprehensive informal assessments to determine: Use of comprehensive informal assessments to determine: Patterns of errors Levels of performance Descriptions of specific skills

20 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Replacing the Current Identification Process Pre-referral concept Pre-referral concept Students receive special assistance before an actual referral is made Students receive special assistance before an actual referral is made Interventions such as tutoring, peer tutoring, extra attention, and modified textbooks would be tried first Interventions such as tutoring, peer tutoring, extra attention, and modified textbooks would be tried first Interventions would become more intensive based on the child’s response to instruction Interventions would become more intensive based on the child’s response to instruction

21 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Early Childhood and Elementary Education Phonological Awareness Letter-Sound Correspondence Decoding Sight Word Recognition Fluency Comprehension First Steps on the Ladder to Literacy (Jenkins & O’Conner, 2002)

22 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Elementary Through High School Educational outcomes improve when students are taught: Educational outcomes improve when students are taught: With proven procedures With proven procedures Skills of concern directly Skills of concern directly Strategies to organize, comprehend, and remember complex information Strategies to organize, comprehend, and remember complex information Educators must become good consumers Educators must become good consumers Only use scientifically validated interventions Only use scientifically validated interventions Monitor the intervention directly and consistently Monitor the intervention directly and consistently Keys To Effective Instruction Keys To Effective Instruction Directly teach the subject or skill Use drill, repetition, practice, and review Work in small active groups Break learning units into small segments Use strategy instruction

23 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Elementary Through High School Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) by Lynn and Doug Fuchs Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) by Lynn and Doug Fuchs Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension Teacher led questioning Teacher led questioning Restatement of passage read Restatement of passage read Skill-based instruction Skill-based instruction Story mapping Story mapping Learning strategies approach for middle and high school students by Don Deshler and Jean Shumaker Learning strategies approach for middle and high school students by Don Deshler and Jean Shumaker Highly structured materials Highly structured materials Advanced organizers Advanced organizers Mnemonics Mnemonics Built-in systems of direct evaluation Built-in systems of direct evaluation

24 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Use of Technology Technology can: Technology can: Augment an individual’s strengths Augment an individual’s strengths Compensate for effects of disabilities Compensate for effects of disabilities Provide alternative modes of performing tasks Provide alternative modes of performing tasks Assistive technology can reduce barriers Assistive technology can reduce barriers Software exists that: Software exists that: Helps students take notes and create graphic organizers Helps students take notes and create graphic organizers Recognizes and reads text to students Recognizes and reads text to students Word processors help spelling, definitions, and grammar Word processors help spelling, definitions, and grammar

25 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Transition to Adulthood For many people with LD, postsecondary education is not an option For many people with LD, postsecondary education is not an option 63% graduate with a standard diploma 63% graduate with a standard diploma 27% drop out of high school 27% drop out of high school In 1978 only 3% of first-year college students reported having a disability In 1978 only 3% of first-year college students reported having a disability Today, 6% of all undergraduates report that they do – 30% report this as a learning disability (Greenberg, 2000; National Center for Educational Statistics, 2000) Today, 6% of all undergraduates report that they do – 30% report this as a learning disability (Greenberg, 2000; National Center for Educational Statistics, 2000) About one-third of college students with disabilities complete a bachelor’s degree compared to half of students without a disability About one-third of college students with disabilities complete a bachelor’s degree compared to half of students without a disability Support and accommodations are more available to students Support and accommodations are more available to students

26 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Transition to Adulthood Students with disabilities: Students with disabilities: Tend to achieve success if from wealthier families Tend to achieve success if from wealthier families May have directional problems May have directional problems May have time management problems May have time management problems May feel socially isolated May feel socially isolated Earn less money than their co-workers Earn less money than their co-workers May have insecurities and negative self-concepts due to their difficulty in school May have insecurities and negative self-concepts due to their difficulty in school

27 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Collaboration for Inclusion Most students with LD spend most of their time in general education classes Most students with LD spend most of their time in general education classes Many parents fear that options are disappearing Many parents fear that options are disappearing Percentage of students served in resource rooms is declining Percentage of students served in resource rooms is declining Size of these classes is increasing to levels that sometimes exceed general education class-size maximums (Moody, Vaughn, Hughes, & Fischer, 2000) Size of these classes is increasing to levels that sometimes exceed general education class-size maximums (Moody, Vaughn, Hughes, & Fischer, 2000) Percentage of Resource Rooms

28 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon True Collaboration Communication is open and ongoing Communication is open and ongoing Participation is voluntary Participation is voluntary Parity exists in the relationship Parity exists in the relationship Goals are shared Goals are shared Evaluation of student performance is continual Evaluation of student performance is continual Decision making is done as a team Decision making is done as a team Resources are pooled Resources are pooled Trust and respect are the basis of the partnership Trust and respect are the basis of the partnership Planning time is scheduled Planning time is scheduled

29 Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Challenge Question What constitutes an appropriate education for these students and in what setting should it be provided? What constitutes an appropriate education for these students and in what setting should it be provided? An appropriate education includes: An appropriate education includes: Access to the general education curriculum Access to the general education curriculum Instruction using validated practices Instruction using validated practices Necessary accommodations Necessary accommodations Graduated levels of services increasing in intensity and individualization Graduated levels of services increasing in intensity and individualization Considerations in the determination of setting includes: Considerations in the determination of setting includes: Intensity of services and supports required Intensity of services and supports required General education curriculum General education curriculum Student’s academic, social, and behavioral needs Student’s academic, social, and behavioral needs Student’s preference Student’s preference


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