Presentation on theme: "PUBLIC BELIEFS & BEHAVIORS"— Presentation transcript:
1 PUBLIC BELIEFS & BEHAVIORS UNIT IIPUBLIC BELIEFS & BEHAVIORS
2 American Political Culture Equality of OpportunityIndividual FreedomRepresentative Democracy
3 GenderThe Gender GapDifferences in political views and voting behavior of men and womenMenFavor RepublicansFavor ConservativesWomenFavor DemocratsFavor Liberals
4 Differences between Men and Women Role of Government: Doing too much?Yes: women (50%); men (66%)Social Programs: Favor cuts?Favor: women (47%) men (60%)Should more be done to expand good, affordable child care, or should it be left to families and individuals?Do more women (63%); men (41%)Should fed government guarantee medical care?Yes women (69%) men (58%)Poverty and homelessness important:One of most impt probs: wom(63%); men 44%Should affirmative action be continued or abolished? Abolished wom 36%, men 52%Do you think women have equal job oppsNo women 69% men 59%
5 Race/EthnicityAffiliations are based on freedom-equality issues and socioeconomic conditionsWhiteFavor RepublicanBlackOverwhelmingly favor DemocratsHispanicExcept CubansAsianRelatively Neutral
6 Equal Opportunity v Equal Results Equality of OpportunityA view that it is wrong to use race or sex either to discriminate against or give preferential treatment to minorities or womenEquality of ResultsA view that government should do everything in its power to guarantee all a standard quality of life
7 Changing of America’s Race White America is on the declineWhat will this mean for politics in the United States?FreedomEqualityRule of LawPopular SovereigntyJustice“Minority-Majority” emerging
8 Progression of Race and Voting 15th Amendment (1870)The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.24th Amendment (1964)Prohibits a poll tax as qualification to voteVoting Rights Act (1965)Prevents states from denying citizens the right to vote based on raceHelps enforce the 15th Amendment
9 Age and Voting 26th Amendment The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of ageWhat is the effect of this Amendment?
10 PartisanshipThe tendency of a person to support a specific political partyPeople tend to have the same political identification as their parentsRepublicans have the strongest party supportTheir party members are more loyalWhy?
11 Ideology Conservative Liberal In general a person who favors more limited and local government, less government regulation of markets, more social conformity to traditional norms and values, and tougher policies toward criminalsLiberalIn general a person that values individual liberties, larger role of government, oppose death penalty, and heavily supports equality.
12 Marketplace of Ideas 19th-20th centuries... single national language expansion of literacyuniversal compulsory educationcommunication & transportationroads, rail lines, (automobiles…)telegraph, telephone, radio, televisionsatellite-based networksWorld Wide Web = internetlegal protection for free expression
15 Urban v. Suburban v. Rural America Population DensityThe more people living in your area, the more democratic your area tends to beHigher populated cities tend to benefit more from federal spendingMore government services are needed in densely populated areas
16 Family Income The higher one’s income, the more likely they are to… Register to voteVoteVote Republican
17 Education The more education one has the more likely they will Register to vote and voteVote DemocratUntil money is earnedParticipate in various methods
18 Region Voting trends by region Northeast Midwest South West DemocratMidwestRepublicanSouthWestSwing StatesOhio, Florida, Pennsylvania
22 Religion Voter Tendencies by Religion Evangelicals Catholics RepublicanCatholicsDemocratProtestantsJews
23 Type of Election Presidential Election Midterm Election People turn out at a higher ratePresidency is seen as more importantMidterm ElectionElection in between Presidential electionsPrimary ElectionNominating electionMany states restrict participationGeneral ElectionDecides who will win the seat
24 Public Opinion Public Opinion Polls An aggregate of the individual views, attitudes, and beliefs about a particular topic, expressed by a significant proportion of a community5 Core American ValuesFreedomEqualityDemocracymajoritarianismIndividual ResponsibilityPublic Opinion PollsConducted by news organizations, politicians, candidates, interest groups
25 Poll Legitimacy Who conducted/sponsored the poll? Neutral polling organizations would produce the most accurate resultsPolitical parties or other biased organizations would notHow many persons were interviewed?Minimum 1,000 peopleReduces the margin of errorWho was interviewed?Many people choose not to participate in polls; this can scew the resultsHow were the questions worded?Pollsters must be careful how to ask the questionWhen was the poll conducted?Temporary passions can also scew the resultsHow was the poll conducted?Phone, Internet, On the street
26 Types of Polls Questioned right after voting Exit PollsQuestioned right after votingIndicates who people vote forCensus Tracks/Tracking PollsQuestioning specific groups within the populationIndicates the public’s tendencies across a specific period of time
27 Our questions… Who are we as a society? How we learn about politics? More diverse, more spread out, and older!How we learn about politics?Family, the media, and school, just to start.How do we measure what we believe as a society?Through polls, which may or may not be accurate.What do we believe as a society?That we’re all over the place and that sometimes labels mean more than anything else.How do we participate in politics?From the inside or the outside: by trying to change the system or protesting the system to make a change.
29 Elections in a Representative Democracy Institutions of legitimacySafety valves for social discontentFacilitate popular influencePromote leadership accountabilityOffer a measure of protection from the abuse of governmental power
30 US v. The WorldWhy does voter participation in the United States lag behind the rest of the democratic world?Lack of homogeneityDecreasing trust in governmentDecrease in political efficacyDecreasing roll of parties
33 Influences on Voters Partisan loyalty Issue and policy concerns stronger during 1940s-50s than todayfamily influencereinforced by social & cultural tiesonce formed, seldom changemore prominent in state & local racesIssue and policy concernslarger impact if candidates articulate & publicize very different positionsCandidate characteristicsshared background, views, & perspectivesrace, ethnicity, religion, gender, geography….
34 Electoral College System Each state receives same # as membership in Congress (= 535)subject to change every 10 years based on the reapportionment of seats in the House of RepresentativesWashington D.C. receives 3minimum any state could receiveTotal electoral votes = 538Candidate must receive at least 270 votes to become presidentPolitical Parties choose people who will serve as electors
35 Electoral College System...continued... NovemberGeneral state electionsVoters formally elect electorsDecemberElectors meet in state capitals to cast vote for President & Vice PresidentFirst Week in JanuaryElectoral votes counted by the President of the Senate before a joint session of CongressJanuary 20Inauguration of the President
36 Modern Presidency: From FDR to Bill Clinton Franklin Roosevelt - New Deal Coalition:Unionized laborlabor legislationMembers of urban ethnic groups & Northern blackswelfare & social service programsSouthernersfarm programsMiddle-class liberalsexpansion of white-collar employment in the public sector; support for education and the artsImportant sectors of business communityfree trade and the expansion of industrial production
37 FDR’s New Deal Coalition Dominated government & politics until the 1960sShattered by conflicts over:race relationsVietnam Warfiscal & regulatory policiesSegments of the business community, social & religious conservatives, upper-middle-class suburbanites, Southern whites, & many Northern blue-collar workers have been drawn to the Republican Party
38 The Reconstituted Right - 1980s Ronald ReaganMiddle-class suburbanitestrim social programs, cut taxes & bring down inflationSocial & religious conservatives“pro-family,” anti-abortion, & school prayerWhite Southernersend to federal support for affirmative actionAmerican business communityrelaxation of regulationsDefense industrygreatly increased rates of military spending
39 End of Reagan-Bush Era Change in two key elements: Prosperity at home Strength abroadMired in economic downturnEnd of the Cold War Era diminished the threat of a nuclear holocaust
40 Return of the Democrats (?) Move toward the centerDemocratic Leadership Council (DLC)Clinton / Gorefounding members of DLCcriticized welfarestressed individual responsibility & private enterprisekept away from black issueseconomic message appealed to business & middle class without alienating working-class
41 Clinton / Gore in 1996Supported “middle class bill of rights” - series of tax-cut initiativesTough anti-crime measuresEmbraced voluntary school prayerSpoke out against sex & violence on televisionDropped opposition to Republican welfare reform proposalsAdvocated “family values”
42 Bush / Cheney 2004 Emphasis on Foreign Policy Tax cuts War on TerrorismWar in IraqTax cutsHomeland SecuritySupport Constitutional Amendment to ban gay marriage
43 Electoral Realignments, 1800-2008 Jeffersonian Republican dominateDemocrats dominateBalance between Republicans & DemocratsRepublicans dominateDemocrats dominateRealignment ?Divided governmentDivided government2004 – Republicans dominate; not at all levels2008- Democrats dominate; not all levels