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Best Practices in Content Reading A Presentation by Dea Conrad-Curry Your Partner in Education

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Presentation on theme: "Best Practices in Content Reading A Presentation by Dea Conrad-Curry Your Partner in Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 Best Practices in Content Reading A Presentation by Dea Conrad-Curry Your Partner in Education www.partnerinedu.com dconrad@ilstu.edu

2 2 Yes No Not Sure 1. The reading process is the same whether reading a newspaper, a novel, a biology book, or a historical analysis. Notes__________________________________ Yes No Not Sure Yes No Not Sure 2. The same reading strategies can be used in all types of print text. Notes___________________________________ Yes No Not Sure Yes No Not Sure 3. Graphic organizers are tools to help students understand the comprehension process and as such are means to an end and not an end in themselves. Notes___________________________________ Yes No Not Sure Yes No Not Sure 4. Reading comprehension is based more on what the reader bring to the text than what the author provides in the text. Notes___________________________________ Yes No Not Sure Yes No Not Sure 5. Group activities are not beneficial to improving reading comprehension because reading is a solitary act of listening to one’s inner voice and blocking out distraction. Notes___________________________________ Yes No Not Sure Yes No Not Sure 6. Teaching students appropriate highlighting skills is goal of active reading. Notes___________________________________ Yes No Not Sure Admit & Exit Slip NAME ______________________ TEXT ______________________ PAGES _______ DATE _______ Admit Before the session begins, circle the best answer. Exit At the session’s end, circle the best answer. © 2009 Partner in Education

3 What is Reading?  to understand the meaning and grasp the full sense of (such mental formulations) either with or without vocal reproduction  to go over or become acquainted with or get through the contents of (as a book, magazine, newspaper, letter) by reading : PERUSE  to have such knowledge of …as to be able to read with full understanding From Merriam Webster Unabridged Dictionary http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi- bin/unabridged-tb?book=Third&va=Reading 3 © 2010 Partner in Education

4 Neuroscience informs Reading instruction

5 Reading Strategies or Skills?  Predicting  Self-monitoring  Confirming  Elaborating  Connecting  Reflecting  Summarizing  Inferring  Visualizing  Questioning  QAR  Self Questioning  Surveying  Activating Prior Knowledge  Identifying Key Words Clarifying  Rereading  Finding & Using Context Clues  Restating  Drawing Conclusions  Setting a Purpose  Evaluating  Skimming/Scanning  Think Aloud © 2010 Partner in Education 5

6 The Inner Conversation Teaching students through “think aloud” modeling to  become aware of their thinking as they read  monitor their understanding and keep track of meaning  listen to the voice in their head  notice when they stray away from thinking about the text  notice when meaning making breaks down  detect obstacles to understanding  understand and be able to select a strategy that will help repair meaning, maintain meaning, and further understanding © 2010 Partner in Education 6

7 7 What process does your brain follow in order to determine whether it can identify the meaning of the word “rouge”? © 2010 Partner in Education Fast Mapping & Extended Mapping (Carey 1978)

8 8 What process is your brain following in determining the meaning of the word “amis”? © 2010 Partner in Education

9 9

10 Productive Thinking: 3-Part Activity  Generate a list of as many ideas pertaining to a prompt—no idea is a bad idea  Aim for 12- 15 ideas as students become more proficient with the process  Keep in mind some topics may limit or extend the possibilities  Set a time limit for the thought process—1 minute to 1 ½ minutes Turn to a neighbor & share ideas Since the goal is 12- 15, steal good ideas from your partner’s list Continue to come up with more ideas, even those that were not on the original lists Set a time limit for the sharing process: 2 minutes Designate the spokesperson of the partner (or threesome) Each group chooses through consensus one idea to share with the entire class Shared idea should show the best thinking: uniqueness counts Continue to steal ideas as groups share, always aiming to lengthen the list In my HeadWith a PartnerWhole Class 10 Step 2Step 1Step 3 © 2010 Partner in Education

11 11 HOW COULD I USE THIS STRATEGY IN MY CLASSROOM?

12 Think about and note what processes your brain follows as we read this next text together? © 2010 Partner in Education 12 SHIFTING FROM IMAGES TO PRINT TEXT

13 JABBERWOCKY by Lewis Carroll `Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. "Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!" He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought -- So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought. And, as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came! One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker- snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back. "And, has thou slain the Jabberwock? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!' He chortled in his joy. `Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. © 2010 Partner in Education 13 from Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking- Glass and What Alice Found There, 1872.

14 14 Original Illustration by Sir John Tenniel First published in Carroll, Lewis. 1871. Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There. © 2010 Partner in Education

15 15 What were the reading challenges presented by “JABBERWOCKY” ChallengesCognitive Processes

16 What is Content Reading ? Reading characterized by factual information conveyed using multisyllabic technical words developed through a combination of organizational structures, for example, cause/effect, compare-contrast, or sequencing. 16 © 2010 Partner in Education

17 Questions to Ask Students About Reading Strategy Use  What is a reading strategy?  Before you begin reading a content textbook, what strategies do you put in place?  Why do you preview a content textbook?  How is reading in language arts or English different than reading in science or social studies?  How do you know if you’ve really understood a reading passage in an informational text?  What strategies can you use when you encounter a big word and you don’t know what it means?  When should you stop and think about what you are reading? What are the clues that make you realize that time has come to stop and think? © 2010 Partner in Education 17

18 Infer Connect Predict Visualize © 2010 Partner in Education 18

19 Content Reading vs. Fiction Reading (Rosenblatt, [1938], 1966) EfferentAesthetic  Reading purpose  to take away pieces of information  Reading Process  reading in “fits and starts”  staring and stopping to take notes and reflect  annotations helpful  Content  overwhelming with new information  Reading purpose  to be “taken away”  Reading Process  reading with speed and anticipation  stopping to take notes only as a support mechanism  Content  engaging the reader to join with the text; connection building © 2010 Partner in Education 19

20 © 2010 Partner in Education 20 Efferent Reading: Purposes Overview of material Summarizing  Uses skimming skills  Identifies key words  Reads titles & headings  Finds topic sentences  Delete redundancy  Delete trivia  Find / invent topic sentence  Create superordinates Finding the Main Idea  Identify text structure  Delineate supporting ideas  Show connections  Awareness of implicit & explicit ideas  Uses inferential skills  Apply information regarding fact & opinion  Examine causal relationships Synthesize & Evaluate

21 Why do middle & high school content area teachers need to teach reading skills?  Most students do not have reading proficiency levels adequate to be successful in workplace training or institutions of higher education  Even colleges and universities like Harvard are discovering their students do not have the prerequisite skills to be successful in an enviornment of high learning.  Interrogating Texts: Harvard University Student Guide to Content Reading Interrogating Texts  http://hcl.harvard.edu/research/guides/lamont_hando uts/interrogatingtexts.html © 2010 Partner in Education 21

22 © 2010 Partner in Education 22 TEACHING A THINKING PROCESS APPROACH TO READING COMPREHENSION

23 The Thinking Process Approach  Research Base  Cathy Collins Block (2003)  John Mangieri  Comprehension Lessons must be  cognitively rich  socially structured  pedagogically sound  Comprehension as a thought process is  ever-changing  interactive  Moves beyond strategy-based instruction © 2010 Partner in Education 23

24 The Thinking Process Approach Empowers Students  To making meaning for themselves  To verbalize when and where they choose to use one or more thinking processes to make meaning  To select the appropriate thinking process or combine thinking processes to infer, summarize, predict, etc.  Differentiate instruction to provide a broad set of tools for meaning making © 2010 Partner in Education 24 Source: Block, Cathy Collins. (2006). “The Thinking Approach to Comprehension Development.” Improving Comprehension Instruction. p 56.

25 4-Step Sequential Process  Step One: Teacher Think Aloud (Davey, 1983) with first strategy  Students watch while teacher models how use the first strategy, coding the text and talking aloud.  Step Two : Teacher Think Aloud with second strategy  Students watch while teacher models how to use the second strategy, coding and talking aloud  Step Three: Shared Thinking  Teachers and students work together to identify and relate their use of the first strategy  Block suggests four practices  Step Four: Flexible Group  Students work together using comprehension process and set goals for further learning Research Base: Block, Cathy Collins. (2006). “The Thinking Approach to Comprehension Development.” Improving Comprehension Instruction. © 2010 Partner in Education 25

26 Natural Cognitive Strategies Using cognitive strategies with content images © 2010 Partner in Education 26 Questioning & Connecting

27 Think – Pair – Share Why does one ask questions? © 2010 Partner in Education 27

28 Step One: Teacher Think Aloud 28 © 2010 Partner in Education

29 Washington Crossing the Delaware © 2010 Partner in Education 29

30 Using Connections to Answer Questions © 2010 Partner in Education 30

31 Text to Self Text to World Text to Text Connecting Concept & Image © 2010 Partner in Education Washington Crossing the Delaware 31

32 Step Two: Shared Reading 32 © 2010 Partner in Education

33 Shared Thinking (Reading) with Images

34 Text to Self Text to World Text to Text Connecting Concept & Image © 2010 Partner in Education Photosynthesis & the Food Chain

35 4-Stages of Instruction Comprehension vs. Decoding If students are reading at instructional level 75-85% of the day, reading comprehension goes up. If students are reading at a frustrating level most of the day, they are only decoding. In order to learn and retain content material, they must be comprehending the text, not merely reading the words. © 2010 Partner in Education 35

36 Step Three: Flexible Grouping 36 © 2010 Partner in Education

37 p.37 Text Word/s / Picture/s Makes me ask… Causes me to remember Because of this connection, I answer Generate five questions related to the political cartoon. 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________ Directions: First, list questions that your brain asks when looking at this cartoon. Next, choose one question and see if you can figure out the answer on your own.

38 © 2010 Partner in Educationp.38 Text Word/s / Picture/s Makes me ask… Causes me to remember Because of this connection, I answer Generate five questions related to the figure above. 1. ________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________ Directions:First, list questions that your brain asks when looking at this cartoon. Next, choose one question and see if you can figure out the answer on your own.

39 Active Reading: Marking the Text Connecting Codes © 2010 Partner in Education 39

40 NAME ____________________________ TEXT ______________________ PAGE _____ DATE ________ © 2010 Partner in Education Self-questionYour Answer Explain Your Connection Background Knowledge + New Information Who_________________ ____________________? What ________________ ____________________? When ________________ ____________________? Why _________________ ____________________? How _________________ ____________________? Where _______________ ____________________? Question / Connection Relationship

41 Name: ________________________________________Date: ________________________ Text Word/s / Picture/s Makes me ask… Causes me to remember Because of this connection, I answer Text Word/s / Picture/s Makes me ask… Causes me to remember Because of this connection, I answer… © 2010 Partner in Education Using Connections to Ask and Answer Questions Text Word/s / Picture/s Makes me ask… Causes me to remember Because of this connection, I answer… Connect to Question & Answer Intermediate Organizer

42 42 Text to ________ Connecting: Group Interdependence Group Members ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Text to ________ Directions: You will be given 5 minutes to read the selection alone. Use active reading strategies and be prepared to make two text connections with your group. Groups will meet for 10 minutes to share their understanding of the text and their connections. Record one another’s connections here and discuss which connection/s help you understand the text better. Code your responses and be ready to discuss them with the class. © 2010 Partner in Education 42

43 © 2010 Partner in Education43 Step Four: Independent Accountability

44 Effective Comprehension Instruction is Socially Structured © 2010 Partner in Education 44

45 © 2010 Partner in Education Lesson Materials Presented Sequentially 45

46 5-Step Sequential Process  Step One: Teacher Think Aloud with first strategy  Students watch while teacher models how use the fist strategy, coding the text and talking aloud.  Step Two: Shared Thinking  Teachers and students work through the first strategy together  Step Three: Teacher Think Aloud with second strategy and incorporates the first strategy as necessary  Students watch while teacher codes and talks aloud, modeling how the strategies work together  Block suggests teacher provide 3 think alouds of strategies in tandem  Step Four: Shared Thinking  Students work together using comprehension process and set goals for further learning  Step Five: Flexible Groups Research Base: Block, Cathy Collins. (2006). “The Thinking Approach to Comprehension Development.” Improving Comprehension Instruction. © 2010 Partner in Education 46

47 Raising the bar on student thinking by teaching self- monitoring strategies © 2010 Partner in Education 47 Monitoring Questions

48 Question Answer Relationship, Raphael (1986) © 2010 Partner in Education 48

49 © 2010 Partner in Education 49 Source of Half Earth's Oxygen Gets Little Credit by John Roach for National Geographic News June 7, 2004 Fish, whales, dolphins, crabs, seabirds, and just about everything else that makes a living in or off of the oceans owe their existence to phytoplankton, one celled plants that live at the ocean surface. Phytoplankton are at the base of what scientists refer to as oceanic biological productivity, the ability of a water body to support life such as plants, fish, and wildlife. "A measure of productivity is the net amount of carbon dioxide taken up by phytoplankton," said Jorge Sarmiento, a professor of atmospheric and ocean sciences at Princeton University in New Jersey. The one-celled plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and nutrients into complex organic compounds, which form new plant material. This process, known as photosynthesis, is how phytoplankton grow. Herbivorous marine creatures eat the phytoplankton. Carnivores, in turn, eat the herbivores, and so on up the food chain to the top predators like killer whales and sharks. But how does the ocean supply the nutrients that phytoplankton need to survive and to support everything else that makes a living in or off the ocean? Details surrounding that answer are precisely what Sarmiento hopes to learn. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ 2004/06/0607_040607_phytoplankton.html

50 Robert Frouin, a research meteorologist with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, said understanding the process by which phytoplankton obtains ocean nutrients is important to understanding the link between the ocean and global climate. "Marine biogeochemical processes both respond to and influence climate," Frouin said. "A change in phytoplankton abundance and species may result from changes in the physical processes controlling the supply of nutrients and sunlight availability." Oxygen Supply Phytoplankton need two things for photosynthesis and thus their survival: energy from the sun and nutrients from the water. Phytoplankton absorb both across their cell walls. In the process of photosynthesis, phytoplankton release oxygen into the water. Half of the world's oxygen is produced via phytoplankton photosynthesis. The other half is produced via photosynthesis on land by trees, shrubs, grasses, and other plants. As green plants die and fall to the ground or sink to the ocean floor, a small fraction of their organic carbon is buried. It remains there for millions of years after taking the form of substances like oil, coal, and shale. "The oxygen released to the atmosphere when this buried carbon was photosynthesized hundreds of millions of years ago is why we have so much oxygen in the atmosphere today," Sarmiento said. Today phytoplankton and terrestrial green plants maintain a steady balance in the amount of the Earth's atmospheric oxygen, which comprises about 20 percent of the mix of gasses, according to Frouin. A mature forest, for example, takes in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and converts it to oxygen to support new growth. But that same forest gives off comparable levels of carbon dioxide when old trees die. © 2010 Partner in Education 50

51 "On average, then, this mature forest has no net flux of carbon dioxide or oxygen to or from the atmosphere, unless we cut it all down for logging," Sarmiento said. "The ocean works the same way. Most of the photosynthesis is counterbalanced by an equal and opposite amount of respiration." Carbon Sink The forests and oceans are not taking in more carbon dioxide or letting off more oxygen. But human activities such as burning oil and coal to drive our cars and heat our homes are increasing the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. Most of the world's scientists agree that these increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are causing the Earth to warm. Many researchers believe that this phenomenon could lead to potentially catastrophic consequences. Some researchers argue that enriching the oceans with iron would stimulate phytoplankton growth, which in turn would capture excess carbon from the Earth's atmosphere. But many ocean and atmospheric scientists debate whether this would indeed provide a quick fix to the problem of global warming. Research by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography suggests an increase in phytoplankton may actually cause the Earth to grow warmer, due to increased solar absorption. "Our simulations show that by increasing the phytoplankton abundance in the upper oceanic layer, sea surface temperature is increased, as well as air temperature," Frouin said. As Sarmiento notes, phytoplankton obtains most of its carbon dioxide from the oceans, not the atmosphere. "Pretty much all of the carbon dioxide taken up by phytoplankton comes from deep down in the ocean, just like nutrients, where bacteria and other organisms have produced it by respiring the organic matter that sank from the surface," Sarmiento said. © 2010 Partner in Education 51

52 © 2010 Partner in Education52 QAR: Question Answer Relationships Adapted from: Raphael, Taffy & Highfield, Kathy & Au, Kathryn H.(2006). QAR Now. NY: Scholastic. In the book In my head Right There Think & Search On My Own Author & Me Name ___________________ Text _________________________ Pages _____

53 © 2010 Partner in Education 53 Many, Different Question Types Essential Questions Planning Questions Elaborating QuestionsInventive Questions Clarification QuestionsProbing Questions Irrelevant QuestionsDivergent Questions Irreverent Questions Telling Questions Hypothetical QuestionsProvocative Questions Unanswerable QuestionsStrategic Questions

54 Classification: Question Types Explorative, but responses fall within a finite range of accuracy Explorative with varied and alternative answers Seeks facts/data either within or beyond the text. Require cognitive & emotional skills to make judgment Adapted from: Erickson, H.L. (2007). Concept-basead curriculum and instruction for the thinking classroom. © 2009 Partner in Education Visualizing Wondering

55 Active Reading & Coding © 2010 Partner in Education 55

56 Using Questioning and Connecting Strategies to Find the Main Idea © 2010 Partner in Education 56 Finding the Main Idea

57  Uncover indications of what an author considers crucial; what is expected of you to glean from the argument  Examine the language chosen or used to be alert you to ideological positions, hidden agendas or biases.  Watching for recurring images  Be aware of repeated words, phrases  Synthesize in your understanding the types of examples or illustrations used Be sensitive to consistent ways of characterizing people, events, or issues © 2010 Partner in Education 57 Adapted from Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in Your First Year at Harvard.

58 Rule Strategy: Keep, Delete, Combine © 2010 Partner in Education 58  Keep  Topic sentence—if there is one  Transition words: however, but, consequently, resultant  Delete unnecessary words or sentences  conjunctions, prepositions, personal references, interruptions by the author w/opinion or examples, superfluous descriptors  Combine repeated and/or similar words as one reference  Substitute words  For unfamiliar concepts: vast stretches—large area  To categorize: axes, mauls, and hammers are tools  Combine kept, substituted, and topic sentence Adapted from: Day, Jeanne D.(1986). Teaching summarization skills: influences of student ability and strategy difficulty. Cognition and Instruction 3(3). 193-210.

59 Questioning to Find the Main Idea © 2010 Partner in Education  Before reading  Elicit prior knowledge related to the core ideas of the text  Make connections between background knowledge and text subject  Set a purpose for reading  During reading  Identify text structure  Clarify and review what has happened so far  Confirm or create new predictions  Evaluate the text critically  Compare with other experiences or readings  Monitor reading for meaning and accuracy 59

60 © 2010 Partner in Education 60 Teaching “Cue” or Transition Words Sequence  Chronology  at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon,, later, while, earlier, afterward, simultaneously  Direction  here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above, to the left, to the right, in the distance Contrast & Comparison  Contrast  instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, yet, but, still, similarly, however, nevertheless, in contrast, contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead  Similarly  likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless  Exception  besides, except, excepting, excluding, other than, outside of, save

61 © 2010 Partner in Education 61 Text Structure  Narrative  a narrative w/i an expository text to clarify, elaborate or link the subject matter to a personal experience  Definition  presents a term, classifies the term, and then explains how that term is like and unlike other concepts within the classification  Descriptive  describes a topic by listing characteristics, features, and examples  Sequence  lists items or events in numerical or chronological order  Classification  indentifies category that a concept may belong to and explains why  Comparison  explains how two or more things are alike and/or how they are different  Cause & Effect  lists one or more causes and the resulting effect/s  Problem / Solution  states a problem and lists one or more solutions for the problem  Question / Answer  poses a question and answers it

62 Read and Think Aloud  Lift the text  Make a transparency of the selected text to share with the class  Read the text aloud, coding as you go  For questioning, just place a ? each time you pause to reflect—teach students how to mark text or use Post-its  Reason through the text  Pause, physically remove yourself from the text and orally express your thinking  Reread a brief but significant text section  Model the need to revisit text as you reason Adapted from Harvey, Stephanie & Goudvis, Anne. (2000). Strategy instruction & practice. Strategies that Work. (pp. 27 – 41). Portland: Stenhouse. © 2010 Partner in Education 62

63 © 2010 Partner in Education63 The Chinese and the Transcontinental Railroad By Robert Chugg The Chinese, or Celestials (from the Celestial Empire), as they were often called in the 1800s, have a long history in Western America. Chinese records indicate that Buddhist priests traveled down the west coast from present day British Columbia to Baja California in 450 A.D. Spanish records show that there were Chinese ship builders in lower California between 1541 and 1746. When the first Anglo-Americans arrived in Los Angeles, they found Chinese shopkeepers. However, only a few Chinese were in the America's until gold was discovered in California in 1848. When news of the discovery reached China, many saw this as an opportunity to escape the extreme poverty of the time. Many peasant families were forced to sell one of their children, usually a girl, in order to survive. Paying $40 cash or signing a contract to repay $160 for passage, thousands were packed into ships for the voyage to the Golden Mountain as they called California. Lying on their sides in 18 inches of space, mortality ran as high as 25 percent on some ships. SOURCE: The Brown Quarterly. Vol. 1 (Spring 1997). http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01-3/01- 3f.htm#cap3http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01-3/01- 3f.htm#cap3

64 © 2010 Partner in Education64 Unlike most immigrants, the Chinese didn't come to stay. All they wanted was to save $300-400 and then return to China to live a life of wealth and luxury. Three hundred dollars would allow them to marry, have children, a big house, fine clothes, the best foods, servants, and tutors for their children. Opinions were mixed about these newcomers. The rich valued them as workers because they were willing to work for lower wages, were clean, dependable, did as they were told and didn't get drunk and fight at work. The working class feared them as competition for their jobs. Discrimination was rampant. The Chinese could not become citizens, vote, own property, or even testify in court and had to live in certain areas of town and could only work at certain jobs. Life was hard, but by 1865, about 50,000 had come to the Golden Mountain. After the Central Pacific (CP) started building the Transcontinental Railroad eastward from Sacramento, demand for Chinese workers increased greatly. The CP figured they needed 5,000 workers to build the railroad, but the most they ever had just using white workers was about 800. Most of these stayed only long enough for a free trip to the end of the track and then headed for the gold fields. The CP hired all the available Chinese workers and then sent agents to Canton province, Hong Kong, and Macao. SOURCE: The Brown Quarterly. Vol. 1 (Spring 1997). http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01- 3/01-3f.htm#cap3http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01- 3/01-3f.htm#cap3

65 © 2010 Partner in Education65 With an average height of 4'10" and weight of 120 lbs., many doubted these men could handle 80 lb. ties and 560 lb. rail sections. But handle them they did, as well as most other construction jobs. So well in fact that by the time they joined the rails at Promontory Summit, Utah on May 10, 1869, more than nine out of ten CP workers, over 11,000 in all where Chinese. Much of the work they did has become legend. Driving through California's Sierra Nevada Mountains, they were faced with solid granite outcroppings. After the CP's imported Cornish miners gave up, the Chinese with pick, shovel and black powder progressed at the rate of 8 inches a day. And this was working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, from both ends and both ways from a shaft in the middle. The winters spent in the Sierras were some of the worst on record with over 40 feet of snow. Camps and men were swept away by avalanches and those that weren't were buried in drifts. The Chinese had to dig tunnels from their huts to the work tunnels. Many didn't see daylight for months. At Cape Horn in the Sierras, they hung suspended in baskets 2,000 ft. above the American River below them and drilled and blasted a road bed for the railroad without losing a single life (lots of fingers and hands though). After hitting the Nevada desert they averaged more than a mile a day. But working in 120 heat and breathing alkali dust took its toll. Most were bleeding constantly from the lungs. SOURCE: The Brown Quarterly. Vol. 1 (Spring 1997). http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01- 3/01-3f.htm#cap3http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01- 3/01-3f.htm#cap3

66 66 Even though the CP --realizing how valuable they were-- treated them better than most, they were still not on a par with the whites. A white laborer was paid $35.00 a month plus room and board and supplies. The Chinese were paid $25.00 a month and paid for their own food, supplies, cook and headman. After a strike in the Sierras, where they won the right not to be whipped and beat and another strike in the Nevada desert, they got up to $35.00 a month but still paid for their own supplies. The whites thought the Chinese were strange because of the strange clothes and hats they wore, because they ate strange foods and drank boiled tea all day, spoke in their sing-song language, and most of all, because they washed and put on clean clothes every day. The whites on the other had, drank from the puddles, seldom bathed or put on clean clothes, got drunk and fought and spent their hard-earned money on soiled doves and gambling. In return for the dedication and hard work of the diligent Chinese laborers, an eight man Chinese crew was given the honor of bringing up and placing the last section of rail on May 10th, 1869. A few of the speakers mentioned the invaluable contributions of the Chinese but for the most part, the people of the day ignored them and history has neglected them. Only in the last ten to fifteen years has their story really started to become known. For the thousands who died aboard ship, the hundreds who died in accidents and the thousands who died of small pox it is long past due. Golden Spike National Historic Site in Brigham City, Utah which was established in 1965, commemorates this history. On May 10, 1869, the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads met at Promontory Summit Utah and united the continent with the completion of the nation's first transcontinental railroad. Hence Chinese participation is prominent in what is perhaps the most important event in the history of the western expansion of the country. It linked East to West, opened up vast areas to settlement and provided easy access to new markets. SOURCE: The Brown Quarterly. Vol. 1 (Spring 1997). http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01-3/01-3f.htm#cap3 http://brownvboard.org/brwnqurt/01-3/01-3f.htm#cap3

67 Questioning after reading  Reinforce the concept that reading is for understanding the meaning of the text and making connections  Model ways of thinking through and organizing the information taken in from reading a text  Think critically about the text  Respond on a personal level © 2010 Partner in Education 67

68 Common Content Text Structures ScienceSocial Science  Compare / Contrast  Concept Definition  Description  Generalization / Principle  Process  Cause / Effect  Chronological sequence  Comparison & Contrast  Concept Definition  Description  Episode  Generalization / Principle  Process  Cause / Effect © 2010 Partner in Education 68 Thinking Maps Resource: http://www.somers.k12.ny.us/intranet/skil ls/thinkmaps.html

69 Provide models for student thinking 69 Using Direct instruction & Facilitated Learning to Teach Strategic Thinking © 2010 Partner in Education

70 The Thinking Process Approach Builds Habits of Mind  Applying past knowledge to new situations  Precision of language and thought  Questioning and posing problems  Remaining open to continuous learning  Persistence  Striving for accuracy  Thinking flexibly  Thinking interdependently  Creating, imagining and innovating  Metacognition  Finding humour  Listening with understanding and empathy  Responding with wonderment and awe  Gathering data through all senses  Managing impulsivity  Taking responsible risks From The Art Costa Center for Thinking. http://www.artcostacentre.com/ 70 © 2010 Partner in Education

71 Three Sequential Lesson Types  Lesson Type One: Teacher Think Aloud  Students watch while teacher models how to use two comprehension strategies simultaneously  Lesson Type Two: Shared Reading  Teachers and students read together to identify and relate their use of the reading strategies  Lesson Type Three: Flexible Group  Students work together using comprehension process and set goals for further learning 71 Research Base: Block, Cathy Collins. (2006). “The Thinking Approach to Comprehension Development.” Improving Comprehension Instruction. © 2010 Partner in Education

72 30% Guideline  First 30%  Teacher reads and thinks aloud  Students watch & learn  Second 30%  Teacher begins the process  Students join in to share & practice skills  Next 30%  Think, Pair, Share  Other flexible grouping 72 © 2010 Partner in Education

73 LESSON TYPES & ASPECTS 73 LESSON TYPE LESSON PURPOSELESSON ASPECTS READ / THINK ALOUD Introduce new process Models executive thinking Makes the invisible thought processes apparent Teacher has physical text copy Students have visual text access—but not physical copy Select students may have physical text copy Students thoughtfully engaged SHARED READING Fosters confidence Fosters collaboration Acts as informal assessment Provides guided practice Teacher displays class copy of text Students may or may not have physical text coy Students actively engaged FLEXIBLE GROUPING Provides scaffolding to independent Allows for differentiating text Allows for differentiating lessons Each student has text copy OR Group shares text copy Group task is clearly defined and has been modeled prior to grouping © 2010 Partner in Education

74 Allow for Practice 74 © 2010 Partner in Education

75 75 Introduce first strategy set w/ think aloud Reinforce w/Think aloud followed w/shared Reinforce w/shared Practice Flexible Grouping Practice Flexible Group Practice Introduce second strategy set w/think aloud Reinforce 50% /50% Reinforce w/shared Practice Flexible Group Practice Flexible Group Practice Independent Practice Assessment of strategy use & content retention M T W TH F Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5 Day 6Day 7 Day 9 Day 8Day 10 Day 11Day 12Day 13Day 14

76 References ACT. (2005). Reading Between the Lines: What ACT Reveals About College Readiness in Reading. http://www.act.org/path/policy/pdf/reading_report.pdfhttp://www.act.org/path/policy/pdf/reading_report.pdf Block, Cathy Collins. (2006). “The thinking approach to comprehension development.” Improving Comprehension Instruction. (pp. 54 – 79). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Costa, Art. The Art Costa Center for Thinking. Retrieved 15 Sept. 2007. http://www.artcostacentre.com/ http://www.artcostacentre.com/ : Day, Jeanne D.(1986). Teaching summarization skills: influences of student ability and strategy difficulty. Cognition and Instruction 3(3). 193-210. Erickson, H.L. (2007). Concept-basead curriculum and instruction for the thinking classroom. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. Harvey, Stephanie & Goudvis, Anne. (2000). Strategy instruction & practice. Strategies that Work. (pp. 27 – 41). Portland: Stenhouse. Harvey, Stephanie & Goudvis, Anne. (2007). Strategies that Work, Second edition. Portland: Stenhouse. Raphael, Taffy & Highfield, Kathy & Au, Kathryn H. (2006). QAR Now. NY: Scholastic. Wright, Jim. The Saavy Teacher’s Guide: Reading Interventions that Work. Retrieved 15 Sept 2007 from http://www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/brouge/rdngManual.PDF Wiggins, Grant & McTighe, Jay. (2005). Understanding by Design, 2nd Edition. (pp. 84 -45). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 76 © 2010 Partner in Education


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