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APES Exam Review.

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Presentation on theme: "APES Exam Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 APES Exam Review

2 Which of the following is used to reduce SO2 emissions from coal-burning power plants?
Catalytic converters Ultrafine mechanical filters Electrostatic precipitators Wet scrubbers Afterburners Answer: d

3 2. As a country goes through the demographic transition, the greatest rate of population growth takes place during which phase? Preindustrial Pretransitional Transitional Industrial Postindustrial Answer: C

4 3. Which of the following elements is most likely to limit primary production in freshwater lakes?
Oxygen Calcium Phosphorus Carbon Iron Answer: c

5 4. Use of nitrogen-based fertilizers in the Midwestern US is a major contributing factor to which of the following? Spread of the West Nile Virus Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico Water shortages in communities near the Great Lakes Soil erosion in Texas The increase in severe storms in the Southeastern US Answer: b

6 5. Which of the following is true of the Clean Air Act?
It was passed by Congress during the early 1950’s It regulates the amount of CO2 emitted by power plants It has remained largely unmodified since it was originally signed into law. It established cap-and-trade program for SO2 in 1990 It is set to expire in 2050 Answer: d

7 6. The process of extracting and separating gold in remote regions often results in environmental contamination with which of the following? Ozone Cyanide CFC’s Asbestos Selenium Answer: b

8 7. Which of the following laws deals specifically with cleanup of abandoned hazardous waste sites?
Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Safe Drinking Water Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Act Answer: e

9 8. Which of the following is true of farm-raised salmon?
Theya re more genetically diverse than their wild counterparts They seldom escape from their containment areas They have no impact on the quality of water in which they are raised They are often infected with parasites and sea lice They are maintained at lower population densities than are wild salmon Answer: d

10 9. Which of the following best illustrates the pesticide treadmill?
Sequence of several pesticides used by farmers to maximize effectiveness Increased use of pesticides to eradicate genetically resistant pests Biomagnification of pesticides in the fatty tissue of primary consumers Movement of pesticides following percolation into groundwater Process that is used to manufacture pesticides Answer: b

11 10. After 200 million years, only 1/16 of the original amount of a particular radioactive waste will remain. What is the half-life in millions of years? 12.5 25 50 75 100 Answer: c

12 11. Which of the following is the correct order of soil particles in order of increasing size?
clay-sand-silt Clay-silt-sand Sand-clay-silt Sand-silt-clay Silt-clay-sand Answer: b

13 12. Which of the following regions of the ocean is LEAST likely to contain photosynthetic organisms?
Intertidal Zone of coastal upwelling Pelagic zone Euphotic zone Abyssal zone Answer: e

14 13. The separating of the various components of crude oil in refineries is accomplished primarily by taking advantage of differences in which of the following? Densities of the components Boiling points of the components Solubility of the components Sulfur content of the components Viscosities of the components Answer: b

15 14. Some toxic compounds are ingested and retained in the tissues
14. Some toxic compounds are ingested and retained in the tissues. These pollutants pose special risks to humans and other organisms high on the food chain because of which process? Synergism Compound contamination Biomagnification Threshold effect Carcinogenesis Answer: c

16 15. Which of the following is an appropriate remediation strategy for removing radon gas from the home Use filtered water for drinking and bathing Do not occupy the basement of the home Place monitors in suspect areas of the home Remove and replace soil in crawl spaces under the home Seal or ventilate the places where radon enters the living space Answer: e

17 16. Which of the following is the greatest component (by weight) of municipal waste in the US?
Paper Yard waste Plastics Glass Food Answer: a

18 17. Which of the following is generally true of K-strategists species as compared to r-strategist species? They reach sexual maturity earlier They have more young They are more likely to be invasive species They have longer life spans Their population cycles are more rapid Answer: d

19 18. Which of the following best illustrates the Tragedy of the Commons?
Depletion of fishing stocks in the North Atlantic Collective farming of wine grapes in communities in France Using national forests for wood production and harvesting Allocation of all nuclear wastes to one site in Nevada Agreements among western ranchers to jointly manage a common grazing land Answer: a

20 19. Which of the following is the zone of a pond or lake in which rooted, emergent plants such as cattails and rushes are located? Benthic Limnetic Littoral Profundal Riparian Answer: c

21 20. Waste from which of the following would be an example of nonpoint source of pollution?
Overflow from a sewage treatment plant Outgassing from a municipal landfill Dumping at a food-processing plant Drainage from an abandoned mine Runoff from agricultural fields Answer: e

22 21. Which of the following laws gave the EPA the authority to control hazardous waste from “cradle-to-grave”, including the generation, transportation, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste? Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-RCRA Endangered Species Act-ESA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-CERCLA National Environmental Policy Act-NEPA Pollution Prevention Act-PPA Answer: a

23 22. A measure of how much stress is placed on the available dissolved oxygen in a river system.
BOD Acidity Temperature Turbidity Answer: B

24 23. Which gas is most responsible for maintaining the “thermostat” of our planet?
NO3- CH4 CO2 HCO3- O2 Answer: c

25 24. NH3/NH4+ is converted to NO2-/NO3-
Nitrogen fixation Assimilation Nitrification Respiration Eutrophication Answer: C

26 25. The maximum reproductive capacity of a population under ideal environmental conditions is known as A) environmental resistance B) carrying capacity C) biotic potential D) logistic potential E) fluid capacity Answer: C

27 26. A plant nutrient that, when present in excess amounts in drinking water can lead to “blue baby syndrome” which prevents the normal transport of oxygen by the hemoglobin molecule NO3- PO43- NH4+ CO32- Mg2+ Answer: a

28 27. Which of the following is a part of a positive feedback mechanism associated with global warming? Increase gas mileage in cars Increased cloudiness by more moisture in the atmosphere Melting of arctic sea ice Increased acidity of seawater Increased growth of CO2 absorbing trees and grasses Answer: c

29 28. The greatest amount of freshwater is found in
The atmosphere Estuaries Lakes Rivers and streams Polar ice caps and glaciers Answer: e

30 29. Of the following countries, which has the largest proven reserves of metals such as manganese, chromium and platinum? South Africa Japan Saudi Arabia The United States France Answer: a

31 30. Thermal pollution can result in
Increased metabolic rates of aquatic organisms Decreased ability to dissolve oxygen Increased susceptibility to heat shock I only II only III only I and II I, II and III Answer: e

32 31. Which of the following best illustrates an abiotic component of the environment affecting a biotic component of the environment? Composted manure is added to agricultural soil during spring tilling Coral reefs modify the direction of ocean current Plants release O2 into the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Low phosphorus content in soil limits the growth of vegetation A thick planting of ground cover reduces soil erosion on a hillside. Answer: D

33 32. Which of the following cities regularly experiences the worst levels of photochemical smog that is enhanced by thermal inversion? New York City, New York Los Angeles, California Portland, Oregon Atlanta, Georgia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Answer: b

34 33. When a rain forest is slashed and burned, the local concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases due to Changes in local climate Oxidation of carbon compounds Cellular respiration of rain-forest plants Erosion of exposed soil Carbon dioxide being release by anaerobic organisms Answer: b

35 34. What two main factors would best indicate the quality of life of a county’s population?
The total fertility rate and the death rate The crude birth rate and the crude death rate The birth rate and the infant mortality rate The replacement level fertility rate and the total fertility rate The life expectancy and the infant mortality rate Answer: e

36 35. Pollution is considered an external cost when
It has harmful effects borne only by the people who purchase the products that cause the pollution The cost to the environment is not reflected in the price of the products that produce the pollution It has a significant impact on the consumer’s decision to buy a product that pollutes It is a hidden cost that would result in a greater demand for the product if the consumer were aware of the hidden cost It is produces in the external environment by a malfunction in the operation of the product Answer: b

37 36. A large forest is fragmented into small forest tracts separated by agricultural areas. This change will most likely lead to An increase in the population of top carnivores An improvement in the dispersal mechanisms of forest species A more stable regional climate A decrease in the amount of edge effect A decrease in the gene flow within the species of the original forest Answer: E

38 37. Which of the following options would reduce global greenhouse emissions?
Increasing the use of automobiles Decreasing the number of nuclear power plants Replacing coal-burning power plants with wind farms Converting tropical forests to rice paddies Switching from hydroelectric power generation to power generation using natural gas as a primary fuel Answer: C

39 38. Loss of usable energy between successive trophic levels in an ecosystem are best accounted for by which of the following? The first law of thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics The law of conservation of matter The process of ecological succession Limiting factors in the ecosystem Answer: b

40 39. Two major effects of overgrazing are
Erosion and desertification Higher fire potential and increased productivity Eutrophication and increased methane production Higher primary productivity and ammonification Soil compaction and subsidence Answer: a

41 40. Which of the following describes
what is happening at the location shown on the map Plates are converging, making new Crust b) Plates are diverging, making new c) A triple junction d) Plates are converging, destroying crust e) Plates are diverging, destroying crust Answer: b

42 41. Which of the following describes the heat-island effect?
Urban areas trap more heat than rural areas do Tropical islands reflect heat back into the atmosphere Warm water in the Pacific causes excessive evaporation into the atmosphere Lakes retain heat and provide warmth for landmasses nearby Rapid decomposition in swamps releases a large amount of heat Answer: a

43 42. Which of the following statements are true about ozone?
I. it is a pollutant in the troposphere II. It filters out most of the UVC radiation in the atmosphere III. Most of it is formed in the stratosphere by reaction between carbon dioxide and free oxygen atoms. I only II only III only I and II I, II and III Answer: d

44 43. Fish in a New York river polluted by high levels of dioxins had low testosterone levels and failed to reproduce. Scientists came to the conclusion that the dioxins were acting as which of the following? Endocrine disrupters Growth hormones Carcinogens Immune-system suppressors Mutagens Answer: A

45 44. Which of the following describes what is occuring at the location
Shown in the image? Ring of fire One plate is being forced underneath the other creating a volcanic arc. c) Intra-plate hot-spot volcanoes d) Transform fault boundary e) Triple junction Answer: c

46 45. Lakes that have low concentrations of nutrients and low turbidity are classified as
Buffered Climax Eutrophic Oligotrophic Stratfied Answer: d

47 46. A country has a population growth rate of 2%-what is the doubling time?
.5 years 20 years 25 years 35 years Answer: d

48 47. An area that has experienced rainfall at a pH of 4
47. An area that has experienced rainfall at a pH of 4.3 would most likely see which of the following results? The release of aluminum ions from soil An increase in population of mollusks The death of low pH tolerant species An increase in buffering of lake water Increased concentration of CO in the atmosphere Answer: a

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