Presentation on theme: "December 11 –Wednesday Argumentation Skills - 1 December 12 –Thursday 10:30 DR. SABINE FREIZER - "Georgia and Russia: conflicts in South Ossetia and Abkhazia”"— Presentation transcript:
December 11 –Wednesday Argumentation Skills - 1 December 12 –Thursday 10:30 DR. SABINE FREIZER - "Georgia and Russia: conflicts in South Ossetia and Abkhazia” at Senate Room. December 13- Friday 09:00-10:00 Ziyneti Özkan & Ezgi Nuray - Armenia 10:30 Prof.Knud Erik Jorgensen –Future of the EU At Çatı Restaurant December 18 – Wednesday 14:00-14:50 Departmental Chair Prof.Aylin Güney lecture 15:00-15:50 Regular Lecture – Argumentation Skills Continued December 19– Thursday 10:30 DR. SABINE FREIZER - "Armenia and Azerbaijan: the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and Turkey's normalization potential" at Senate Room December 20 – Friday Gökay Çınar –ATAY ÇETİNBİLEK ??? Russia –Georgia War in 2008 December 25 – WednesdayArgumentation Skills – Continued December 27 – Friday NO CLASS January 1 – Wednesday NO CLASS January 3 – Friday The Last Class Day before Final Paper Submission/Presentation – Meaning last opportunity to get feedback January 8 – Wednesday-Around 3000 words print-out Final Paper Submission (including 300 words Abstract, At least 5 Keywords, Bibliograpy, 12 Newtimesromans Word Office format, 1.5 spaced with subheadings), -Powerpoint presentation, 10 slides, 5 minutes, not more not less
Arguments about Causes What causes some people to become open- minded? to be genius ? Well read ? Listening classical music ? Or vice-a-versa ? This is a question about causes and their effects—about what causes what. They're vital questions. The evidence for a claim about causes is a correlation(positive or negative) between two events,but not necessarly causation.
18. Explain how cause leads to effect When we think that A causes B, we usually believe not only that A and B are correlated but also that it "makes sense" for A to cause B. Good arguments, then, do not just appeal to the correlation of A and B: they also explain why it makes sense for A to cause B.
Correlation without causation
Formal argument about causes
19. Propose the most likely cause Most events have many possible causes. Just finding a possible cause, then, is not enough; you must go on to show that it is the most likely cause. Sometimes additional evidence is necessary before any explanation can be accepted with much confidence. More evidence is necessary when several competing explanations all fit the available evidence.
20. Correlated events are not necessarily related, could be just coincidental.
21. Correlated events may have a common cause Some correlations are not relations between cause and effect but represent two effects of some other cause. For example,it is quite possible, for instance, that being well read and being open-minded are both caused by some third factor: by going to Yaşar University.
22. Either of two correlated events may cause the other : Correlation also does not establish the direction of causality. If A is correlated with B, A may cause B—but B also may cause A. (i.e. chick and egg) 23. Causes may be complex: Maybe, reading makes you more open-minded, but it is surely also true that open-mindedness is likely to lead people to read more. Seldom do we fasten onto the one and only cause.