Presentation on theme: "A modeling study of orographic convection and mountain waves in the landfalling typhoon Nari (2001) Xiao-Dong Tang, Ming-Jen Yang and Zhe-Min Tan 2011/11/15."— Presentation transcript:
A modeling study of orographic convection and mountain waves in the landfalling typhoon Nari (2001) Xiao-Dong Tang, Ming-Jen Yang and Zhe-Min Tan 2011/11/15
Introduction (I) Mountain waves and orographic convection may play an important role in the formation of orographic precipitation through different mechanisms condensation ( Hill et al., 1981; Hill, 1983; Pandey et al., 1999) seeder–feeder processes (Bergeron, 1965;Browning, 1980; Carruthers and Choularton, 1983; Smithet al., 2009a) upstream convection triggered or enhanced by terrain blocking (Grossman and Durran, 1984) windward slope triggering of convection (Smith et al., 2009b) thermal triggering of convection, lee-side convergence (Mass, 1981) lee-side enhancement of convection (Tripoli and Cotton, 1989).
Introduction (II) For a conditionally unstable flow passing over a two- or three- dimensional mesoscale mountain ridge, three or four flow regimes, based on the moist Froude number (Fr w ) and convective available potential energy (CAPE), are proposed by studies of idealized simulations (Chu and Lin, 2000; Chen and Lin, 2005a, 2005b). An upward-propagating mountain wave can be produced by the strong basic flow in the higher Fr w regimes (Chen and Lin, 2005a). U : basic wind h: terrain height N w : Brunt-Vaisala frequency
Introduction (III) Moist static instability or nearly neutral stratification, and negative vertical shear of horizontal wind usually exist at low levels in the environment of landfalling typhoons (Blackwell, 2000; Chan and Liang, 2003). In landfalling typhoons, mountain-induced gravity waves (MGWs) were also found, and could further transport precipitation particles to the lee side and lower levels (Misumi, 1996; Fudeyasu et al., 2008). The impacts of mountain waves and convection over the steep terrain on precipitation are seldom discussed from a dynamical–microphysical perspective, especially in the landfalling typhoon environment.
Introduction (IV) How does the propagation of orographic convective cells affect the evolution of mountain waves in the distant rain bands of typhoon Nari ? How do mountain waves and orographic convection influence the microphysical processes and the formation of precipitation ? What are the differences of mountain effects over different regions of a landfall typhoon (the distant rain band & eyewall)
Model set-up and experiment design 54/18/6/2 km 32 sigma ( ) levels Radiative BC: Klemp and Durran (1983) Cumulus: Grell (1993) used on 54/18 km Microphysics: Reisner et al. (1998) PBL: MRF Hong and Pan (1996) IC/BC: ECMWF 1.125 º lat/lon 1 st : 09/16 06-18 UTC 2 nd : 09/18 03-05 UTC No Latent Heat (NLH): latent heat release was turned off starting from 09/18 0300 UTC No terrains over Taiwan (NTR) Yang et al. (2008)
Wavelet analysis (Morlet Wavelet) x : the independent spatial or temporal coordinate s: a spectral parameter wavelet power spectrum defined as shows the amplitude of any features versus the scale and how this amplitude varied with space of time. Morlet wavelet analysis is effective in the analysis of periodical phenomena like convection and gravity waves (Chagnon and Gray, 2008; Kuester et al., 2008)
2 h rainfall during 09/18 03~05 UTC dBZ & wind at H= 4 km 09/18 04 UTC wind at H= 1 km 09/18 03 UTC CTLNLH wind at H= 4 km 09/18 05 UTC
Morlet wavelet power spectrum of vertical velocity (m 2 s -2 ) CTLNLH UU’ (30~55 km) at H=4 kmPP’ (75~85 km) w 09/18 03~05 UTC at H = 4km Morlet wavelet power spectrum of terrain height (unit: km 2 ) ~20 km
Mountain waves in the inner core 120E124E 26N 22N 122E 24N NTR CTL VariableCTLNTR Percentage wrt CTL (%) 10051.9 24h rainfall at 09/16 Yang et al. (2008) R=200 km averaged horizontal wind at 09/16 12 UTC
300020001000(m) 0 64016040(mm) 20 80 320 rt12h (09/16 06 to 18 UTC) NTRCTL rt2h (11 to 13 UTC) rt2h (10 to 12 UTC) CTL-NTR
Time (min) CTL NTR Height (km) Rainfall (mm) CTL 09/16 11~13 UTC NTR 0916 10~12 UTC W at H = 4km Rainfall of 2min
1010 UTC1030 UTC1050 UTC CTL Run NTR Run 1110 UTC1130 UTC1150 UTC -42-60-3-51-236475 ms -1 Θ’(the deviation of initial value) w (vertical velocity)
1110 UTC1130 UTC1150 UTC CTL Run NTR Run 1210 UTC1230 UTC1250 UTC -42-60-3-51-236475 ms -1
Discussion and summary (I) On the windward slope of CMR, convective cells were frequently triggered at the steep upslope in the environment with negative vertical shear of horizontal wind and low-level instability Latent heat release by orographic convections helped the airstream to flow over the CMR rather than to flow around it. Convective cells scale ~20 km. The updraft branches of MGWs were sometimes enhanced by latent heat released by the convective cells advected downwind. Thus the in-phase superposition of convection and MGWs would increase the amplitude of MGWs on the lee side.
Discussion and summary (II) The convective cells on the windward slope were triggered, the coalescence and riming processes resulted in precipitation enhancement on the windward slope, more cloud ice and snow particles were produced aloft over the peak and were advected downstream to seed the flow over the lee side. The coalescence and riming processes are responsible for the secondary precipitation maximum on the lee side. The small-scale accumulated rainfall variations are contributed by both the larger-scale mountain lifting and the smaller-scale MGWs–convection interaction, which were comparably important. The important interaction between the MGWs and orographic convection within a landfalling typhoon can modulate precipitation over the rugged terrain.
Discussion and summary (III) The mechanism for enhanced rainfalls over the mountain in the distant rain band (09/18 03~05 UTC) is due to the terrain- induced convection rather than the ‘seeder–feeder’ mechanism The Nari eyewall and principal rain band (09/16 11~13 UTC) passed over the northern CMR, the steep terrain greatly enhanced upward motion at the upslope, accompanied by the release of a tremendous amount of latent heat, leading to a doubled accumulated rainfall maximum near the main peak. The strong impinging flow produced a strong stationary downdraft branch of the mountain wave on the lee side, inducing an evident rain shadow. The updraft branch of the mountain wave also generated a localized rainfall maximum on the lee side.