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1 05-863 / 08-763 / 46-863: Introduction to Human Computer Interaction for Technology Executives Brad Myers Human Computer Interaction Institute Fall, 2013, Mini 2 © 2013 - Brad Myers
2 Course: 05-863 / 08-763 / 46-863: Introduction to Human Computer Interaction for Technology Executives All 3 numbers are for the identical course Mondays & Wednesdays, 1:30pm – 2:50pm All lectures videotaped & available from schedule page Room: NSH 1305 © 2013 - Brad Myers
Registration Counts NSH 1305 seats only 62 people 92 students are registered Some taking it at a distance (using the videos) 54 more still on the wait list (= 146!) They are not likely to get in Usually have had about 40% of the students dropping the class It would be helpful if you dropped right away! Largest number of students interested ever! © 2013 - Brad Myers 3
4 Instructor Brad Myers Human Computer Interaction Institute Office: Newell-Simon Hall (NSH) 3517 Phone: x8-5150 E-mail: email@example.com@cs.cmu.edu http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~bam Office hours: By appointment. Secretary: Indra Szegedy, NSH 3501B x8-4431 © 2013 - Brad Myers
5 Administrators HCII – 05-863 ISR – 08-763 Tepper – 46-863 Nicole Willis firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Linda Francona firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Vickie Motz firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com For course add/drop problems © 2013 - Brad Myers
6 Teaching Assistants Rebecca Chen http://www.rebchen.com/ rc1 @ andrew.cmu.edu Agnes Won http://www.agneswon.com/ awon @ andrew.cmu.edu Nina Xu ninax @ andrew.cmu.edu © 2013 - Brad Myers
7 Course Web page: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~bam/uicourse/08763fall13 Course schedule is tentative Note required readings – almost all from textbook Note homework and final exam schedule Note last lecture is after normal end of classes Some readings are CMU-only, use CMU network or VPN © 2013 - Brad Myers
Textbook Second year out! H. Rex Hartson and Pardha S. Pyla, The UX Book: Ensuring a Quality User Experience, to be published by Morgan Kaufmann / Elsevier in 2011 or 2012. http://www.theuxbook.net/http://www.theuxbook.net/ Developed with 2 years of feedback from our course! Very long, but you don’t need to read it all! 8 © 2013 - Brad Myers
9 Other useful books Beyer, H. and Holtzblatt, K., “Contextual Design: Defining Custom-Centered Systems”. 1998, San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. ISBN: 1-55860-411-1 (paperback) Jakob Nielsen. "Usability Engineering". Boston: Academic Press, Inc. 1993. Donald A. Norman, "The Design of Everyday Things". New edition: Basic Books, 2002, ISDN 0-465-06710-7. Or original edition (paperback): New York: Doubleday, 1988. ISBN 0-385-26774-6 Readings from these are “optional” All readings listed on scheduleschedule © 2013 - Brad Myers
10 What is this class about? Brief overview of Human Computer Interaction techniques Understanding of what usability is and means Awareness of Good and Bad design HCI “Human Factors”, “Ergonomics”, Man-Machine Interfaces (MMI), etc. Teach the 4 most important, proven methods for achieving better usability, and why they are important Contextual Inquiry Rapid Prototyping User studies Heuristic Analysis These methods won’t get obsolete – they work for any device You will be learning new skills (not just about the skills) You will be able to create better user interfaces, web sites, consumer products, etc. You will be better able to lead design teams © 2013 - Brad Myers
11 Requirements for this Course No requirement to be able to program One homework (#4) will have you create a medium-size prototype, but it can be in any language, including html or even PowerPoint You are expected to chose an implementation you can do mostly on your own Make this course more accessible to a wider range of students © 2013 - Brad Myers
12 Homeworks & Grading 6 individual homeworks Overview of homework grading & policiesgrading & policies Note schedule of when due (switches from Wed Mon)schedule of when due Due before class Turn-in electronically in pdf on blackboard Turn-in Note: 6 unit mini = 12 hours of work/week This course is a lot of work, but you can do it! Final Exam Two exam dates, including distance and Rwanda students Pass/fail OK with me Check with your program Must decide right away Audit – not OK – sorry, no space Just watch the videos on-line © 2013 - Brad Myers
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~bam/uicourse/08763fall13/homework.html Office hours to match: (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~bam/uicourse/08763fall13/staff.html)http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~bam/uicourse/08763fall13/staff.html Saturdays, Nov. 2, 9, 23,30 & Dec. 7: 12noon-1:00pm, NSH 3001 Saturday, Nov. 16: 12noon-1:00pm, NSH 3502 Sundays: Nov. 3,10,17,24 & Dec. 1, 8: 2:00pm-3:00pm, NSH 3001 Monday, Nov 4, 3:30-4:30, NSH 3502 Tuesday: Nov 12: 6:30pm-7:30pm, NSH 3502 Fridays, Nov. 15,22,29 & Dec. 6, 3:30-4:30, NSH 3001 Homework & Exam Deadlines © 2013 - Brad Myers 13
14 Assignment 0 Picking an appliance Everyone must have a different appliance Due by Tuesday at midnight Will fix any issues in class on Wednesday Should attend or else will get last choice Enter your choices on the GoogleDoc See Blackboard for the link © 2013 - Brad Myers
15 Lecture 1: Introduction and Why are UIs Important and Difficult to Design and Implement Brad Myers © 2013 - Brad Myers
16 Who are “Users”? People who will use a product or web site. As opposed to the “Designers” People who create the system or web site Designers Users You are the designer Have to make an effort to Know The User © 2013 - Brad Myers
17 What is the “User Interface”? Everything the user encounters Functionality & Usefulness Content Labels Presentation Layout Navigation Speed of response Emotional Impact Documentation & Help Book calls it “User Experience” © 2013 - Brad Myers
18 What is Your Definition of “Quality” for a System? © 2013 - Brad Myers
19 What is “Usability”? = Quality! Learnability Efficiency Productivity Memorability Little “re-learning” required Errors Satisfaction Pleasurable © 2013 - Brad Myers
User “Experience” (UX) Even more than “usability” Usability focuses on performance User Experience Emotion, Heritage Fun, Style, Art Branding, Reputation Political, social personal connections Beyond just the device itself – “Service Design” Blends: usability engineering, software engineering, ergonomics, hardware engineering, marketing, graphic design 20 © 2013 - Brad Myers
21 Why are Interfaces Important? Sit-down-and-use computers and software Don't read the manuals Usability is critical to software sales: In magazine ratings "User friendly" There are well-defined methods and techniques Not just opinions, luck, domain-experience HCI-trained people build better interfaces Programmers don't think like end-users Exposure to different kinds of interfaces, problems User model, not system model Guidelines © 2013 - Brad Myers
22 Problem Appliances are too complex © 2013 - Brad Myers
23 Problem Too many remotes © 2013 - Brad Myers
24 Problem April 29, 1991 © 2013 - Brad Myers
25 Why Important? cont. Customer benefits: Novices will be more effective quicker Make experts more efficient Efficiency is important to customers, especially with shrinking workforces & outsourcing Reduce errors Increased pride of ownership Productivity and satisfaction © 2013 - Brad Myers
26 Why Important? cont. Company Benefits Usability engineering saves money (ROI) $39,000, $613,000, $8,200,000 Up to 5000 times the cost Reduce calls to the support center & support costs in general Can cost $30 - $100 per call Reduced complaints from customers Can help identify what is really needed What will be useful and what is not needed © 2013 - Brad Myers
Company Benefits, cont. Reduce redesign costs “lack of attention to user inputs is one of the most important reasons why many software projects were unsuccessful. This translated to costing corporations $80 billion dollars a year.” – [Hartson-Pyla, ch. 1, p. 33] Easier to demonstrate and sell Greater usage of features = realized value Competitive Differentiation Revenue and Profit 27 © 2013 - Brad Myers
Recognized by industry, government, etc. Plenty of jobs Money for research Significant time and code devoted to HCI now! -- www.dray.comwww.dray.com Corollary: If the user can’t find or use a feature, it doesn’t exist! 28 Why Important? cont. © 2013 - Brad Myers
29 Good UIs on Successful Products Palm succeeded where other handhelds had failed due to a focus on usability: Fit into pocket Reliable gestural text input Commands immediately available Apple iPod lauded for design and user interface iTunes entire service design Apple iPhone – unique UI Apple iPad – desireable Wii controller, vs. XBox, PS3 graphics & power © 2013 - Brad Myers
30 Especially for the Web “ Usability rules the web ” If the customer cannot find your product, then it won ’ t be bought Your competitors are only one click away All web sites are compared to the best “Nearly 9 of 10 of Americans Have Negative Feelings About Brands with Poorly Performing Websites” – ref– ref Normal ProductsWeb Products © 2013 - Brad Myers
Bad UIs can Sink Products & Companies Damage reputations Ford dropped in ratings in 2011 due to touch screen interface “Despite Ford’s improvements in manufacturing quality, their overall ratings fell precipitously this year due solely to the poor software interaction on their dashboards.” – NYT, Cooper ReportNYTCooper Report “’annoying’ behavior of their driver-facing interactive systems that caused their ratings to plummet.” 31 © 2013 - Brad Myers
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:World_Wide_Smartphone_Sales_Share.png Nokia & RIM 32 © 2013 - Brad Myers
33 Bad UIs Can Cause Disasters Aegis July 4, 1988; Iranian Airbus shootdown by the Vincennes http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/flight801/stories/july88crash.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Vincennes_%28CG-49%29 Deaths in kids: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/116/6/1506 http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/116/6/1506 “Unexpected Increased Mortality After Implementation of a Commercially Sold Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) System” Because it took so much longer, did not reduce errors overall Florida ballots (2000) http://www.asktog.com/columns/042ButterflyBallot.html © 2013 - Brad Myers
34 Florida Ballots in 2000 © 2013 - Brad Myers
35 Why are User Interfaces Difficult to Design? © 2013 - Brad Myers
36 Why Hard to Design UIs? “It is easy to make things hard. It is hard to make things easy.” No silver bullet Seems easy, common sense, but seldom done right Once done right, however, seems “obvious” User Interface design is a creative process Designers have difficulty thinking like users Often need to understand task domain Can’t “unlearn” something © 2013 - Brad Myers
37 Can’t Unlearn Something © 2013 - Brad Myers
38 Why Difficult, 2 Specifications are always wrong: "Only slightly more than 30% of the code developed in application software development ever gets used as intended by end-users. The reason for this statistic may be a result of developers not understanding what their users need." -- Hugh Beyer and Karen Holtzblatt, "Contextual Design: A Customer-Centric Approach to Systems Design,“ ACM Interactions, Sep+Oct, 1997, iv.5, p. 62. Need for prototyping and iteration © 2013 - Brad Myers
39 Why Difficult, 3 Tasks and domains are complex Word 1 (100 commands) vs. Word 2013 (>2000) MacDraw 1 vs. Illustrator BMW iDrive adjusts over 700 functions Existing theories and guidelines are not sufficient Too specific and/or too general Standard does not address all issues. Adding graphics can make worse Pretty Easy to use Can ’ t just copy other designs Legal issues © 2013 - Brad Myers
40 Why Difficult, 4 All UI design involves tradeoffs: Standards (style guides, related products) Graphic design (artistic) Technical writing (Documentation) Internationalization Performance Multiple platforms (hardware, browsers, etc.) High-level and low-level details External factors (social issues) Legal issues Time to develop and test (“time to market”) © 2013 - Brad Myers
41 Why are User Interfaces Difficult to Implement? © 2013 - Brad Myers
42 Why Are User Interfaces Hard to Implement? They are hard to design, requiring iterative implementation Not the waterfall model: specify, design, implement, test, deliver They are reactive and are programmed from the "inside-out" Event based programming More difficult to modularize © 2013 - Brad Myers
43 Why Hard to Implement? cont. They generally require multi-processing To deal with user typing; aborts Window refresh Window system as a different process Multiple input devices There are real-time requirements for handling input events Output 60 times a second Keep up with mouse tracking Video, sound, multi-media © 2013 - Brad Myers
44 Why Hard to Implement? cont. Need for robustness No crashing, on any input Helpful error messages and recover gracefully Aborts Undo Lower testability Few tools for regression testing © 2013 - Brad Myers
45 Why Hard to Implement? cont. Little language support Primitives in computer languages make bad user interfaces Enormous, complex libraries Features like object-oriented, constraints, multi-processing Complexity of the tools Full bookshelf for documentation of user interface frameworks MFC, Java Swing, VB.Net, etc. Difficulty of Modularization © 2013 - Brad Myers
46 Examples Difference between displaying “hello” and displaying a blue rectangle Difficulty to read a file name Reading a text string Configuring and handling built-in file dialog Creating a new file dialog © 2013 - Brad Myers
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