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Introduction to Research GE4 Lecture 3. Planning a research Project.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Research GE4 Lecture 3. Planning a research Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Research GE4 Lecture 3

2 Planning a research Project.

3 Planning a Research project

4

5 Planning a research project other practicalities  - Are you working in a team ( communication)  - What is your timetable?  - What about project Management  - Oganising resources ( attributes you need)  Be Holistic when preparing

6 Reviewing Literature I want to do research into changes in Marketing strategies for because of social media (TOPIC) Marketing Strategies Social Media What Will I do ?

7 Reviewing Literature Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: Implications for international marketing strategy Berthon, P. R. (2012). Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: Implications for international marketing strategy. Business Horizons, 55(3), 261-271. Axioma=> An axiom or postulate is a premise or starting point of reasoning. 1: Social media is a function of the technology, culture, and government of a particular country. 2. In the age of social media, local events seldom remain local. 3.In the age of social media, general issues seldom remain general; that is, macro issues tend to be (re)interpreted locally. 4.The actions and creations of creative consumers tend to be a function of the technology, culture, and government of a particular country. 5. Technology tends to be historically dependent; that is, technologies in different countries evolve along unique trajectories due to inertia rather than because they are the optimal solution.

8 Reviewing Literature Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: Implications for international marketing strategy Berthon, P. R., Pitt, L. F., Plangger, K., & Shapiro, D. (2012). Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: Implications for international marketing strategy. In text referencing (Berthon, Pitt, Plangger, & Shapiro, 2012, p. xx)

9 Reviewing Literature I want to do research into changes in Marketing strategies for because of social media (TOPIC) Marketing Strategies Social Media Technology Culture Government Social Media Profile Creative Consume rs Privacy

10 Reviewing Literature Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: Implications for international marketing strategy Axioma=> An axiom or postulate is a premise or starting point of reasoning.

11 Reviewing Literature  How can social media be used and contribute to create and maintain better communication between the partners of the Plastic Cycle Value Chain? –Research QUESTION More specific More Detailed New Questions Arise

12 Reviewing Literature I want to do research into changes in Marketing strategies for because of social media (TOPIC) Marketing Strategies Social Media Technology Culture Government Social Media Profile Creative Consume rs Privacy Communication Plastic Value Chain Government Goals

13 Reviewing Literature  How can social media be used and contribute to create and maintain better communication between the partners of the Plastic Cycle Value Chain? –Research QUESTION More specific More Detailed New Questions Arise

14 Reviewing Literature  Plastic Value chain (KETENAKKOORD KUNSTSTOFKRINGLOOP)  KETENAKKOORD KUNSTSTOFKRINGLOOP. (2014). Retrieved from Ministerie van VROM website: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl%2Fbestanden%2Fdocumenten-en- publicaties%2Fpublicaties%2F2014%2F01%2F23%2Fketenakkoord-kunststofkringloop%2Fketenakkoord-kunststof- kringloop-definitief.pdf  Government Goals/ european Goals  Effective Communication  Coughlan, J., & Macredie, R. D. (2002). Effective Communication in Requirements Elicitation: A Comparison of Methodologies. Requirements Engineering. doi:10.1007/s007660200004  Effective Government Communication  Liu, B. F., & Horsley, J. S. (2007). The Government Communication Decision Wheel: Toward a Public Relations Model for the Public Sector. Journal of Public Relations Research. doi:10.1080/10627260701402473  Social Media Impact  Chou, W. S., Hunt, Y. M., Beckjord, E. B., Moser, R. P., & Hesse, B. W. (2009). Social Media Use in the United States: Implications for Health Communication.Journal of Medical Internet Research. doi:10.2196/jmir.1249  Effective Government Communication on social media  Hilts, A., & Yu, E. (0). Intentional Modeling of Social Media Design Knowledge for Government-Citizen Communication. doi:10.1007/978- 3-642-23599-3_2

15 Research Questions  Research question 1: How can social media be used and contribute to create and maintain better communication between the partners of the plastic cycle value chain?  Research question 2: Can social media contribute to active participation from the partners to the website of the plastic cycle value chain?

16 Establishing operational definitions  In defining the research problem you may use IDEAS are difficult to understand  SO it is important to define concepts and your study population –This can be done by operational definitions

17 Example Definitions of intelligence  ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by taking thought  ability to deal with cognitive complexity  the result of IQ test (WAIS-III)

18 Example Definitions of age  amount of time during which a person or animal has lived  difference between date of birth and current date in years, rounded down  result of question “What is your age?” –Is there a cultural difference?  ask small children (How old are you?)  count annual rings for a tree

19 Concepts and variables  A variable is a concept that has been made mesurabel  Operationalisation: making concepts mesurabel  Direct measurement versus measurement by a set of indicators (concepts  indicators  variables)

20 Abstract (example lecture 1) Proximity and student density as ecological variables in a college classroom (Holliman & Anderson, 1986)(Holliman & Anderson, 1986) A study of the relationship between student grades and: (a) proximity (distance from the student to the instructor), (b) centrality (seating in the center of the room compared to seating toward the sides), (c) student density (presence of other students to the front, sides, and back of the student), and (d) aisle seating is reported. Volunteer students (N = 141), who selected their own seats in two Introductory Psychology classes, served as subjects. Students who occupied the front rows received higher grades than those who sat farther back. Centrality, student density, and aisle seating were not related to grades. Although these findings cannot be generalized freely, they indicate the value of studying ecological factors in classrooms.

21 Abstract (example lecture 1) Proximity and student density as ecological variables in a college classroom (Holliman & Anderson, 1986)(Holliman & Anderson, 1986) A study of the relationship between student grades and: (a) proximity (distance from the student to the instructor), (b) centrality (seating in the center of the room compared to seating toward the sides), (c) student density (presence of other students to the front, sides, and back of the student), and (d) aisle seating is reported. Volunteer students (N = 141), who selected their own seats in two Introductory Psychology classes, served as subjects. Students who occupied the front rows received higher grades than those who sat farther back. Centrality, student density, and aisle seating were not related to grades. Although these findings cannot be generalized freely, they indicate the value of studying ecological factors in classrooms.

22 Abstract (example lecture 1) Proximity and student density as ecological variables in a college classroom (Holliman & Anderson, 1986)(Holliman & Anderson, 1986) A study of the relationship between student grades and: (a) proximity (distance from the student to the instructor), (b) centrality (seating in the center of the room compared to seating toward the sides), (c) student density (presence of other students to the front, sides, and back of the student), and (d) aisle seating is reported. Volunteer students (N = 141), who selected their own seats in two Introductory Psychology classes, served as subjects. Students who occupied the front rows received higher grades than those who sat farther back. Centrality, student density, and aisle seating were not related to grades. Although these findings cannot be generalized freely, they indicate the value of studying ecological factors in classrooms.

23 Abstract (example lecture 1) Proximity and student density as ecological variables in a college classroom (Holliman & Anderson, 1986)(Holliman & Anderson, 1986) A study of the relationship between student grades and: (a) proximity (distance from the student to the instructor), (b) centrality (seating in the center of the room compared to seating toward the sides), (c) student density (presence of other students to the front, sides, and back of the student), and (d) aisle seating is reported. Volunteer students (N = 141), who selected their own seats in two Introductory Psychology classes, served as subjects. Students who occupied the front rows received higher grades than those who sat farther back. Centrality, student density, and aisle seating were not related to grades. Although these findings cannot be generalized freely, they indicate the value of studying ecological factors in classrooms.

24 grades Conceptual framework proximity centrality density aisle seating RQ2 RQ1

25 grades Conceptual framework proximity centrality density aisle seating RQ1 RQ2 RQ3 RQ4

26 grades Conceptual framework proximity centrality density aisle seating H1 H2 H3 H4

27 grades Follow-up study proximity gender H1

28 Abstract follow-up study College Classroom Ecology: The relation of sex of student to classroom performance and seating preference (Brooks & Rebeta, 1991) Observations were made for 12 general psychology classes taught over a 6-year period. Results showed that women sat in the front of the classroom more often than men, and also obtained higher grades and cut class fewer times than men. Furthermore, for men and women, grade point average decreased and number of absences increased as students sat farther from the front of the room. 28

29 grades Follow-up study 29 proximity gender

30 30


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