Presentation on theme: "In This Presentation; Writing Research Articles for Publication"— Presentation transcript:
0Seminar in Transportation A summary ofWriting and Presenting in English, Petey YoungBy: A. Poorfakhraei, M. Tajali, H. Davoudi, E. Rahimi, S. ShafieiCivil Engineering Department Sharif University of Technology
1In This Presentation; Writing Research Articles for Publication Presenting at International Conferences
2No matter how much you are sophisticated in English A Wrong KeyNo matter how much you are sophisticated in English
3In a Few Words Your Writing; Must be written in a right sequenceMust be clear and don’t lead to misinterpretation
4The Art of Creating a Model to Help You Write You cant find it anywhere elseForget your knowledgeScientific journal editors!!!
5How to Make Sure Your Paper Will Be Rejected ! Good EnoughPoorWhether to accept or rejectYour WritingSimply Reject
6Find Data for Your Model Native writers in well-known journals has passed the test.The teachers you would never, ever, find anywhere alse.An important question is,“whether your data is reliable or not”.
7Find Data for Your Model Reliable dataWell-known journalNot older than 3-5 yearsNative WriterThe field of study is not vital
8Building Your Model 3 paper’s in hard copy Spreadshits Length and structureTransitionsRight verbsTenseOpening, endingGiving credit to others
9Your Data Base Spreadshit # 1 Spreadshit # 2 Spreadshit # 3 structureSpreadshit # 2TransitionsSpreadshit # 3Right verbsSpreadshit # 4TenseSpreadshit #Opening, endingSpreadshit # 6Giving credit to others
10Draft, And It’s Such a Thing ! You need to cultivate your paper in many draftsIn first draftDon’t need to be in englishSequence is importantDon’t confuse your self editingLet the flaws edited in next drafts
11Sequence, The Basic of Your Writing Don’t commit a crimenamed “Repetition”Story Board
12Next Drafts We discussed first draft Before goinig on pay attention to some usual flaw;Paper is too broadToo proud of dataSo boring and full of detailsHaving failed to give credit to others
13Making clear and straightforward Next DraftsDividing into paragraphsEditing the flawsUse your spreadshitsOr use your papersYour effort must be focused on;First DraftMaking clear and straightforwardFinal Draft
14Now you are ready to learn how to edit and to write your final draft Make Sure to;Be clear for everyone in your fieldWhen giving credit, consider appropriate refrencingDon’t bore the readerDon’t overexplain sthNow you are ready to learn how to edit and to write your final draft
15The Art of Editing What You Write Who will help you edit?If you get any advice from the journal, it will probably be a sentence telling you to get language help for your paper.To get a manuscript published you must learn to edit your manuscript several times with colleagues
16The Art of Editing What You Write FINDING EDITING HELPWhere should you go to get editing help?Professional editors who are not scientists and are unfamiliar with your type of science can be extremely undependable in their choice of improvementsFew successful writers of science edit alone. They write in teams and edit for each other.Most scientists edit with a colleague
17The Art of Editing What You Write You can only be helped by someone who:trusts you to be open to both positive and negative criticismIs capable of giving both positive as well as negative criticismknows your work wellis familiar with the type of writing in the journal in which you plan to publish.
18ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY LANGUAGE You must edit out any words, sentences, and phrases that are not essential to meaning.Repetition & RedundancyRepetition: directly repeating the same wordsRedundancy : indirect repetition through alternate phrases or synonymsBoth of them are common flaws in rejected papers
19ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY LANGUAGE You get to make a point once and only onceIdeas, no matter how important are not restated or rephrased within the body of a research article.The only acceptable repetition occurs in a final summary and can be briefly restated without detailed explanation.
20ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY LANGUAGE Repeated VocabularyRepetition of the same non-science vocabulary, especially verbs, will make your manuscript dullReplace some repeated non-technical words with alternate words that will mean the same and often be more accurateNote that a thesaurus is a dangerous source for finding an alternate word to useYour only reliable information is in your spreadsheets and the articles you photocopied
21ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY LANGUAGE Unnecessary Explanation or DescriptionYour manuscript must be avoided of using:More background or history than the journal to which you plan to send normally prints.Too many details about what was done – or even worse, details about unsuccessful work.Information about other research your group has done.
22ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY LANGUAGE Prepositional PhrasesAnother common form of unnecessary explanation lies in the overuse of qualifying prepositional phrases, such as :In our laboratory when where the work has taken place is obvious to the readerby the researcherduring the researchon the tablein this group
23PASSIVE VOICEContemporary writing in science has become more and more directYou will want to check your final draft for sentences which begin:There are . . .There is . . .There was . . .There were . . .There has been . . .There have been . . .
24PASSIVE VOICEcheck for all sentences that start with the word ‘It’ whenwithout a referentIt was . . .It is . . .It has been . . .You can use passive structure in your early draftsThen change them when you edit final draft
25PASSIVE VOICEExamples of Indirect or Unnecessary Language from Unpublished Papers
26EMPHASIZING MEANING WITH INTENSIFIERS The impact of messages becomes stronger when writers avoid the addition of intensifiers, such as ‘really’, ‘actually’, ‘truly’.They are good words to use sociallyletters, but they do not belong in research reportsThe best advice is to eliminate them in your final edit.
27EMPHASIZING MEANING WITH INTENSIFIERS The Word ‘Very’‘Very’ is another word everyone should avoid.It is not ambiguous as an intensifier , that it is basically meaninglessYou can consider using intensifiers that are more effective at adding emphasis, such as ‘extremely’, ‘highly’, ‘strongly’, ‘surprisingly’,but use all intensifiers infrequently or they will lose their power and sound unscientific
28EMPHASIZING MEANING WITH INTENSIFIERS Other Overused WordsFree your manuscript from other overused words which reduce the intensity of your messageReplace words such as ‘a lot’ and ‘many’ with more specific meaningful words.Also improve the impact of your words by omitting those that are not only overused but judgmental, such as ‘good’ or ‘nice’Avoid words that praise instead of explain: Good science explains not praises
29EMPHASIZING MEANING WITH INTENSIFIERS Exclamation MarksExclamation marks are seldom if ever seen in professional writing and certainly not in research reportsInstead you must make your emphasis clear by a careful choice of vocabulary.
30CLICHESClichés are over-used idioms and using them is not respected in English .They are considerably less effective than the simple direct wordsExamples of Inappropriate Clichés and Unnecessary Words from Unpublished Papers
31WIT Scholarly wit is highly valued in good scientific writing using wit successfully requires a superb knowledge of the English languageThe short length and requirements of research articles seldom afford room for wit even in the hands of an expert
32TRANSITIONSTransitional words and phrases are valuable within and between sentencesOveruse of any of them will weaken your final draftUse as many of them as you want in your early draftsIn early drafts these are an aid to you because they tend to tighten up and guide your thinking.In the final draft you need to check carefully to see:How many you have usedWhether or not you have used them in places where the meaning requires them.
33TRANSITIONS Smoothers They smooth the way between sentences in which the logic flows in an expected directionA judicious use of such transitions smoothes readers’ ability to follow along as your writing moves from idea to ideaOveruse of smoothers will weaken your writing and distract your readersSome example of SmoothersFurthermoreIn additionfinally
34TRANSITIONS Contradictors These transitions usually required when a sentence or paragraph contradicts the on-going logic of the previous ideaThey serve to warn the reader that the direction of the logic is about to changeSome example of SmoothersButHoweverInsteadDespite
35TRANSITIONS Explainers Explainers are transitions used to show cause and effectThese transitions are sometimes optional and often occur in the middle of sentencesThey are especially valuable to signal that you are giving results or conclusionsSome example of explainersBecauseAs a resultThereforeIn conclusion
36TRANSITIONS Guidelines for Editing Transitions Three general guidelines can help you when you edit your use of transitions:If a current reputable journal article written by an English speaker uses the term, it is probably a good choiceThe role of transition words or phrases is to clarify the meaning to readers. This is their only role.Using transitions more than 10–12 times on a full page of text is apt to interfere with, not help, the readers’ comprehension.
37EDITING VERB TENSESThe final and most tedious edit is to examine each verb tense in the paper for agreement and consistencyThis should be done after all other revisions and edits have been made.
38Present Tenses Simple Present Tense The most common tense in scientific writing today is the simple present tenseAll results, whether done today or years ago, are referred to in present tenseThe implication of this use of the simple present tense is that the finding is an alltime truth, which would occur again were the experiment repeated
39Present Tenses Present Progressive Tense Present Perfect Tenses Progressive tenses are fine in conversation, narrative writing, and letters, but they are seldom found in professional or scientific writing.Present Perfect TensesPresent perfect tenses can be not only correct but quite elegant in research reportingThe perfect tenses are seldom required, and they do require more language knowledge than the simpler tenses.
40Past TensesPast tenses are also commonly used in scientific writing, but only under certain circumstancesSimple Past TensePresent past tense is used to refer to what was done during laboratory workWithin a research article, the use of simple past tense to explain procedures is usually the only exception to the use of simple present tenseOther uses are no longer common
41Past Tenses Past Perfect Tenses Past Progressive Tense Past perfect tenses can also be appropriate, but the simple past tense is safer and often better.Past Progressive TenseThey are rare and usually unnecessary.
42EDITING VERB TENSESExamples of Inappropriate Tenses from Unpublished Papers
43The Art of Dancing with change Language of the worldEnglish is going to be in the next centuries generally the language of the worldBecause of World Wide WebThe increasing population in AmericaEngland & America colonies in all over the worldNative Speakers = 380 millionSecond Language = 250 million
44Differences between British and North American English In the process of becoming a world language, differences are fast disappearingFew, if any, differences in grammarSpelling differences are still noticeableBut differences are fast fading under the influence of the Internet‘lorry’/‘truck’, ‘torch’/‘flashlight’,‘sweet’/‘candy’, ‘biscuit’/‘cookie’but none of these are words that appear commonly in science
45Spelling North American spelling has become more common A glance at the journal will show you which spelling the journal prefersBut A journal will accept both spellingsBritishNorth Americancentrecentercolour, honour, labourcolor, honor, laborfocussed, focussingfocused, focusinggaoljailenquiryinquiry
46Style American English tends to be more informal than British English American English makes less use of polite, ambiguous verb forms, such as: ‘could’, ‘would’, ‘should’, ‘might’, ‘can’, ‘may’Correspondence in American English tends to be more informal than British EnglishIn American English, ‘whom’ and ‘shall’ are replaced with ‘who’ and ‘will’the difference between ‘among’ and ‘between’ is often ignoredThe current style of North American English in personal letters often seems lazy or even impolite
47Differences between traditional & peresent English language Changing Places of Parts of SpeechTraditionally we all like a grammar that can be learned, can be depended uponThis is not how English isIn English language you have freedom to have to take one part of speech and use it as anotherHowever, this is also one of the glories of EnglishExampleNouns Becoming Verbs/Nouns Becoming Adjectiveswe can get ; someone; and get letters Adjectives Being Used as Adverbsdifferent’ for ‘differently
48Moving Toward Faster and More Direct Communication We believe that these results willWe believe that sooner or later these results willThe findings of the results of the study show that the end product has indicated . . .The end product indicates . . .An important part of this trend in science journals is the use of active voice instead of passive voice
49Punctuation Capital Letters now English uses less punctuation than was traditionally usedCapital LettersThen words such as ‘university, professor, doctor, chemistry’ lost their capitals, except when used in titlesthe Internet retains its capital, then soon we should see ‘internet’ without the capitalHyphens & Commas are used fewer than beforeAcronyms and AbbreviationsEnglish language, especially in science, rapidly is accepting acronyms and abbreviationsAcronyms are with out any dotsSome units of measure are acronyms and slowly capital letters are disappearing
50Emoticons Shorter ways to communicate in English are ‘emoticons’ Emoticon formed by blend of the words ‘emotion’ and ‘icon’There are some unique acronyms for some statements:‘CUS’ for ‘see you soon’‘IMHO’ for ‘in my humble opinion’.These are of even less value and less understood than emoticons
51The Mysterious Word ‘The’ QuestionsAvoid asking questions of the reader in your paperThis technique has gone out of fashion and is seldom seenInstead you are expected to make statements that give readers informationThe Mysterious Word ‘The’Maybe correct use of the word ‘the’ can only be understood by native speakersBut today this word is used by native speakers more mystery than most non- native speakers
52A Recent Example of language change The evolution ofadopt abbreviationsdrop capital lettersomit hyphensuse nouns as verbsElectronic mail
53The Art of Writing Abstracts, Proposals your ability to write good abstracts, clear proposals could make an article accepted for publicationsarticle accepted for publication in an international journalaccepted as a speaker at an international conferencewriting a successful grantare difficultbut they all require special skills
54ABSTRACTS The abstract will be read first its quick clarity will strongly influence to acceptance of your workAn abstract is an extract of the essence of your workAbstracts are not summaries; they are more concise and clearer than summaries.Abstracts are built around importanceIt gives what was discovered, how it was doneIt should fit with other researchIt suggests for future researchThe abstract must be shortMost journals’ instructions tell authors to send in abstracts of as few as 100 words or lessConference abstracts sometimes require as few as 50 words
55ABSTRACTS The five maxims for writing abstracts are Stay within or under the required number of wordsEdit carefullyHave a colleague who knows your work well editEdit againCheck your word choices and structures against other recent abstracts in that journal or conferenc
56PROPOSALS Proposals to Conferences Proposals for presenting at conferences are relatively easy to writeBut writing proposals for grants is considerably more difficultProposals to ConferencesWriting proposals for presenting at conferences is similar to writing abstractsBrevity is important but seldom as short as abstracts for journalsEach conference will have its proposal requirements and deadlines posted on its website
57PROPOSALS Proposals for Grants Writing a grant proposal is quite different from writing a proposal to present at a conferenceGrant proposals are lengthy mattersRequiring information about your researchThe background for itIts purposeIts value to the grant-giving organization
58Proposals for GrantsEach institution have different requirements for the writing of the grantsFirst-time applications for a grant are often unsuccessful, but do not be discouragedIf yours is rejected, detailed information about why it has been rejected will accompany the rejectionyou should carefully rewrite the grant addressing the reasons it was rejected, and resubmitSuccessful scientists have often rewritten and resubmitted a grant three times before it was finally acceptedBesides improving the grant each time, they learned more about writing successful grants
59Introductory and Application Letters Today most letters worldwide are sent and received over the Internet.Deciding what style to use when sending s:Carefully!Consider what type of personality you desire to convey.
60Introductory and Application Letters Some kinds of language may be intended to be friendly but may actually appear to be so informal as to be impolite.For example:‘Hi’ or ‘Hi Petey’ or ‘Hi Dr. YoungOther greetings seem to be overly formal.‘My very Dear Dr. Young’ or ‘Honored Professor’
61Introductory and Application Letters At the other extreme, occasional s arrive with no salutation beyond the name at the top and the subject.For example:‘Peter’ or ‘Young’
62Introductory and Application Letters Example of an Introductory Letter, Sent by
63Introductory and Application Letters effective letters of introduction or applicationSimpleDirectBriefState only factualRelevant information
64Introductory and Application Letters Recommendation:You attach your resume and perhaps one other relevant brief document.Letters of recommendation are sent later by the people who are recommending you.it is absolutely essential that you make no mistakes.Keep a file of letters you send and letters you receive.The best advice is to compose your letters in a word-processing program
65Presenting at International Conferences The Art of Preparing Slideshelps you understand the role of slides.The Art of Using Your Voicegives techniques for making music with your voice.The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothlydeals with showing body bravery and practicingThe Art of Napping at Conferencescontains tongue-in-cheek advice on the art of napping.
66Presenting at International Conferences At the conference you will be expected to speak, not read, your paper and to, talk about, not read, your slides.Being successful as a presenter means being fully prepared.Worrying is not helpful. Preparing is helpful.
67The Art of Preparing Slides As soon as you know you are going to speak, begin by preparing your slides.Choose:Titleskey wordsGraphicsCitationsand think about color and design.
68The Art of Preparing Slides Today most scientists design and prepare their slides by using a software program, such as Microsoft’s PowerPoint.A wise presenter, however, carries a set of individual transparencies as a protection against electrical failure or unexpected computer incompatibility.
69The Art of Preparing Slides BEING AN ARTISTSuch additions such as color, photographs, or motion are good only if they help your slides be:ClearLegibleeasy-to-understandThe audience appreciates a good set of slides but they are interested in your research not in how capable you are of using bizarre colors or images revolving or shooting in or out of the screen.
70The Art of Preparing Slides Use of ColorPale colors, such as pale yellow, make a more interesting background than a plain screen.a bright-colored background makes seeing the information on the slide difficult.
71The Art of Preparing Slides Use of ColorToo many colors, say a total of 5 and up, on one slide is usually not only less pleasant but less effective than 2–4.be kind to the eyes of your audience.Background fill color can help clarify information when it is necessary to have a list that fills the slide.
72Colour - GoodUse a colour of font that contrasts sharply with the backgroundEx: blue font on white backgroundUse colour to reinforce the logic of your structureEx: light blue title and dark blue textUse colour to emphasize a pointBut only use this occasionally
73Colour - BadUsing a font colour that does not contrast with the background colour is hard to readUsing colour for decoration is distracting and annoying.Using a different colour for each point is unnecessaryUsing a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessaryTrying to be creative can also be bad
74Background – BadAvoid backgrounds that are distracting or difficult to read fromAlways be consistent with the background that you use
78The Art of Preparing Slides FontsOn slides the simpler fonts, such as ‘Arial’, are easier to read on a screen than more traditional fonts with serifs, such as ‘Times New Roman’.
79The Art of Preparing Slides FontsDon’t use a variety of serif and non-serif fonts on the same slide.Lower-case letters are easier to read than all capitals.
80Fonts - Good Use at least an 18-point font Use different size fonts for main points and secondary pointsthis font is 24-point, the main point font is 28-point, and the title font is 36-pointUse a standard font like Arial
81Fonts - Bad CAPITALIZE ONLY WHEN NECESSARY. IT IS DIFFICULT TO READ If you use a small font, your audience won’t be able to read what you have writtenCAPITALIZE ONLY WHEN NECESSARY. IT IS DIFFICULT TO READDon’t use a complicated font
82The Art of Preparing Slides Print SizeKeep the size of print for words and numbers as large as possible.In most programs anything smaller than point-18 cannot be read on the screen by all the audience.Each computer program has background colors for slides. “point-24”Each computer program has background colors for slides. “point-20”Each computer program has background colors for slides. “point-16”
83The Art of Preparing Slides Print SizeYou want the people at the back of the room to be able to read all the information, including the citations.To do this you mustlimit the number of words on each slide.discipline yourself to put as little information on each slide as possible, using your voice to fill in the information.
84The Art of Preparing Slides Adding Emphasisuse of colorputting the most important information in a larger print size, down to the least important in smaller size.Italics are sometimes used effectively to add emphasis.However underlining is not effective.
85The Art of Preparing Slides Choosing Title and WordsTitles are important.A title states the topic of the slide as simply and as briefly as possible.Titles should look like titles.enclosed in colored boxeswritten in larger printWritten in all caps
86The Art of Preparing Slides Choosing Title and WordsComplete sentences on a slide put a presenter in an embarrassing position.What is the solution?The solution is to use key words and phrases on the slides and let your voice complete the information, adding interest and details.
87Slide Structure - BadThis page contains too many words for a presentation slide. It is not written in point form, making it difficult both for your audience to read and for you to present each point. Although there are exactly the same number of points on this slide as the previous slide, it looks much more complicated. In short, your audience will spend too much time trying to read this paragraph instead of listening to you.
88Slide Structure – Good Show one point at a time: Will help audience concentrate on what you are sayingWill prevent audience from reading aheadWill help you keep your presentation focused
89The Art of Preparing Slides Completing Your Set of SlidesThe Credit SlideAn important slide is the one in which you give credit to those who have worked with you or financed you research.Often this slide is last, but it can also be first.
90The Art of Preparing Slides Completing Your Set of SlidesThe Final ResultYou want to make every effort to complete your slides so that the final result looks like a set.Ideally throughout the set you have already used the same style ofFontvarieties of coloremphasis techniques on each slide.
91The Art of Preparing Slides Completing Your Set of SlidesThe Final ResultThe best result will be a set of slides that serves information kaiseki style.
92The Art of Using Your Voice Stress and Accentmatch your use of stress to that of some native speaker of English and you have relatively little to worry about.If you have the stress right, you should not waste your time by worrying about whether or not you have some kind of accent.
93The Art of Using Your Voice PitchFirst, learn how to pitch your voice so that you will not strain it when you speak to an audience.Control the pitch of your voice by projecting the sound, not from the upper throat or nasal passages but from the diaphragm and lower throat.
94The Art of Using Your Voice VolumeSuccessful speakers must increase the volume as well as the depth of their normal speaking voice.
95The Art of Using Your Voice Gender DifferencesMale and female voice differences are as socially induced as they are physically caused.Women who let their voices go high in their throats instead of deeper into their chests sound a bit like children.Both male and female voices are sometimes soft and difficult to hear.All of us, male or female, can train ourselves to speak in deeper, fuller tones.
96The Art of Using Your Voice SpeedOnce you have practiced increasing the loudness of your voice, you will want to concentrate on speaking slower and with more animation than you normally speak.Success speaking at a conference requires speech that is slower and clearer than occurs in normal conversation.
97The Art of Using Your Voice Reading to an AudienceThe most important thing to remember is that the audience and speaker together form a speech.
98Your stance how you move your facial hand gestures your slides Good News!Your stance how you move your facial hand gestures your slides70%
99The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly EYE CONTACTeasiest way to appear braveshow how much you want them to understandlook directly at the audienceGlancing only briefly at the screen to remind
100The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly KEEPING AN ‘OPEN BODY’avoid hiding behind a podium or tabledon’t turn your backwhat to do with your handsMoving some as you present is fine
101The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly USING A LASERThe Off ButtonExplain Keep the light steady your voice silent snap the laser off and talkWhich Hand and How to Stand
102The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly Practicing & Preparationchosen what to saypractice aloud going through your slidestimed your speechslides are ready
103The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly avoid practicing by looking into a mirrorimagine that three walls of an empty room represent your audiencepracticing in front of a small group of other professionalsor students is helpful
104The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly ENDING ON TIMENothing angers the audience or the organizers more than aspeaker who goes overtime. Either the next speaker will have
105The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly You cannot tell them everything You will:1) choose what is most important2) display it in clear, uncluttered slides3) explain each slide in slow, simple, easy-to-understand English!worst mistakeRacing through a bewildering amount of rapid data
106The Art of Body Language and Presenting Smoothly FIELDING QUESTIONSthe chair will repeat questions or commentsask the questioner to repeat the question so that the whole audience can hear itstep toward the questionerDon’t back awayTake your timeYou do not need to fearStand straight, smile, and look confident
107The Art of Napping at Conferences deep sleep30-second to three-minute napparticularly international conferencesinterspersed with periods of wakefulnessNapping within groupsNodding is that all-revealing jerky movement of the headas you alternately relax muscular tensionto cause a neckacheeveryone to see that you are indeed nappinghead supportVariations of successful napping techniques developed over the years.