Perspective: Instructional Intelligence Intersects curriculum assessment instruction how we learn change systemic change
So key to designing effective learning environment is the intersecting or stacking of innovations.
Rather than the isolated and disconnected application of innovations.
The Complexity of Teaching … … our Students Different genders Different intelligences Gifted … and not Different home life support Different learning styles Living in at risk environments ESL/ELL learners Learning disabilities Students with Autism, FAS etc., etc.
2. Understand the importance of ‘winning over/cohesive bonding’ ‘withitness’, the ‘ripple effect’ and ‘overlappingness’ related to classroom management In the 1960s, Kounin did the first study of effective teachers … he observed that they had sets of skills that differentiated them from less effective teachers. Discuss in your groups, what do you think is meant by these 3 concepts: – 1. winning over – 2. withitness – 3. the ripple effect – 4. overlappingness Are they relevant today?
2. Winning Over This concept refers to what teachers do to have students respect them as well as like them as both ‘human beings’ and teachers. Effective teachers work hard at winning students over – they talk to students in the hall, ask them how a competition went, they may stay after school and play chess, or assist with coaching a school team – they show they care about the students ‘all over the school’ and ‘outside the school’ … not just in the classroom
2. Withitness This concept refers to the idea of ‘nipping things in the bud’ … stopping things before they go to far. Effective teachers do not wait until a number of students are misbehaving; they are always scanning the room, they stop things before something gets out of hand. You seldom hear them saying: “But what do I do if a number of students are misbehaving?” Again, you will see them using proximity, the look, a student’s name, a gesture etc., to let the student know they need to stop.
2. Ripple Effect This concept plays out much like what you see when you toss a rock into a pond – the impact creates waves or ripples that move out from where the rock entered the water. When you respond to a student (or not), ripples go out to the class informing them that this is how you will most likely treat them. The implication is that ‘how’ you say a student’s name or if you fail to say the students name the effect will ‘ripple’ to other students.
2. Overlappingness This concept refers to being able to metaphorically ‘chew gum and walk’ at the same time. Effective teachers are skilled at multi-tasking. For example, when giving directions or initiating a transition they are also monitoring students in terms of their behaviour and will often be seen giving a ‘look’ or using ‘proximity’ or ‘saying a students name’ during the information being shared
2. Relevance today First, rank those four in terms of their importance to you when it comes to classroom management. Provide the criteria for your ranking. Use the rubric on the following page to score yourself in terms of how your students would score you on each of those four concepts.
2. Rubric ConceptsLevel 1Level 2Level 3Level 4 Winning Over No sense of this being important; more incidental than intentional Some evidence, emerging importance inside class Clear evidence both inside and outside class Highly effective both inside ad outside of class Withitness Not withit; seldom scans class Beginning to be withit; better at scanning class Consistently scanning class; clearly withit Highly effective at scanning class; misses very little Ripple Effect Seldom if ever considers the ripple effect Somewhat aware but not consistent Consistently aware of the ripple effect Highly effective at sensing the impact of the ripple effect Over - lappingness Not effective at dealing with multiple demands Somewhat effective at dealing with multiple demands Effective at dealing with multiple demands Highly effective at dealing with multiple demands
3. Effective and Less Effective Teachers Effective Teachers: Think of a teacher you had that you really respected, liked. Why would you put this teacher in this category? Less Effective Teachers: Think of a less effective teacher you had that you did not respect or like. Why would you put this teacher in this category? Compare your ideas with those on the next slide.
3.1 Effective and Less Effective Teachers Effective Teacher Enthusiastic Sense of Humour Caring/Fair Organized Challenged Us Safe Classroom knew Their Subject Made Learning Interesting Less Effective Teacher Boring Not organized Had Favourites Couldn’t teach Embarrassed Us No variety Did Not Want to be There Did Not Know Their Subject
3.3 How Effective and Less Effective Teachers Respond Effective Teacher Did not have any problems They did not embarrass us They talked to us in private They were respectful They did it quietly How are the above the same? Less Effective Teacher Yelled/Detentions Slammed things Punished the class Embarrassed us Threw things Didn’t respond Sent us to the office Made us write lines Had to run laps
3.4 Comparing Effective and Less Effective Teachers The interesting idea about comparing effective and less effective teachers is that we see how the effective teachers win kids over – Perhaps even more important is that most teachers struggle to remember what effective teachers did … they could only remember vague ideas such as ‘they were fair’, ‘they talked to us in private’ … but “we don’t actually remember what they said or did”.
3.5 Comparing Effective and Less Effective Teachers Beliefs Effective teachers believe that no matter how well planned, thoughtful, skilled they are, all students at some time will misbehave … so when a student does misbehave, the teacher is not surprised or disappointed. f Less effective teachers believe that all students should behave – they are constantly being disappointed – seem to anger easily
3.6 Comparing Effective and Less Effective Teachers Repertoire Effective teachers have a more extensive repertoire that is enacted Less effective teachers have a restricted repertoire that they enact … Also, they move more quickly to power situations
4.1 Classifying Student Misbehaviour Academic Task: classify student misbehaviour into categories based on the thinking and emotions those misbehaviour cause Collaborative Task: Equal Voice/Participation Directions: 1.Groups of 4 - Create Place Mat 2.Individually Brainstorm – then share with group 3.Create one group of ‘behaviours’ … when done … 4.Classify the rest into categories based on how those behaviours make you think and feel. (Note: no right or wrong number of groups; just be prepared to defend your reasons for grouping the behaviours the way you did.
4.2 A Sample List of Student Misbehaviour 1.Calling out 2.Racial slur 3.Talking when supposed to listen 4.Texting 5.Tapping pencil 6.Refusing to do work 7.“This is boring.” 8.“I’m not working with him” 9.Forgetting homework 10.Not prepared to work 11.Copying during a test 12.Not working in group work 13.“Why do you always pick on me.” 14. Getting up and walking around 15. Chewing gum 16. Running in hall 17. Yelling in hall 18. Inappropriate T-Shirt 19. “Metal mouth” 20. “Fuck you” (to teacher) 21. “He was talking too.” 22. Doing math homework in English class 23. Coming late 24. “What a stupid answer.” 25. Not trying on a test
4.3 One way to classify them … what might be possible teacher emotions created by each group? What thoughts might a teacher be thinking? Group 1. Calling out, texting, tapping pencil, chewing gum, talking when supposed to listen, getting up and walking around, running in hall, yelling in hall Group 2. refusing to work, this is boring, “why do you always pick on me”, inappropriate T-shirt, Fuck you to teacher, he was talking too Group 3. racial slur, metal mouth, I’m not working with him, “what a stupid answer” Group 4. Not prepared to work, forgetting homework, sitting there doing nothing, not working in group work, coming late, not trying on a test
4.4 Match the emotions and thoughts below to the 4 groups Annoying, irritating, ‘how many times do I have to tell you’, I’m getting tired of always … Defiance, resistance, push back, anger, “What did you say?” “I said, put it away, NOW!” Hurt, pain, embarrassment, “How would you like it if I …” ridicule, humiliation, pay-back Giving up, disappointed, helpless, hopeless, “If you won’t try why should I” “Come on, just give the first question a try
4.5 Four Goals of Misbehaviour Attention Power Revenge Assumed Disability How do the four classifications above by Alfred Adler, Rudolf Driekurs, and William Glasser (all medical doctors) relate to the four groups? Any relationship to your classification?
4.6 Basic Needs (Adlerian Psychology) Need to belong Need to have control (power) over one’s life William Glasser added two more: Need for fun (connects to belonging) Need for freedom (connects to power) If the above needs are not met in a POSITIVE way they will be met in a NEGATIVE way; but students will belong and they will have power and they will have fun etc.
5. What Effective Teachers do to Encourage Appropriate Student Behaviour Knowledge of Curriculum Assessment/Checking for Understanding/Feedback Instructional Methods Understanding Students and How they Learn Teacher Personality Factors Affecting Motivation
ZERO - WORST 100 - BEST STOCK EXCHANGE METAPHOR
5.17 Teacher Personality Point here is that if you come across like a voice activated cadaver – no enthusiasm, no sense of humour, and you combine that with not framing questions effectively, not structuring groups effectively, lessons poorly planned, content of no interest or meaning to students, choosing not to make the classroom safe etc., etc., then your score drops and no course on classroom management will save you.
6. What Effective Teachers Do to Respond to Students Choosing to Behave Inappropriately Teachers have a repertoire of skills they employ to respond to students choosing to behave inappropriately. As the behaviour intensifies, the teachers skills match that escalation They do not have to have a separate skill for each inappropriate behaviour – rather they have sets of skills to respond to ‘types’ of behaviour; much like how a doctor does not have a separate ‘medicine’ or ‘approach’ for each illness. Their approaches also match the seriousness of the illness.
6.1 Six Sets of Skills to Match Student Escalation As students ‘bump’ up the intensity of their behaviour, teachers, bump up with them to match the situation … in order to increase the chances of restoring social order. On the next sets of slides, we provide ‘six’ skills designed to match student escalation.
6.2 Bump 1 Invisible Discipline or the Low-Key Responses You know all of these – but not as deeply as you should. With a partner, take turns sharing as many low- key responses as you can. You use most of these every day – they are fast, at times almost unnoticed by other students. Compare your answers with those on the following slide
6.3 Bump 1 Invisible Discipline or the Low-Key Responses The Low Key Responses 1.Proximity 2.Students Name 3.The Look 4.A Gesture 5.Pause 6.Ignore 7.A Gesture or Signal 8.Politeness 9.Cough 10.Deal with Problem, Not the Student Keep in Mind You will often find you integrate them … for example, you will move towards the student (proximity), give them a ‘glance’ and say “thank you” … you may also say the students name … 4 Low Key Responses integrated in about two to three seconds.
6.4 Bump 1 Invisible Discipline or the Low-Key Responses 1.Proximity 2.Students Name 3.The Look 4.A Gesture 5.Pause 6.Ignore 7.A Gesture or Signal 8.Politeness 9.Cough 10.Deal with Problem, Not the Student How are all the skills teachers use on the left side the same; i.e., what do they all have in common that allow us to call them the ‘Low Key Responses’ or ‘Invisible Discipline’?
6.5 Bump 1 Invisible Discipline or the Low-Key Responses The Low Key Skills 1.Proximity 2.Student’s Name 3.The Look 4.A Gesture 5.Pause 6.Ignore 7.A Gesture or Signal 8.Politeness 9.Cough 10.Deal with Problem, Not the Student What They Have in Common 1.Minimal or No verbal 2.Fast 3.Don’t stop the flow of the lesson 4.Don’t invite an escalation
6.6 Invisible Discipline … The Trap When asked to identify what skills they use when students first start to misbehave, effective and ineffective teachers provide the same answers – they list the same set of skills. So, if they have the same set of skills, why do the skils work in the effective teachers’ classrooms and not in the ineffective teachers’ classrooms? Discuss with a partner. Think about what it looks like or sounds like when the ineffective teacher employs those low key responses.
6.7 Invisible Discipline … Getting Out of the Trap The science is the ‘idea’ – saying the student’s name or giving the ‘look’ or ‘moving towards the student (proximity). The ‘art’ is how, where, and when you enact it. Re ‘how’ – think of intensity when you enact them … light pink, medium pink, darker pink, light red, medium red … stay away from dark red and too wishy washy pink. This is where ‘positive cohesive bonding/winning over kicks in – right intensity is seen as ‘fair’. Effective teacher employ the ‘right’ intensity; ineffective teachers don’t … you have to be ‘artful’.
6.8 Getting Out of the Trap…continued Ditto with ‘where’ you do it. Effective teachers think about ‘location’ so they do not become the person who is distracting the rest of the class – they will move towards the person and this enables the teacher to be ‘quieter’ when choosing to say something. This is when ‘withitness’ kicks in; effective teachers pick up on it right away; ineffective teachers wait too long … and in so doing, unwittingly invite other students to begin misbehaving.
6.9 Bump 2 – Squaring Off If you have tried a few Bump 1 skills; or if a students behaviour has escalated a bit, you may shift to Bump 2. You know what Bump 1 is … what would Bump 2 be in your class … understanding that Bump 3 involves giving the students a ‘choice’. Discuss with a partner and then we can have you share with the class and then compare with the ideas on the next slide.
6.10 Bump 2 – Squaring Off Bump 2 is like a more intense Bump 1. 1. The teacher stops teaching, 2. Turns (squares off with the student re their stance) … a more assertive look at the student or a firmer saying of the students name 3. Finish with “Thank you.” Key here is that with Bump 1 they may have missed it; with Bump 2 you are letting them know that “I know that you know that I know … so please stop.”
6.11 Bump 2 – Squaring Off – With an ‘I’ Message Bump 2 is like a more intense Bump 1. You also may use a minimal verbal. For example 1. The teacher stops teaching, 2. Turns (squares off with the student re their stance) and looks at the student 3. David, the talking is making it difficult for me to share the directions. (Pause) 4. Finish with “Thank you.”
6.12 Bump 3 and 4 Choices present a shift in the class moving from NOT taking responsibility for their behaviour to STARTING to take responsibility. Choices are ‘tricky’ and classroom lawyers will find the flaws in your choices. On the next page is a Concept Attainment data set on Effective and Less Effective Choices. See if you can find the ‘attributes’ of the effective choices.
6.13 Bump 3 - Choices Academic Task: Identify the essential attributes of effective choices Collaborative Task: Disagreeing Agreeably Directions: 1.Write a choice for this behavior: The student is using a cell phone when they were asked to leave their cell phones in their lockers. Keep it to your self. 2.Compare all the YES examples; compare them with the NO examples 3.When finished, identify ‘why’ they are effective – then look at your choice and decide if it is a YES or NO example. 4.Identify what ‘testers’ are YES and which ones are No examples
6.14 Below are a few choices; what do the effective choices have in common? YES: David, choose to work effectively with your group or you are choosing to work on your own. NO: John, choose to get your work done now, or you are choosing to do it after school.
6.15 Below are a few choices; what do the effective choices have in common? YES: Jan, you can put the I-Pod in your desk or mine, please make a decision. NO: Cassie, either put the pen away or I’ll take it away.
6.16 Below are a few choices; what do the effective choices have in common? YES: Mike, please put the pen down or you are choosing to give it to me. NO: Jennifer, either do your homework or you will not be going on the field trip next month.
6.17 Below are a few choices; what do the effective choices have in common? YES: Sandra, complete your homework or you are choosing to have me call your parents. NO: Ainsley, dress properly for phys-ed class or you will run 20 laps of the gym.
6.18 Choices - Testers … Get your math homework done or you will write out 5 pages of the dictionary. My way or the highway. Make a decision please (pause) thank you. Well, don’t tie your shoe laces but you may regret it. Choose to stop rocking in your chair or you are making the decision to stand.
6.19 Attributes of effective choices Logical - the choice is related to the misbehaviour Given as immediately as possible Choice is not an ultimatum Choice is done in a positive or neutral tone You can follow through on the choice The choice is not seen as punishment
6.20 Bump 4 Note that Bump 4 is simply the follow-through on the choice. This is why the choice given must have those attributes of effective choices. Key here is to make sure you don’t give choices you can’t follow through on; that invite an escalation. Suggestion: identify those behaviours where you think a choice would be useful, then as a staff write out effective choices that you can memorize and have as part of your classroom management response repertoire.