Presentation on theme: "B ULLYING P REVENTION IN E LEMENTARY S CHOOLS S ESSION B2 Jan Morgan, Wauconda CUSD 118 (IL) Brianna Stiller, Eugene School District 4-J (OR) Steve Romano,"— Presentation transcript:
B ULLYING P REVENTION IN E LEMENTARY S CHOOLS S ESSION B2 Jan Morgan, Wauconda CUSD 118 (IL) Brianna Stiller, Eugene School District 4-J (OR) Steve Romano, Illinois PBIS Network
W HAT IS B ULLYING ? “Bullying” is repeated aggression, harassment, threats or intimidation when one person has greater status or power than the another. What Does it Look Like? Physical aggression Repeated acts of isolation Name calling Cyber bullying Rumors Threats Comments about race, gender, socio-economic status, disability, sexual orientation Scott Ross, University of Oregon
W HAT ARE C HARACTERISTICS OF B ULLYING ? Bullying is behavior, not a trait or diagnosis Bullying behavior occurs in many forms, and locations, but typically involves student-student interactions. Bullying is seldom maintained by feedback from adults What rewards Bullying Behavior? Likely many different rewards are effective Most common are: Attention from bystanders Attention and reaction of “victim” Self-delivered praise Obtaining objects (food, clothing) Scott Ross, University of Oregon
S IX F EATURES OF U NIVERSAL PBIS THAT C ONTRIBUTE TO E FFECTIVE A PPLICATION OF B ULLYING P REVENTION : 1. The use of evidence based instructional principles to teach expected behaviors to all students. (Behavioral lesson plans from Matrix) 2. The monitoring and acknowledgement of students for engaging in appropriate behavior. (Three tiers of acknowledgements: high-frequency, intermittent, long term) 3. Specific instruction and pre-correction to prevent bullying behavior from being rewarded by victims or bystanders. (Direct instruction of school-wide expectations) 4. The correction of problem behaviors using a consistently administered continuum of consequences. (T- Chart) 5. The collection and use of information about student behavior to evaluate and guide decision making. (Data) 6. The establishment of a team that develops, implements, and manages. (Universal Team)
I MPLEMENTING B ULLYING P REVENTION : 3 P HASES FOR S TUDENTS Exploration Phase Teach respect; Build consensus (through student survey and student forums) Installation Phase Select stop signal Implementation Phase Teach stop, bystander stop, stopping, and help routines
F OR F ACULTY /S TAFF : C ORE F EATURES OF AN E FFECTIVE B ULLYING P REVENTION E FFORT 1) Agreement on logic/need for bullying prevention effort 2) Strategy for teaching students core skills 3) Strategy for follow-up and consistency in responding 4) Clear data collection and data use process 5) Advanced support options 6) Plan for effective implementation of bullying prevention.
I MPLEMENTING B ULLYING P REVENTION : 4 P HASES FOR S TAFF Staff Exploration Phase Monitor ODR data, student climate survey, and faculty/family reports Staff Installation Phase Team trained, orientation, facilitate student forum Staff Implementation Phase Build curriculum, teach to students, schedule boosters, inform families Staff Full Implementation Phase Collect and use data (ODRs, Updated student climate survey, etc.) and develop training capacity
S TAFF : “I NSTALLATION P HASE ” F ACULTY R ESPONSE P ROCEDURE ( CON ’ T ) Faculty Response Procedure for when students “talk” When a Student reports disrespectful behavior: "Did you tell ______ to stop?" If yes: "How did ____ respond?” If no: Practice the 3 step response (stop-walk-talk). "Did you walk away?" If yes: "How did ____ respond?” If no: Practice the 3 step response. “Okay, I will take it from here.”
Prevention in Bullying Positive Behavior Support Planning Guide: Moving from Discussion to Action This planning guide is designed for use by teams planning to implement bullying prevention efforts as part of their existing school-wide positive behavior support system. The guide defines steps for the school team and district leadership team that will increase the likelihood that the bullying prevention effort will be implemented with fidelity, sustained, and a benefit to students, families and faculty. School Building Planning Team ActionCriterion In Place Partially In Place Not In place Who?By When? 1.Faculty/Staff Readiness Team defined to lead implementation of BP-PBIS All faculty/staff have read the BP-PBIS manual Build consensus: monitor faculty/family reports, ODR data, Student Climate Survey data (ES, MS, HS), and student forums data (MS, HS) "Stop" signal selected “Stopping “ routine selected All faculty/staff have received BP-PBIS orientation training 2. Curriculum DeliverySchedule developed for student BP training. BP-PBIS lessons delivered to all students Plan developed for BP-PBIS orientation for students who enter during the year. 3. Follow-up/ BoosterFollow-up lessons scheduled to occur during two month period after initial student training. Follow up lessons delivered at least twice after initial training, including practice in applicable settings.
ActionCriterion In Place Partially In Place Not In place Who?By When? 4. PBIS teamBP-PBIS set as a standard item on the PBS team agenda 5. CoachingPlan developed for coaching and feedback for playground supervisors Coaching for playground, lunch, hall supervisors provided at least twice, and as needed after. 6. Evaluation/ Monitoring Quarterly review to assess if BP-PBIS is being used as intended (fidelity) Monthly review of office referral and incident reports related to bullying behaviors (physical aggression, bullying/harassment, fighting) Collect and study Student Climate survey data at least annually Social Validity: ongoing review of efficiency and impact with families, faculty, students
District Leadership Team ActionCriterion In Place Partially In Place Not In place Who?By When? 1.Bullying Prevention orientation for New Faculty Fall orientation for all new faculty 2.Visibility/District updates Report to District administration or board at least annually on: a) number of schools using BP-PBIS, b) fidelity of implementation, c) impact on student behavior. 3. External Coaching District has individual(s) trained to conduct staff orientation/ training/coaching in BP-PBIS
B ULLYING & H ARASSMENT 30% of youth in the United States are estimated to be involved in bullying as either a bully, a target. Staff are likely to underestimate the extent of harassment and bullying. One study showed: 58% of students perceived teasing, spreading lies or rumors, or saying mean things to be problems. Only 25% of teachers perceived these behaviors to be problems. Nansel et al. (2001). Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth. JAMA.
Scott Ross, University of Oregon A DULTS ONLY SEE THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG.
D O S WEAT THE S MALL S TUFF !! The majority of incidents are low level – name calling; exclusion; low levels of physical contact (pushing; shoving; etc.) There is research to show that high rates of low level behaviors are associated with a greater probability of high intensity incidents Ignoring low level incidents is an invitation to escalate social aggression.
Primary Prevention: School Wide Program (Bully Prevention in PBIS) Student Forums Adult Coaching Secondary Prevention: Intensive Practice Safety Plans for Recipients Mediation Tertiary Prevention: Behavior Support Plans for Perpetrators and/or Recipients ~80% of Students ~15% ~5%
B ULLY P REVENTION IN PBIS Critical Features of Bully Prevention in PBIS: Reduce interactions that reinforce social aggression Target Recipient Behavior; Perpetrator Behavior; and Bystander Behavior Teach students skills to interrupt and report disrespectful behavior Establish a School-Wide Stop Signal Teach Student Strategies for using and responding to the Stop Signal Teach adults how to support students Deliver the intervention with sufficient intensity to maintain positive effects
F ACULTY O RIENTATION 1. Staff Orientation/Alignment 2.Active Listening/Reflective statements 3.Role Play Taking Reports
C HOOSE A S IGNAL Put together a Student Advisory Committee (especially for grades 4-8) Student Advisory Committee chooses a signal and may help with lesson delivery Scott Ross, University of Oregon20
B ULLY P REVENTION IN PBIS – E LEMENTARY P ROGRAM One Primary Lesson minutes -- delivered to all students the same day Class discussion of disrespectful behavior Introduction of Stop Signal Role Playing Follow Up Lessons as needed Gossip; Rumor Spreading Exclusion Cyberbullying Coaching from supervisory personnel is ongoing and critical
L ESSON P LANNING The lessons are scripted, and there are many tips for how to respond to “what ifs” Determine: Who will teach the lessons How far apart the lessons will be taught Skilled Facilitation is important Make the role plays realistic. If the scenarios and responses are trivial or not congruent with how students interact with one another when no adults are present, the students will think the program is silly. Be provocative; the students must be actively engaged
R ECIPIENT R ESPONSE If someone treats you in a way that does not feel respectful Deliver the School Wide Stop Signal If the person does not Stop, walk away If the person still does not Stop, report to a school adult
P ERPETRATOR R ESPONSE It is likely that every student will be asked to stop by someone at some point in the school year. When this happens, they should do the following things Stop what they are doing Take a deep breath Close the loop (“OK” or “Sorry”) These steps should be followed even if the person being asked to stop doesn’t think they were doing anything wrong or did not intend their behavior to be offensive.
A DULT C OACHING : A CCEPTING R EPORTS When problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response: Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "I'm glad you told me.") Ask who, what, when and where. Ensure the student’s safety. Is the problem still happening? Assess severity of the incident Assess likelihood of retaliation Devise Safety Plan if needed Ask the Student if he/she Used the Stop Signal -- Coach as needed
C OACHING P ERPETRATORS If the problem behavior included harassment or physical assault, complete an Office Discipline Referral and turn in to office For chronic offenders, implement a reminder, warning, consequence correction sequence (timeout on the bench or an office referral, depending severity/frequency)
C HECKING I N -- C ONTINUED F OLLOW -U P For chronic victims of bullying or harassment On a regular basis, an adult should check in with students to determine if the problem behaviors have ceased. Continue to reinforce students for confiding and seeking assistance
D IFFERENTIATE R EPORTING FROM T ATTLING “Reporting” is when you have tried to solve the problem yourself and you have used the "stop” signal first. Tattling is when you do not use the "stop" and "walk away" steps before "talking" to an adult Tattling is when your goal is to get the other person in trouble
Scott Ross, University of Oregon 29 BaselineAcquisitionFull BP-PBS Implementation Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior School Days School 1 Rob Bruce Cindy Scott Anne Ken School 2 School %
Scott Ross, University of Oregon BP-PBS, Scott Ross30 21% increase 22% decrease
BP-PBS, Scott Ross31 21% increase 22% decrease
I MPLEMENTATION : W HAT W E ’ VE L EARNED You need a team (PBIS Team) to monitor implementation Deliver the intervention with sufficient intensity (keep the conversation going) ◦ Make it visible Facilitate active participation from the students and keep it real! Solicit feedback from the staff and maintain staff involvement
Stop, Walk, Talk! Say, “Stop” Walk away Talk to an adult
F IDELITY OF I MPLEMENTATION The purpose of fidelity of implementation checklists are to: Track the progress of implementation of the intervention Provide a reminder of the steps that staff take in responding to bullying behaviors Assess whether or not the intervention is being delivered as intended
F IDELITY OF I MPLEMENTATION Faculty Self-Assessment: Fidelity assessed using a 5-item checklist Completed 2-3X by teachers and supervising staff Implementation Checklist: Completed by coordinating team to monitor implementation of all components
S TUDENT S URVEY Purpose: Assess students’ perceptions of their school environment and their responses to bullying and harassment behaviors. It may also be used to collect pre- and post- intervention data, to assess if implementation of Expect Respect has an effect on the way students’ view school safety.
40 Pre-Post Surveys in 25 elementary schools
41 Good, McIntosh, & Gietz, 2011 Middle School Case Study