2MotivationMotivation - the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I-O)Motivational principles that boost efficiency, productivity, and well being in the work placeIncentive Theory- we are pulled toward behaviors by rewards or incentivesPositive or negative environmental stimuli that motivates behaviorExtrinsic motivation- a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person. ( get rewards/avoid punishments)Intrinsic motivation- desire to perform a behavior for it’s own sake
3Drive (Reduction) Theory of Motivation Drive-reduction theory - approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal.Need - a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism.Drive - a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension(eating or drinking).
4Arousal Approach to Motivation Stimulus motive - a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity.Arousal theory - theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation.Sensation seeking behaviorDriven by curiosity
5Abraham Maslow’s- Hierarchy of Needs Humanist that believed we all have needs we are motivated to satisfySelf-actualization - according to Maslow, the point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential.Peak experiences- according to Maslow, times in a person’s life during which self actualization is temporarily achieved.
6Criticism- theory based on successful upper/middle class people living in the Western Hemisphere.
7Hunger: Bodily CausesInsulin - a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream.Glucose- form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides energyEndocrine System
8Hunger: Bodily CausesWeight set point – the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain.“Weight Thermostat”- fall below and hunger increases while metabolism decreasesBasal metabolic rate (BMR) - the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting.Menu
9Biological factors of Eating Lateral hypothalamus-tells the body to eat. If damaged, a person could starve to deathGhrelin- a hormone, that, when released into the bloodstream, cues your brain that food is needed
10Biological Factors of Eating Problems Ventromedial hypothalamustells the body to stop eating- if damaged a person will eat uncontrollablyLeptin - a hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full.Connected to fat storage.High levels of glucose or fatty acids in blood trigger Leptin to be released, terminating eating behaviors
12Hunger: Social Causes Social cues for when meals are to be eaten. Cultural customs.Food preferences.Use of food as a comfort device or escape from unpleasantness.Eat when other people eat.Television CommercialsMagazinesSome people may respond to the anticipation of eating by producing an insulin response, increasing the risk of obesity.
13Obesity and weight control Obesity - a condition in which the body weight of a person is 20 percent or more over the ideal body weight for that person’s height (actual percents vary across definitions).Approximately 66% of AmericansEspecially dangerous for children (set point, basal metabolic rate, eating habits)Once a fat cell develops, it sticks aroundConsequences are dire, lower life expectancy and significant life long health problemsMeasured by BMI (Body Mass Index)
14Eating ProblemsAnorexia Nervosa - a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs.Bulimia Nervosa - a condition in which a person develops a cycle of “binging” or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and “purging” or deliberately vomiting after eating or taking lacativesLeads to weakened heart muscle, tooth decay, damage to the esophagusBinge Eating Disorder- without the purging
16Elements of EmotionEmotion - the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of thoughts and feelings.Display rules - learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings.
17James-Lange Theory of Emotion James-Lange theory of emotion - theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion.Express an emotion, then feel it“I am shaking, oh no, it’s a cougar! I am afraid!”Fear followed your bodies responseCougar – Arousal – EmotionStimulus Pounding Heart FearJ-L = Jump then Label
18Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Cannon-Bard theory of emotion - theory in which the physiological reaction and the subjective experience of emotion are assumed to occur at the same time by the thalamus.Fight or flight response to danger“Oh no, it’s a cougar! I am shaking and I am afraid!”Arousal (Pounding Heart)Cougar =Emotion (Fear)
20Two Factor Theory of Emotion Schacter’s Two Factor theory – theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the cognitive labeling (appraisal) of that physiological arousal based on cues from the environment (situation) must occur before the emotion is experienced.Emotions can feel the same but they change based upon situationCritique: when strong arousal is experienced without an obvious cause, that arousal is interpreted as negativeAlso called the Cognitive Arousal theory or The Schacter-Singer theoryArousal (Pounding Heart)Cougar = = Emotion (Fear)Cognitive Label(I’m afraid)
22Emotion and the ANSAutonomic Nervous System mobilizes your body for action and calms it downSympathetic system releases epinepherine and norepinepherine, the liver increases sugar in the blood, respiration increases, digestion decreases, pupils dilate, perspiration increasesParasympatheitc system takes over when the emotion subsides.
23Emotion and the brainNegative emotions are linked to the right side while positive emotions are linked to the left.The Singer and Schacter study showed how we interpret and label our state of arousal will reflect in our emotional experience. (arousal fuels emotion, cognition channels it)A stirred up state can be experienced in one emotion or another depending on how we interpret itExample: Fear, Anger, Sexual Excitement
24Brain’s shortcut for emotion In the two track brain, sensory input may be routed directly to the amygdala for an instant emotional reaction, OR to the cortex for analysis.Ex. We see a shadow and get alarmed only to realize it is something harmless.(speedy low road vs. thinking high road)
26Detecting EmotionHumans are good at detecting emotions of others by listening to their voice and watching their facial muscles.It is easy to misread electronic communication due to the absence of nonverbal cues.Women have a stronger ability to read nonverbal cues and respond with more emotion to situations than menMore likely to express empathy
28Universal Expressions- Paul Ekman HappySadnessSurpriseAngerDisgustFear
29Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial feedback hypothesis - theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion.Smiling induces happy feelingsEmotions are contagiousBehavior Feedback- smile vs. frown
30Function of fear Fear is adaptive. Learning to fear is a natural processHuman fear is regulated by the amygdala, which associates certain situations and object with fear/danger.Phobias= intense fears out of proportion to the danger they actually represent, that disrupts a persons ability to cope.