8THE NETFORCE OPPORTUNITY Why are there so few USV’s operating today? Lack of over-the-horizon radio relay is the main reason for the limited number of USV’s in operation. When a USV can only go as far as can be seen through binoculars, there are few ISTAR or kinetic reasons for deploying it. The complex and technically demanding mine hunting role is one of the few present short-range uses for USV’s and already they excel at this role, but even mine hunting can often be made safer and more effective with an over-the-horizon option.Why will there be many USV’s in the future?Like mobile phone towers on land, Netforce can provide full broadband communications over the sea with ease.Cyberboats are far less vulnerable to anti-ship missiles than large ships. Cyberboats are small and stealthy. Also, Cyberboats cost less than the missiles required to destroy them, so it becomes uneconomic to attack them. Soft-skinned humans are just too susceptible to unmanned rockets and missiles. Putting large numbers of people into a huge, inflammable, highly vulnerable ships has already become untenable now that satellites can easily target most vessels and a thousand supersonic missiles can be built for the cost of one frigate. Logic dictates that in the future, anti-ship-missiles and stealthy Cyberboats will control manned access to the sea, and that heavily manned naval ships will eventually become the highly risky exception rather than the rule.
9USUAL AIRBORNE USV RADIO-RELAY PLATFORMS Extremely hard to operate and pay for. Expensive and difficult airborne platforms are often touted as suitable for unmanned vehicle radio-relay, however in reality they are seldom practical.
10NETFORCE ECLIPSES AUTONOMY Some autonomy is useful for unmanned boats - it reduces workload during repetitive operations and it is very useful for underwater craft, but it can never be the entire solution because communications are still required to autonomous boats, just as they are to manned vessels.The problem with prioritising autonomy research is that it attempts to reach into the area of sentient, human-type intelligence for things such as sense and avoid and lethal targeting. Many USV programs are being delayed until this false prophet of full sentient autonomy is achieved. This an immense funding black-hole that strangles and delays USV development, because sentient autonomy requires an appreciation of context. Comprehending context is hugely difficult and will never be possible without quantum computers which are decades away.Superb Netforce communications eliminate the need for sentient autonomy. Sensitive human brains guide Cyberboats.Netforce is aware. Netforce senses. Netforce understands.Netforce is as intelligent as the human brain operating through it.Autonomy alone can never compete with Netforce.
1123rd June 2011 Portsmouth, England. Autonomous Surface Vehicles Ltd. Small USV pulling Helikite.Flying against a 30 mph windHelikites can easily carry MANET radios to thousands of feet altitude, unattended, for weeks.
15HELIKITE - Altitude From Understanding Wind pushes Helikites strongly up, rather than down as with other aerostats.All Helikites, whatever size, fly in no wind and also in gales – with no adjustment.WIND LIFTConsiderable top-frontal lift creates high wind stability.HELIUM LIFTBALLOONWIND LIFTSAILKEELSTIFF SPINEFLYING LINEHelikites harness the wind that other aerostats fight.
16HELIKITES CAN BE TOWED AT SPEED FROM SMALL BOATS OR USV’S. Arctic Ocean Feb 2011USERS INCLUDE:Royal MarinesUS Navy Seals Riverine GroupUS Air ForceBritish Army Force ProtectionBritish Antarctic Survey
17HELIKITES CAN OPERATE FROM ANCHORED BOATS OR SEA ANCHORS. OVER 5000 FEET ALTITUDE = 100 MILES RADIO LINE-OF-SIGHT
18DEPLOYMENT IS EASY AND SAFE IN ALL CONDITIONS. REMOTE DEPLOYMENT IS POSSIBLE.
19HELIKITES ARE MORE RELIABLE THAN AUTONOMY OR UAV’S HELIKITES CAN OPERATE WHEN NO OTHER AIRCRAFT CAN FLY - SUCH AS SNOW WHITE-OUTS OR STORMS
21Merchant ships can economically operate Cyberboats against pirates. USV RETRIEVALMerchant ships can economically operate Cyberboats against pirates.Any naval ship can operate Cyberboats with no modificationsOil rigs can deploy and retrieve Cyberboats.1. Small Helikite on deck of Cyberboat A radio signal causes a solenoid bolt to release the Helikite which then instantly launches. 3.Helikite automatically flies to the height of the mother-ship deck, carrying a winch cable. 4. Cyberboat winched up like a launch.
22ALLSOPP HELIKITES NETFORCE BOAT “FIREFLY” Unsinkable Polyethylene/Foam construction. Fly-By-Wire 150Hp Mercury Verado. 300 miles range.12 Volt Electric Winch capable of deploying a 7 cubic metre Helikite + MANET radio from bow or stern to 3000ft. Gives 20,108 sq miles VHF/UHF radio coverage. Can launch and retrieve small UAV’s and USV’s. “Firefly” with Netforce has far greater VHF/UHF radio line-of-sight than even the largest naval ships.
25Cyberboats can do most functions of a manned vessel, but the functions are split between several types of Cyberboat instead of being concentrated on one vessel.ANTI-SHIPANTI-AIRANTI-SUBAMRINEANTI-MINEANTI-MISSILECOMMS RELAYRADAR PLATFORMCARGO DELIVERYCOVERT ISTARSHIP TO SHOREFISHERY PATROLPIRATE PATROLBORDER PATROLPORT PROTECTIONANTI TERRORISMPOLICE PATROLICE PATROLNBC SENSORSSEARCH AND RESCUESHIP DECOYSURVEY VESSEL
26SOLAR POWER, LITHIUM BATTERIES AND SEA-GLIDERS = LONG RANGE + EXTREME ENDURANCE.
27Maritime Craft Aerial Delivery System [MCADS] Cyberboats and fully inflated Netforce Helikites can also be air-dropped. Creating a credible bluewater force anywhere in the world within hours.
28CYBERBOATS DO NOT NEED TO ACCOMODATE HUMANS ADVANTAGES:No human casualtiesLighterFaster (100 knots+)StealthySub-surface or surfaceExtreme endurance (Longer than nuclear submarines)More fuel and payloadExpendableCheapMass ProducedAir, sea or land deployedOperated from anywhere worldwide within cyberspaceCYBERBOATS ARE MORE ADAPTED TO THE SEA THAN HUMANS
293. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH ALTITUDE MANET RADIOS
30Mobile Ad-hoc Network Radios or RF-Over-Fibre systems, can create Helikite multi-hop airborne MANET networks over long distances. Rajant claim video sent over 21 hops with only 1 millisecond latency per hop.
32Helikites can be big with a high payload 34 cubic metre Skyhook Helikite.Sandia National Laboratories,New Mexico desert.Rapid-response military radio-relay station & gyro-stabilised video surveillance.Skyhook Helikites of any size can be safely inflated, launched, retrieved and deflated by only one person in all weathers, night and day.
33RF-Over-Fibre + Helikite is General Dynamics’ preferred solution for range extension to the UK MOD Bowman Radio. Also suitable for up to 5 GHz.
34Helikites can be big with a high payload 64 cu metre HelikitesNet lift = 30Kg.Altitude = 5000ft carrying 8Kg of radio-relay equipment.Made for Eglin AFB, to operate from barges in the Gulf of Mexico to provide radio-relay to low-flying test missiles.Helibase for easy and safe ground handling on barges by one person in all conditions, day or night.
357 cubic metre, low-visibility, all-weather, Stealth Helikite Or small and handy7 cubic metre, low-visibility, all-weather, Stealth HelikiteUK INFANTRY TRIALSUS NETWORK-CENTRIC MANET TRIALS
3634 CUBIC METRE DESERT STAR HELIKITE Tough, double-lined construction.Carries a 10Kg 25x Zoom EO/IR gyro camera for the British Army in Afghanistan.It can also lift a 4Kg MANET radio to 5000ft from ship or shore.Twin-drum electric or motor winch. Remote controlled. Reliably deploys Dyneema flying line + fibre-optic .Helibase for easy inflation and launch.
373.3 CU METRE SKYHOOK HELIKITE USED FOR EXTENSION OF RADIO COMMS Maj. David Warden - Royal Signals. M.Sc. Project: “Use of Aerostats for range extension of mobile radio communications.” Cranfield July 2004.114 cubic foot Skyhook Helikite +Coax + Dipole gave 0.05 Watts at 40 metres altitude.Good line-of-site COMMS to HTZ Warfare ModelBlandford Model predicts most of Hants/Dorset/Wilts/ covered (40 mile radius) with 2x radio-relays using 3 Watts at 630 feet altitude.10 milesBLANDFORDDAMERHAM
3850 Km radius from an aerostat at 700ft. July 2010 US Army Trials. White Sands Test Range. 2Kg Rifleman Radio. 2 Watt. MANET50 Km radius from an aerostat at 700ft.50 km
39Concept Demonstrator Rajant Airborne MANET Video Relay Concept Demonstrator Rajant Airborne MANET Video Relay. 7th July cu metre Helikite at 400ft + Rajant ME2 (2.4GHz/600mW) sent IP video at 5 frames/sec out to 6 miles. The same radio system flown on a helicopter has sent the video 14 miles.
41Theoretical multi-hop range = 2,100 miles RAJANT. Video sent at 5 frames/second over twenty-one hops Watts transmission power 350Mhz High-gain, passive beam antennas Helikites at 3000ft on 4,500ft of flying line.Link-budget predicts up to100 miles range between HelikitesTheoretical multi-hop range = 2,100 milesArea of Cyberboat operations = 2,100 miles x 100 = 210,000 sq miles Area of potential influence = 13, 856,220 square miles
43MANET RADIOS, NETFORCE AND THE WWW MANET radios link seamlessly into the internet. This allows video and data from Cyberboats to be distributed anywhere via the WWW. It also allows the control of the Cyberboats from anywhere. So the workload of supervising and controlling Cyberboats can be easily spread to people working in different time-zones. This reduces the cost of operations and ensures operators are always alert.Netforce is more practical than satellite comms.Netforce has: Low-latency High bandwidth Rapidly deployed Low-Power Robust Available worldwide Inexpensive
44STRAIGHTS OF HORMUZ Netforce area over provided by four land-based Helikites at 5000 feet. This allows minesweeping or attack Cyberboats to be controlled directly from the shore thereby reducing costs, increasing timeliness, and eliminating the risk of attack from anti-ship missiles.100 nm
45GULF OF ADEN. Netforce safety-area created within a few hours by air-dropping 16 Helikites + MANETS. UAV’S, USV’S and UUV’S can patrol within the red circles - all controlled from Djibouti. Netforce double-backbone design for resiliency.100 nm
46FALKLAND ISLANDS. Four Netforce Helikites based on land, plus eight at sea, would allow Cyberboats or UAV’s to patrol the entire 200 mile Falklands economic area. Another four would cover the Argentinean coast to detect any vessel leaving port.200 milesThe price of one Royal Navy destroyer, would provide 5000 Cyberboats to patrol the Falklands.
47POSSIBLE NETFORCE RELAY COVERAGE, ORIGINATING FROM BRITISH OVERSEAS TERRITORY
48Netforce provides radio-relay for just 1% of the cost of UAV’s or satellites. Therefore, for the same cost Netforce provides 100X the bandwidth.Netforce grows organically with the unmanned system because it is part of the system.As Helikites rise rapidly into the sky Netforce moves far ahead of the unmanned force at about 600mph.Wherever Netforce, goes unmanned vehicles can follow.
49NETFORCE ECLIPSES AUTONOMY Autonomy is not the solution for unmanned boats - it is the unsolvable problem.Autonomy research is a huge bottleneck that strangles USV development, because useful complex autonomy requires an appreciation of context which will never be possible without quantum computers.While scientists endlessly debate autonomy, Cyberboats will claim the seas.Superb Netforce communications eliminate the need for autonomy. Sensitive human brains guide Cyberboats.Netforce is aware. Netforce senses. Netforce understands.Netforce is highly intelligent.Dumb autonomy can never survive against Netforce.
50LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP HAS PROBLEMS: LCS relies on UAV’s to relay to USV’s. But USV endurance is days, whereas UAV endurance is only a few hours. USV’s are not well supported by LCS.LCS needs to go close to shore to support USV’s.LCS is a very expensive, lightly armed, manned ship very vulnerable to shore based anti-ship missiles. So she must keep away from shore.So, there is little point is the LCS being shallow draught, small and short range.Small number of unmanned vehicles carried.Expensive LCS and starves other USV funding.LCS requires support ships for long passages.Limited mission packages can be carriedMission packages are very slow to replaceLCS is not expendable.LCS, its support ships and its USV’s need to operate within Netforce to achieve maximum safety and effectiveness. But why not have just one, large, fully self-sufficient, ocean going ship, steaming safely well away from shore, deploying Netforce and huge numbers of Cyberboats for the dangerous inshore applications? HMS Ocean or HMS Albion plus Cyberboats, may well prove to be far more effective than LCS for long-distance littoral operations.Each Cyberboat costs $300,000 to build. Each LCS costs $700 million. Therefore, more than 2,300 Cyberboats can be built and fielded worldwide, for the cost of building and operating one LCS. Which would project more power?
51NETFORCE & BLUEWATER CYBERBOAT DELIVERABLES Reduce or eliminate risks to sailorsFully networked oceanBlue water access to oceans worldwideMassive force multiplicationRapid air-dropped blue water forceDeployable from any ship or oil rigExtreme enduranceSpecialist ships not requiredHuge manpower reductionsOverwhelming control of the seasElectronic warfare dominanceImmense cost savings over manned craft