Presentation on theme: "Adverbs All you want to know & then some!"— Presentation transcript:
Adverbs All you want to know & then some!
Page 2 ADVERBS Adverbs are words used to describe or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs give more information about a verb. Use adverbs to make your writing more interesting. Adverbs are words that modify a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)verb an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)adjective another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?) As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives: That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.
Page 3 Adverbs are words like tomorrow, daily, badly, once and too. They tell us more about other words, especially verbs. The child smiled sweetly. (The adverb sweetly modifies the verb smiled.) She walked slowly. (The adverb slowly modifies the verb walked.) He talked politely. (The adverb politely modifies the verb talked.) Sometimes adverbs modify adjectives. It was a very important question. (The adverb very modifies the adjective important.) You are so sweet. (The adverb so modifies the adjective sweet.)
Page 4 Adverbs can also modify other adverbs. He walked very slowly. (The adverb very modifies the adverb slowly.) She sang extremely well. (The adverb extremely modifies the adverb well.)
Page 5 Formation of Adverbs Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to their corresponding adjectives. Examples are: kindly (kind), slowly (slow), hardly (hard), sweetly (sweet) etc. She is very beautiful (adjective). She is beautifully (adverb) dressed. He is a strange (adjective) person. He behaved strangely (adverb).
Page 6 Explanation Adverbs of manner say how something happens or is done. Examples are: happily, angrily, slowly, carefully, fast etc. She walked slowly. John drove carefully. The soldiers fought bravely.
Page 7 Position Adverbs of manner normally go in end position (at the end of a clause). She sang well. He talked loudly. She walked slowly. He managed it skillfully. She speaks English well.
Page 8 An adverb of manner modifying an adjective or another adverb normally goes before it. She is seriously ill. I was terribly busy.
Page 9 Adverbs of Place Adverbs of Place tell us where something happens. Examples are: upstairs, here, there, nearby, everywhere, in, out etc. She looked for him everywhere. Please come in. They bought a house nearby. He lives here. The boss has gone out. He was seen nowhere.
Page 10 Certain adverbs of place express both movement and location. Examples are: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoor, outdoors etc. My parents live abroad. They climbed uphill. She fell backwards.
Page 11 Explanation Adverbs of indefinite frequency tell us how often something happens. Common examples are: always, ever, usually, normally, often, frequently, seldom, never etc. I am never late for office. Have you ever been to the US? I often work late.
Page 12 Position I always get up early. (adverb + main verb) I am seldom late for work. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb) We frequently visit them. (adverb + main verb) I often read comics. (adverb + main verb) I have never seen a dolphin. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb)
Page 13 Points to be noted 1. Usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally can also go at the beginning or end of a clause. We visit them occasionally. Often we trust the wrong person.
Page Always, ever, rarely, seldom and never can go only in mid position. They never admitted their fault. You can always trust him. Always look before you leap. Never ask her about her age. Note:
Page 15 Adverbs of Degree Adverbs of Degree tell us about the degree or extent of an action, quality or manner. Examples are: almost, little, enough, much, too, partly, fully, so, rather, quite, nearly, just, too, hardly, scarcely, very etc. She is very beautiful. I am extremely sorry. She is quite strong. They are fully prepared.
Page 16 Position He had hardly begun. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb) My work is almost finished. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb) I just asked. (adverb + main verb) She hardly realized what she was doing. (adverb + main verb) He is entirely right. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb) She was rather busy. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb)
Page 17 Adverbs of Certainty Adverbs of certainty express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event. Common examples are: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, clearly, obviously etc. He is undoubtedly a great leader. There is clearly something wrong. She is definitely taller than you.
Page 18 Position Adverbs of certainty usually go in mid position. He is undoubtedly a great leader. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb) She will probably come. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb) It will certainly rain this evening. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb) I certainly feel better today. (adverb + main verb) You have definitely been working too hard. (first auxiliary + adverb + second auxiliary + other verb)
Page 19 Adverbs of Time and Definite Frequency Adverbs of time and definite frequency tell us when something happens. Examples are: today, yesterday, later, now, all day, not long, for a while, since, last year, sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly etc. We shall go there tomorrow. You must get up early. I have seen him before. Let us start now.
Page 20 Position Most of them go in end position. I met him yesterday. He died last year. They are leaving for England tomorrow. He visits us daily. I haven't seen him lately. Initial position is also common. Yesterday I met him. Tomorrow I am leaving for the US.
Page 21 Exceptions Finally, already, soon, and last can also go in mid position. She has finally got a job. They soon realized their mistake. Still and just can only go in mid position. I just asked. He is still working for the same firm. Note:
Page 22 Some adverbs and adjectives have the same form. Examples are: fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, wrong, daily, early, leisurely etc. It is a fast (adjective) car. A fast (adjective) car goes fast (adverb). He drove fast (adverb). Hard (adjective) work pays. You must work hard (adverb). He is an early (adjective) riser. I got up early (adverb) today. It is easy (adjective). Take it easy (adverb)
Page 24 Order of Adverbs There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one. It is similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even more flexible.The Royal Order of Adjectives THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS VerbMannerPlaceFrequencyTimePurpose Beth swimsenthusiasticallyin the poolevery morningbefore dawnto keep in shape. Dad walksimpatientlyinto townevery afternoonbefore supperto get a newspaper. Tashonda naps in her roomevery morningbefore lunch. In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.
Page 25 Inappropriate Adverb Order Review the section on Misplaced Modifiers for some additional ideas on placement. Modifiers can sometimes attach themselves to and thus modify words that they ought not to modify.Misplaced Modifiers They reported that Giuseppe Balle, a European rock star, had died on the six o'clock news. Clearly, it would be better to move the underlined modifier to a position immediately after "they reported" or even to the beginning of the sentence — so the poor man doesn't die on television.
Page 26 Misplacement can also occur with very simple modifiers, such as only and barely: She only grew to be four feet tall It would be better if "She grew to be only four feet tall."