2 Exam 1 Statistics n = 23 (+1) Range = 44% - 98% Mean = 71% Median = 78%Mode = 60% & 80%
3 15a/36b (52%)Eddie has brown eyes (BB), and Eva has blue eyes (bb). If they have four children, which scenario is most likely?All four children will have brown eyes.Two children will have brown eyes; two children will have blue eyes.Three children will have brown eyes; one child will have blue eyes.d. All four children will have blue eyes.
5 Patterns of Inheritance (review-preview) A father with type AB blood and a mother who is heterozygous with type A blood are expecting a child. What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes for their child’s blood type? What is the likelihood of each? Which blood type illustrates an example of dominant-recessive inheritance? Which illustrates co-dominance?
6 22a/29b (65%)Both Marisa and Ashley weighed 4 pounds at birth. Marisa was two weeks before her due date, and Ashley was born two months before her due date. Which of the following would you predict about Marisa and Ashley?Ashley is more likely than Marisa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year.Marisa is more likely than Ashley to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year.Ashley and Marisa are equally likely to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year.d. There is no research evidence that either Ashley and Marisa is more likely to experience serious problems compared to full-term normal-birth-weight babies.
7 Preterm and Small-for-Date Infants (class lecture)PretermBorn several weeks or more before their due dateWeight may be appropriate for length of pregnancySmall-for-DateMay be either preterm or full-termBelow expected weight for length of pregnancy
9 28a/23b (57%) Synaptic pruning is the process by which a. new synapses are formed as the result of stimulation by input from the surrounding environment.seldom-used neurons die during the peak period of synaptic growth in any brain area.neural fibers become myelinated as a result of stimulation of the brain.seldom-stimulated neurons are returned to an uncommitted state so they can support the development of future skills.
10 Chapter 4: Review (diagram from class lecture) Refer to the diagram on the right. What are neurons? What are synapses? What are glial cells?
12 38a/13b (52%) Vygotsky believed that __________ produce development. environmental influences that occur during a sensitive periodchildren's active, independent effortsc. bidirectional influences within the chronosystemd. cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society
13 (quiz)According to Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory, complex mental activities have their origins in ___________________________. Through joint activities with (less/more) mature members of their society, children come to master activities and think in ways that have meaning in their culture.
17 Summary of Milestones during Early Childhood Cognitive Development (ch. 7) Piaget’s Preoperational Stage – increases in representational, or symbolic, activity, but with many cognitive limitations (e.g., egocentrism and lack of conservation) Beginning of sociodramatic play, or make-believe play with others Both Piaget and Vygotsky discuss childrens’ private speech, but view it very differently Theory of Mind, or think about thinking develops; also called metacognition Emergent literacy, where children learn by being immersed in a language rich environment Great increases in vocabulary development; grammar and pragmatic language also increasesPhysical Development (ch. 7) Add about 2-3” and 5 lb. per year Gradually loose “baby fat” and thin Brain increase to about 90% of final adult size Many children become picky eaters Auto and traffic accidents, drowning and burns are the most common injuries Gross motor improvements include: better balance, running, jumping, riding a tricycle, and catching and throwing a ball Fine motor improvements include: self help skills, such as feeding and dressing, and drawing and writing improvements
18 Summary of Milestones during Early Childhood Emotional and Social Development (ch. 8) Erikson’s Theory of Initiative vs. Guilt Self-concept develops, as does self-esteem Children become better at emotional identification and regulation Play becomes more sophisticated, and is considered by many to be the “work” of young children Child may display altruism or aggression Gender identity develops