# Early Childhood Review & Preview.

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Early Childhood Review & Preview

Exam 1 Statistics n = 23 (+1) Range = 44% - 98% Mean = 71%
Median = 78% Mode = 60% & 80%

15a/36b (52%) Eddie has brown eyes (BB), and Eva has blue eyes (bb). If they have four children, which scenario is most likely? All four children will have brown eyes. Two children will have brown eyes; two children will have blue eyes. Three children will have brown eyes; one child will have blue eyes. d. All four children will have blue eyes.

Dominant–Recessive Inheritance (class lecture)

Patterns of Inheritance (review-preview)
A father with type AB blood and a mother who is heterozygous with type A blood are expecting a child. What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes for their child’s blood type? What is the likelihood of each? Which blood type illustrates an example of dominant-recessive inheritance? Which illustrates co-dominance?

22a/29b (65%) Both Marisa and Ashley weighed 4 pounds at birth. Marisa was two weeks before her due date, and Ashley was born two months before her due date. Which of the following would you predict about Marisa and Ashley? Ashley is more likely than Marisa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year. Marisa is more likely than Ashley to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year. Ashley and Marisa are equally likely to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year. d. There is no research evidence that either Ashley and Marisa is more likely to experience serious problems compared to full-term normal-birth-weight babies.

Preterm and Small-for-Date Infants
(class lecture) Preterm Born several weeks or more before their due date Weight may be appropriate for length of pregnancy Small-for-Date May be either preterm or full-term Below expected weight for length of pregnancy

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28a/23b (57%) Synaptic pruning is the process by which
a. new synapses are formed as the result of stimulation by input from the surrounding environment. seldom-used neurons die during the peak period of synaptic growth in any brain area. neural fibers become myelinated as a result of stimulation of the brain. seldom-stimulated neurons are returned to an uncommitted state so they can support the development of future skills.

Chapter 4: Review (diagram from class lecture)
Refer to the diagram on the right. What are neurons? What are synapses? What are glial cells?

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38a/13b (52%) Vygotsky believed that __________ produce development.
environmental influences that occur during a sensitive period children's active, independent efforts c. bidirectional influences within the chronosystem d. cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society

(quiz) According to Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory, complex mental activities have their origins in ___________________________. Through joint activities with (less/more) mature members of their society, children come to master activities and think in ways that have meaning in their culture.

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
(class) Complex mental activities develop through joint activities with more mature members of child’s society Zone of proximal development: tasks too difficult for child to do alone but possible with help of more skilled partners © Zurijeta/Shutterstock

Early childhood Chapters 7 & 8

Quiz 7

Summary of Milestones during Early Childhood
Cognitive Development (ch. 7) Piaget’s Preoperational Stage – increases in representational, or symbolic, activity, but with many cognitive limitations (e.g., egocentrism and lack of conservation) Beginning of sociodramatic play, or make-believe play with others Both Piaget and Vygotsky discuss childrens’ private speech, but view it very differently Theory of Mind, or think about thinking develops; also called metacognition Emergent literacy, where children learn by being immersed in a language rich environment Great increases in vocabulary development; grammar and pragmatic language also increases Physical Development (ch. 7) Add about 2-3” and 5 lb. per year Gradually loose “baby fat” and thin Brain increase to about 90% of final adult size Many children become picky eaters Auto and traffic accidents, drowning and burns are the most common injuries Gross motor improvements include: better balance, running, jumping, riding a tricycle, and catching and throwing a ball Fine motor improvements include: self help skills, such as feeding and dressing, and drawing and writing improvements

Summary of Milestones during Early Childhood
Emotional and Social Development (ch. 8) Erikson’s Theory of Initiative vs. Guilt Self-concept develops, as does self-esteem Children become better at emotional identification and regulation Play becomes more sophisticated, and is considered by many to be the “work” of young children Child may display altruism or aggression Gender identity develops