Presentation on theme: "History of Sport – Part I"— Presentation transcript:
1 History of Sport – Part I PHED 1007January 26, 2015
2 ExpectationsBrief study of early history of sport (Prehistoric – Industrial Revolution)Look at the stories about people at different times and places struggling over and coming to terms with what they want their physical activities to be and how they wish to include them in their livesGain an understanding of what has shaped sport and physical activity as we know it
3 History of Sport Introduction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_KzA6NYy-g
4 Why Study History of Sport As __________ ____________ suggests, it is important to study the ways in which people use their power and resources as they created and participated in physical activities.Research has shown that physical activities and games have existed in all cultures for thousands of years
5 Why Study History of Sport So, why study?to see how sports have evolved over time (have they all evolved)?-to determine the roles that sport/PA have played within our society, community, etc-to see the struggles that some sports have had to endure-to see the trends that have emerged over time
6 Early Versions of Sport Prehistoric TimesVery little if any organized gamesPhysical activity tied to___________, _______________ and establishing ________and __________over otherPA could also be tied to an expression of________
7 Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) Grounded in _______________ and religious beliefsWealthy and respected individuals controlledOften violent/dangerous (e.g., chariot racing, wrestling, boxing, javelin)
8 Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) Most prestigious: ___________________Most participants were slaves or lower class people forced/paid to be athletes by richer individuals; or sometimes rich individuals themselvesAthletes often killed/maimed
11 Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) Women not allowed to participate or _________ the Olympic gamesWhen women did participate, it was to ______________________________________________________Women held own games, physical prowess held in high regard, even though women were powerless in society
13 Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) The men’s games at Olympia took on political significance as they grew in visibility and popularityMany male Greek athletes saw themselves as ________________In this time, they organized athletic guilds enabling them to bargain for____________, gain _________over the condition of their sport participation and enjoy ___________________ when they retired from competition.However, these athletes were often seen as useless and ignorant beings (Greek philosophers saw the games as brutal and dehumanizing).
14 Roman Contests and Games (100 BC – 500 AD) Contests focused on physical skills useful for battleChariot racing, gladiatorial combat, fights against animalsContestants were slaves or condemned criminalsEntertained, and got rid of socially undesirable peopleMain purpose was for _______________________
15 Roman Contests and Games (100 BC – 500 AD) Some people criticized these events not because of concerns for _____________ __________but because the wealthy and the peasants were ____________together.These contests and games continued until the fall of the Roman empire. When this happened, the wealthy moved from the cities, taking their ____________with them.Women were seldom involved in these contests and games. They were allowed in to watch and cheer but had few opportunities to develop their skill. Women were legally ______________ to and rigidly ___________by men.
18 Medieval Europe 500 - 1300 AD Peasants – _________ games Roots of soccer, football, bowling, baseball, etc.Little structure, few rulesUpper class – specialized equipmentRoots of billiards, shuffleboard, tennis, handballPaid little attention and seldom interfered with peasantsThey saw peasant games as safety valves defusing mass social discontent ____________Theory)?Upper class – tournamentsWar games, e.g., joustingUnlike modern sports
19 Medieval Europe ADWomen, during this time, seldom participated. They were seen as _____________ to men.Gender relations were clearly differentiated among the aristocracy. Aristocratic women engaged in “ladylike” games. Feminine beauty was defined in ______________terms: the less active a woman was, the more likely she was perceived as beautiful.Even though some sports in N.A. and Europe can be traced back to the medieval period, the games of today are not like they were back then. They lacked ______________and_______________.
22 The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Wars throughout Europe – led to more emphasis on increasing ________________ strengthPeasants were discouraged from playing; were told they must sharpen their ____________ ____________and protect their land and their masters.“Renaissance man” important (elite):Socially adept, sensitive to aesthetic values, skilled in weaponry, strong of body, learned in letters
23 The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Women had few opportunities to participateThey were often did hard ____________ _________but were not encourage to play gamesUpper class women participated in bowling, croquet, archery and tennis but involvement was___________.Often seen as naturally ________and ________________________was predominant at this time but it had little to do with protecting women.
25 The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Late 1500s – late 1600sPuritans attempted to ____________/control leisure activitiesEspecially among peasants, not as successful among wealthy
26 The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) King James I challenged Puritan influence by issuing The King’s Book of Sports. The purpose of the book was to let Puritan ministers know that they should not be discouraging lawful recreational pursuits.Sports such as tennis, golf, boxing became highly organized. Participation patterns reflected the class divisions in society.
27 The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) In Canada, _________ and _________influences were strong in the Maritimes and Upper and Lower Canada.Although hard working people, the colonists did enjoy free time and there was a growing desire to introduce games to the new colonies.Aboriginals continued to play their games that had been part of their culture for centuries.
28 The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Sports start to resemble what they are todayWhat does it mean to be a “modern sport”?Sports begin to be more inclusive of all people (open participation)Still strictly __________________
30 Industrial Revolution 1780 - 1920 Recall what was happening during this period…Early in industrial revolution (for those in the city):Little free time for play/gamesFew open spaces in citiesImportance on work, “immorality” of play/idlenessWorking classes: typically just spectator roles
31 Industrial Revolution 1780 - 1920 Middle 19th Century:Emerging belief that physical activity required for ___________________Recognition that workers need to stay healthy for work and in case of war
32 Industrial Revolution 1780 - 1920 Mid 1800s – onwardGrowth in the middle class – key element in the development and spread of organized sports___________ formedHelped dispel belief that sport/PA was “anti-Christian”Promoted PA to the lower and middle classes
33 Industrial Revolution 1780 - 1920 Mid 1800s – onwardReinforced class distinctionsUpper class – amateurism (excluded lower classes by definition)Working classes – folk games, commercialized sportsTime of __________________ of sportsWho is allowed to playSpecific rules
34 Conclusion Only until recently has sports involved organization Participation in sports/games has been broken down by class for most of human historyNext set of slides: history of modern sport