Presentation on theme: "History of Sport – Part I PHED 1007 January 26, 2015."— Presentation transcript:
History of Sport – Part I PHED 1007 January 26, 2015
Expectations Brief study of early history of sport (Prehistoric – Industrial Revolution) Look at the stories about people at different times and places struggling over and coming to terms with what they want their physical activities to be and how they wish to include them in their lives Gain an understanding of what has shaped sport and physical activity as we know it
History of Sport Introduction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_KzA6NYy-g
Why Study History of Sport As __________ ____________ suggests, it is important to study the ways in which people use their power and resources as they created and participated in physical activities. Research has shown that physical activities and games have existed in all cultures for thousands of years
Why Study History of Sport So, why study? to see how sports have evolved over time (have they all evolved)? -to determine the roles that sport/PA have played within our society, community, etc -to see the struggles that some sports have had to endure -to see the trends that have emerged over time
Early Versions of Sport Prehistoric Times Very little if any organized games Physical activity tied to___________, _______________ and establishing ________and __________over other PA could also be tied to an expression of________
Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) Grounded in _______________ and religious beliefs Wealthy and respected individuals controlled Often violent/dangerous (e.g., chariot racing, wrestling, boxing, javelin)
Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) Most prestigious: ___________________ Most participants were slaves or lower class people forced/paid to be athletes by richer individuals; or sometimes rich individuals themselves Athletes often killed/maimed
Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) Women not allowed to participate or _________ the Olympic games When women did participate, it was to ___________________________ ___________________________ Women held own games, physical prowess held in high regard, even though women were powerless in society
Ancient Greece (1000 BC – 100 BC) The men’s games at Olympia took on political significance as they grew in visibility and popularity Many male Greek athletes saw themselves as ________________ In this time, they organized athletic guilds enabling them to bargain for____________, gain _________over the condition of their sport participation and enjoy ___________________ when they retired from competition. However, these athletes were often seen as useless and ignorant beings (Greek philosophers saw the games as brutal and dehumanizing).
Roman Contests and Games (100 BC – 500 AD) Contests focused on physical skills useful for battle Chariot racing, gladiatorial combat, fights against animals Contestants were slaves or condemned criminals Entertained, and got rid of socially undesirable people Main purpose was for _______________________
Roman Contests and Games (100 BC – 500 AD) Some people criticized these events not because of concerns for _____________ __________but because the wealthy and the peasants were ____________together. These contests and games continued until the fall of the Roman empire. When this happened, the wealthy moved from the cities, taking their ____________with them. Women were seldom involved in these contests and games. They were allowed in to watch and cheer but had few opportunities to develop their skill. Women were legally ______________ to and rigidly ___________by men.
Medieval Europe AD Peasants – _________ games Roots of soccer, football, bowling, baseball, etc. Little structure, few rules Upper class – specialized equipment Roots of billiards, shuffleboard, tennis, handball Paid little attention and seldom interfered with peasants They saw peasant games as safety valves defusing mass social discontent ____________Theory)? Upper class – tournaments War games, e.g., jousting Unlike modern sports
Medieval Europe AD Women, during this time, seldom participated. They were seen as _____________ to men. Gender relations were clearly differentiated among the aristocracy. Aristocratic women engaged in “ladylike” games. Feminine beauty was defined in ______________terms: the less active a woman was, the more likely she was perceived as beautiful. Even though some sports in N.A. and Europe can be traced back to the medieval period, the games of today are not like they were back then. They lacked ______________and_______________.
The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Renaissance ( ) Wars throughout Europe – led to more emphasis on increasing ________________ strength Peasants were discouraged from playing; were told they must sharpen their ____________ ____________and protect their land and their masters. “Renaissance man” important (elite): Socially adept, sensitive to aesthetic values, skilled in weaponry, strong of body, learned in letters
The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Women had few opportunities to participate They were often did hard ____________ _________but were not encourage to play games Upper class women participated in bowling, croquet, archery and tennis but involvement was___________. Often seen as naturally ________and _________ _______________was predominant at this time but it had little to do with protecting women.
The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Reformation Late 1500s – late 1600s Puritans attempted to ____________/control leisure activities Especially among peasants, not as successful among wealthy
The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) King James I challenged Puritan influence by issuing The King’s Book of Sports. The purpose of the book was to let Puritan ministers know that they should not be discouraging lawful recreational pursuits. Sports such as tennis, golf, boxing became highly organized. Participation patterns reflected the class divisions in society.
The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) In Canada, _________ and _________influences were strong in the Maritimes and Upper and Lower Canada. Although hard working people, the colonists did enjoy free time and there was a growing desire to introduce games to the new colonies. Aboriginals continued to play their games that had been part of their culture for centuries.
The Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (1300 – 1800) Enlightenment ( ) Sports start to resemble what they are today What does it mean to be a “modern sport”? Sports begin to be more inclusive of all people (open participation) Still strictly __________________
Industrial Revolution Recall what was happening during this period… Early in industrial revolution (for those in the city): Little free time for play/games Few open spaces in cities Importance on work, “immorality” of play/idleness Working classes: typically just spectator roles
Industrial Revolution Middle 19 th Century: Emerging belief that physical activity required for ___________________ Recognition that workers need to stay healthy for work and in case of war
Industrial Revolution Mid 1800s – onward Growth in the middle class – key element in the development and spread of organized sports ___________ formed Helped dispel belief that sport/PA was “anti-Christian” Promoted PA to the lower and middle classes
Industrial Revolution Mid 1800s – onward Reinforced class distinctions Upper class – amateurism (excluded lower classes by definition) Working classes – folk games, commercialized sports Time of __________________ of sports Who is allowed to play Specific rules
Conclusion Only until recently has sports involved organization Participation in sports/games has been broken down by class for most of human history Next set of slides: history of modern sport