Time - what is time? …but is there also a recovery and rehabilitation process time?
To "own" the rehabilitation process People who have been sick long risk to perceive themselves and their situation as a matter primarily for the professional actors involved (Jmfr Ekberg & Sebrandt 2007; Bülow & Ekberg 2009 )
Compliance Adherence to other´s perceptions
Self Efficacy Self-efficacy is related to participants’ competence to complete tasks and reach goals (Bandura).
Gender differences - Women Women in the project emphasizes, more so than men, the value of conversation and socializing with coaches and other participants Their relationship-oriented approach seems to give clearer perceptions of their own competence and how this corresponds to the requirements of the labor market
Gender differences - Men Men were compared with women more observant and sensitive to other peoples reactions of their unemployment Men appear to be more solitary and their contacts with friends outside the family were compared with the women in the project at a lower level Men reported to a greater extent that they took medications for various ailments, and it was twice as common with insomnia
Men and Women More than a third of the participants talk about an increase in walking, daily exercise and leisure activities An increase which meant that the participants are as active as the general population (Swedish Living Survey) Unemployment in the city led, according to Hagstrom 1988, often to social isolation and exclusion, while the consequences were not as dire in rural areas In rural areas of the north, it was no disgrace to be unemployed Unemployed was as involved as others in their social interaction with a rich leisure life But... what about today?
Med:Urs Active leisure is likely to contribute to the adaptation to a life without work - or conversely to increased employability as active leisure discourage inactivity and social isolation The results from Med:Urs is a bit contradictory: Unemployment is shameful and contributes one- third to social isolation - However, there are many who would consider a life without paid work
Feelings of "shame" that limits the room for maneuver Have you experienced that others commented or looked questioning at you for participating in extracurricular activities when you were sick? Women:Men: Yes/Sometimes 46%Yes/Sometimes 37% Never/seldom 54%Never/seldom63%
Feelings of "shame" that limits the room for maneuver Has it happened to you hesitated to get in touch and socialize with other only to avoid having to explain that you were on sick leave? Women:Men: Often/very often30 %Often/very often37% Never/seldom 70 %Never/seldom63%
Participant´s voices More than half of all women and men report that they: See more positive future Become more aware of the values other than paid employment Looking for new ways to reach their personal goals
What we see… Early intervention/collaboration between employers and health care - give good results (Blonk, m.fl. 2006; Schene m.fl. 2007)
What we see… The longer sick leave/unemployment - more importantly with a focus on all aspects of life (McIntosh, m.fl. 1995)
What we see… Mentor / Case Manager involved in the process is positive! (Juhlin & Tengblad 2004)