Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Community Oriented Policing History Repeats Itself Dr. Phillip M. Lyons Sam Houston State University Texas Community Policing Institute."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Community Oriented Policing History Repeats Itself Dr. Phillip M. Lyons Sam Houston State University Texas Community Policing Institute
Texas Community Policing Institute: Phillip M. Lyons, Jr. --Assistant Professor SHSU Ph.D. (Forensic Psychology): Nebraska, 1997 J.D.: Nebraska, 1995 M.A.: (Forensic Psychology): Nebraska, 1995 B.S.: (Behav. Sci.) Univ. Houston-Clear Lake, 1988 A.A.S.: (Law Enf. & Pol. Admin): Alvin C.C., 1985 Former Detective: City of Alvin Police Department Predoctoral Internship: Fed. Med. Cntr., Fort Worth, TX Assistant Director, Texas Community Policing Institute
Community Policing philosophy Community Policing is a policing philosophy that promotes and supports organizational strategies to address the causes and reduce the fear of crime and social disorder through problem-solving tactics and community-police partnerships.
This is Nothing New This concept is as old as organized policing The London Metropolitan Police Force - 1820’s Policing was a Prevention-based operation
Sir Robert Peel - 1829 The police are the public and the public are the police. The police being the only members of the public that are paid to give full- time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen, in the interests of community welfare and existence.”
What Forces Change in Policing? Crime Problems Social Change Technology Revolution Progress
Political Era The Evolution of Modern Policing Political Era Authority & resources derived from local political leaders –Function was: Crime Prevention Control Order Maintenance Technology - Foot patrol; call boxes Strengths: –Citizen Support –Neighborhood service to a community –Prevented Crimes in Neighborhoods Weaknesses: –Political Corruption –Patronage System –Inefficiency
Reform Era The Evolution of Modern Policing Reform Era Rejection of political control Civil Service Proliferation of Rules Limitation of Discretion Mission: Control Crime through enforcement Community Problems viewed as “social work ” Technology: radios, cars, computers –Now: MDT’s, AFS, Optical Imaging, Forensic Advances Performance Measures: response time, random patrol availability, UCR, arrests, adherence to rules
Reform Era The Evolution of Modern Policing Reform Era Impact to Community: “Anonymous, “professional” crime fighters. –“Just the facts” Removal of Beat officer Reactive response to radio calls
Results of Reform We became “Apart” from the community rather than A Part of the community Loss of public confidence in ability to control crime
Policing Assumptions Random Patroling can prevent crime Rapid Response to Calls increases likelihood of solution Detectives assigned early to a case will increase apprehension Random Patrol had little to no impact Rapid Response was seldom impactful in solution The information collected by arriving officer was most important
Incident Driven Policing Incident Driven Police Response (dial-a-cop / you-call- we-haul) Reactive Limited Information Focus on single incidents Reliance on CJ system Efficiency Driven
Beginnings of Community Policing PCR Units –“Make friends” with the community –Window dressing to improve image –“Wave & Grin” squads –Monologue Crime Prevention –Valid & tangible function for community –Limited to lectures & demonstrations –No dialogue on community problems
Beginnings of Community Policing Problems with PCR & CP Approaches Told communities to get organized…. then did little in the way of follow-up Little officer / community identification & ownership Lack of supervisory & management encouragement of officer problem solving Failed to recognize / legitimize “quality of life” / “community order” concerns
Community Oriented Policing We / They Partnerships Broken Windows Officer Expertise Citizen is a Resource Improved PCR Variety of Strategies / Tactics Decentralized Service Increased Officer Authority / Accountability
Two Key Elements Problem-Solving (Solution-Oriented Policing) Community Partnerships
Key Elements to COPPS: Problem Solving IdentifyingIdentifying problems or priorities through coordinated police / community needs assessments; Collecting and Analyzing Collecting and Analyzing information concerning the problem in a thorough, though not necessarily complicated manner; Developing or Facilitating ResponsesDeveloping or Facilitating Responses that are innovative and tailor-made with the best potential for eliminating or reducing the problem; EvaluatingEvaluating the response to determine its effectiveness & modifying it as necessary.
Key Elements to COPPS: Community Partnerships This is a flexible term referring to any combination of neighborhood residents, schools, churches, businesses, community- based organizations, elected-officials, and government agencies who are working cooperatively with the police to resolve identified problems that impact or interest them.
8 Steps in Building Community Partnerships Identify your partners Develop a community profile Initiate dialogue Organize community meetings Identify issues Formulate your plan Take action Maintenance
Community Policing Today Recognition that Peel was right - the police can not control crime; we MUST have community cooperation Innovative, Solution- Oriented Policing becoming more accepted Understanding that COPPS is NOT “soft” on crime
3-Word Definition for Community Oriented Policing Consultation Adaptation Mobilization
Consultation Police Officers must consult with citizens to determine the policing priorities: –Neighborhood Meetings –Surveys –Telephone –One-on-One
Adaptation Police agencies and personnel: –Must be willing to change in order to address priorities identified in the Consultation process. Challenge the Traditional. New Methods.
Mobilization We must identify all of the stakeholders and resources and bring them to the table. Look both internally and externally. The police serve as a catalyst to drive them to action.
Texas Regional Community Policing Institute Academy Support –Infuse curriculum with problem-solving tactics and solution-oriented policing philosophy Executive Leadership Training –Implementation issues and problems Quantifying Quality / Crime-Specific Policing & Analysis –Software development Community Role Enhancement in COPPS –Often discussed, seldom addressed
Texas Regional Community Policing Institute Centralized Computer Server –Access to curricula –Links to other COPPS info. sites –Information exchange (agencies) –Repository of solution- oriented tactics
Texas Regional Community Policing Institute Newsletter / Bulletin –Modeled after TELEMASP –Provide resources and information –Identify effective crime-specific policing strategies Nuisance abatement Condemnation Tenant Control
Summary Started Connected to the Community Political Influence and Technology were catalysts for becoming Disconnected Now we are returning to the “roots” of policing
Solution-Oriented Policing (Problem Solving) Dr. Phillip Lyons Sam Houston State University Texas Regional Community Policing Institute
Traditional v. Problem Oriented TRADITIONAL –Take a report –Take another report –Take yet another report –Randomly patrol PROBLEM - ORIENTED –Constantly review reports for patterns –Look for commonalties that can be addressed –Look for root cause - construction, low lighting, low traffic
Solution-Oriented Policing (Problem-Oriented Policing) A department-wide strategy aimed at solving persistent community problems. Police identify, analyze, and respond to the underlying circumstances that create incidents. Eck & Spelman (1987) It not necessarily easier & takes more time, planning, resources, cooperation, & community interactions.
Goldstein’s 5 Concerns Leading To POP Police are preoccupied with management, internal procedures, and efficiency to the exclusion of appropriate concern for effectiveness in dealing with substantive problems. Police devote most of their resources to responding to calls from citizens, reserving too small a percentage of their time and energy for acting on their own initiative to prevent or reduce community problems.
Goldstein’s Five Concerns (Cont.) The community is a major resource with an enormous potential, largely untapped, for reducing the number and magnitude of problems that otherwise become the business of the police. Within agencies, police have readily available to them their rank and file officers, whose time and talents have not been used effectively.
Goldstein’s Five Concerns (Cont.) Efforts to improve policing have often failed because they have not been adequately related to the overall dynamics and complexities of the police organization. Adjustments in policies and organizational structure are required to accommodate and support change.
Efficiency v. Effectiveness EFFICIENCY - doing things RIGHT. EFFECTIVENESS - Doing the RIGHT things. Ideally, both efficiency and effectiveness are present in policing.
Central Principles of Problem Solving Thoughtful analysis Creative response in non-traditional sense Uses solutions outside the criminal justice system Encourages community to take responsibility for problems and solutions Effectiveness vs. Efficiency
What is a “Problem” Two or more incidents related in one or more ways causing harm or likely to cause harm or involving a public expectation of action
Ways to Identify Problems Businesses National Organizations Newspaper Community Groups Internal Units Churches, Schools, etc. Crime analysis
Problem Prioritization Level of Community Concern Broken Window? Position of Jeopardy
Addressing Problems Group incidents as problems. Focus on substantive problems as the heart of policing. Effectiveness is the ultimate goal. Need for systematic inquiry. Disaggregation & accurately labeling problem. Analysis of multiple interests in problems.
Addressing Problems Capturing & critiquing the current response. An uninhibited search for a tailor-made response. Adopting a proactive stance. Strengthening the decision-making process and increasing accountability. Evaluating results of newly implemented responses.
6 Ways Problems are Linked Location Suspects Victim Group Behavior Pattern Time Evidence
Circle of Concern Area of Influence “Circle of Concern” v. “Area of Influence”
SARA Eck & Spelman (1987) Scanning - identifying the problem Analysis - learning the problems causes, scope, and effects Response - acting to alleviate the problem, that is selecting the alternative solution or solutions to try Assessment - determining if the response worked
Two Questions for Analysis What do I need to know? Where do I get the Information?
3 “Response” Limitations Moral Legal Ethical –Adhere to Community Norms –Use Common Sense –Be Creative
5 Potential Outcomes Eliminate It Reduce the Scope Reduce the Harm Improve the Process Shift responsibility to the correct source
Suggestions for implementation Focus on problems of public concern Effectiveness as primary concern Be Proactive Be committed to systematic inquiry Use rigorous methods during inquiry Fully use police files & personnel’s experience Group like incidents together - address as a common problem Avoid overly broad labels/categories-ID separate problems as such Broad & uninhibited search for solutions Commit to take some risks in responding
Crime-Specific Planning Although a part of problem-oriented policing, it is more specific in that it approaches the criminal justice problem by considering underlying problems that are categorized by the type of offense. Crime-specific planning uses solution- oriented policing to identify priorities.
Common Mistakes in POP Too much energy on unimportant details Failing to resolve important issues Be less-than-forthcoming about true feelings Having a closed mind Not expressing ideas Inability to decide Procrastination -analysis paralysis Failing to set deadlines Using unreliable sources of information
Mental Locks that Inhibit Finding Creative Solutions The “right” answer “That’s not logical” Follow the “rules” It must be “practical” Avoiding ambiguity To Err is “wrong” That’s not my Area I’m not Creative KILLER PHRASES - judgments, critical statements that are put downs & stifle creativity –It too radical –It’s contrary to policy –That’s not our job –That's too much hassle –It will never work –It’s too expensive –Get REAL!
We’ve Got to Solve Problems With New Thinking ****************** Exercise:
New Ideas for Old Problems Lose the “cuff’em and stuff’em” attitude Address the cause, not the symptom Is the REAL problem what is listed as the arrest title or the title on the offense report? What alternative solutions can be derived? “A problem well stated is a problem half solved”
Solution-Oriented Policing There are several complaints regarding noisy teens who gather outside a particular teen’s house everyday after school. Scanning - identifying the problem Analysis - learning the problems causes, scope, and effects Response - acting to alleviate the problem, that is selecting the alternative solution or solutions to try Assessment - determining if the response worked
Solution-Oriented Policing Several complaints of speeding have occurred on a busy street in the business district. Scanning - identifying the problem Analysis - learning the problems causes, scope, and effects Response - acting to alleviate the problem, that is selecting the alternative solution or solutions to try Assessment - determining if the response worked
Solution-Oriented Policing Ongoing vandalism at a parking lot adjacent to a swimming pond. The view of the lot is obscured by a nice grove of trees on a small hill. Scanning - identifying the problem Analysis - learning the problems causes, scope, and effects Response - acting to alleviate the problem, that is selecting the alternative solution or solutions to try Assessment - determining if the response worked
Solution-Oriented Policing Several black labs have attacked a neighborhood resident. Scanning - identifying the problem Analysis - learning the problems causes, scope, and effects Response - acting to alleviate the problem, that is selecting the alternative solution or solutions to try Assessment - determining if the response worked
The Challenge of Problem Solving Organizational Impediments : –Resistance to change –Dependent on outside Agency Cooperation –Lack of Internal Organizational Support
The Challenge of Problem Solving Supervisory Impediments: –Lack of Management Support –Supervisors Resist Change –Fail to Keep Officers Focused –Supervisors Lack Leadership Skills
New Approaches to Policing Seeing the Connection Creative Solutions Innovative Strategies Evaluating Our Efforts Involving the Resources of the Community