CESTODOSIS MONIEZIASIS Cause: Moniezia expansa Moniezia benedini Moniezia benedini Sensitive animal: M. benedini: cattle (main host) & others ruminants M. expansa: sheep,goat,cattle,& others ruminants Predilection: Small intestine Route of infections: Ingested by cysticercoid mites Ingested by cysticercoid mites (fam: Oribatidae) together with the grass (fam: Oribatidae) together with the grass
Pathogenicity: - Young animals (< 6 bl) very sensitive. - Young animals (< 6 bl) very sensitive. - The degree of infections depend on the amount of - The degree of infections depend on the amount of cysticercoid cysticercoid - Enteritis - Enteritis Clinical symptoms: Its not so clear in general,weakness&thin Its not so clear in general,weakness&thin Acute: Intoxication because of toxin produced by the excretion of the adult worm Acute: Intoxication because of toxin produced by the excretion of the adult worm Mild infections: Gastrointestinal disturbance (indigesti) & inhibited of the bodies growth Mild infections: Gastrointestinal disturbance (indigesti) & inhibited of the bodies growth Heavy infections: Anaemia, watery diarrhea, inhibited of the bodies growth, for the young cattle it must be fatal Heavy infections: Anaemia, watery diarrhea, inhibited of the bodies growth, for the young cattle it must be fatal
Diagnoses Fecal examination Eggs or Segment/proglottids Egg of M. benedini Egg of M. benedini Control by: Dichlorophene mgs/kgs BW Dichlorophene mgs/kgs BW Yomesan 75 mgs/kgs BW Yomesan 75 mgs/kgs BW Control for the mites, photophobia is the characteristic of mites.
CYSTICERCOSIS CELLULOSE CYSTICERCOSIS BOVIS CAUSE: Larva Taenia solium / Larva T. saginata PREDILECTION&HOST: Striated muscles, such as m.lingualis, inner parts of m.masseter, muscles of shoulder, muscles of abdomen, diaphragma, mesenterium, pulmo, cor, ren, eyes, and brain of pig (very sensitive parts), cattle,dog,cat,sheep,monkey,deer, and human.
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION : by ingest the eggs of T. solium / T. saginata EPIZOOTIOLOGY : * Zoonotic characteristics * Zoonotic characteristics * in Indonesia it be found at: Bali, North Sumatera * in Indonesia it be found at: Bali, North Sumatera (Tapanuli), Tanah Toraja and Papua (Tapanuli), Tanah Toraja and Papua CLINICAL SYMPTOM: Pig : - Heavy infections : Hipersensitivity of the nostril, repeat edly rub the nostril on to the wall/floor. Convultion the tongue, striated muscles - Heavy infections : Hipersensitivity of the nostril, repeat edly rub the nostril on to the wall/floor. Convultion the tongue, striated muscles - Mild infection: not so clear - Mild infection: not so clear
~ Do g : Similar as rabies Similar as rabies ~ Human : - Cerebral cysticercosis : Disturbances of balanced - Cerebral cysticercosis : Disturbances of balanced Disturbances of visual Disturbances of visual Epileptiform Epileptiform - Opthalmic cysticercosis : Blindness - Opthalmic cysticercosis : Blindness PATHOLOGYS OF CHANGES : Oedema inside the predilection AnaemiaMeningoencephalitis Choroidae atrophy
DIAGNOSES : ⇨ Observe the clinical symptom: hipersensitivity at the nostril of pig at the nostril of pig ⇨ ante-mortem examinations at the tongue of pig ⇨ post-mortem examinations at the site of predilec tion tion ⇨ examinations by radiologies ⇨ examinations by serologic: sero-precipitation, sero-aglutination, allergy test diagnostic = intra dermal reaction
PREVENTION : - to break the life cycles/ : hygienis defecations location for human beeing - to break the life cycles/ : hygienis defecations location for human beeing - treatments for sufferer taeniasis patients - treatments for sufferer taeniasis patients - Beeing kept the pig intensively & hygienis - Beeing kept the pig intensively & hygienis - to examinations pork and beef routinely - to examinations pork and beef routinely - Well cooked the pork and beef - Well cooked the pork and beef - Freezing the meats which contaminated by cysticercosis at 8 – 10°C for 4 days - Freezing the meats which contaminated by cysticercosis at 8 – 10°C for 4 days - Salted meat with concentration of 20 % for 3–4 wks - Salted meat with concentration of 20 % for 3–4 wks - Stamping out all meats infected by cysticercosis - Stamping out all meats infected by cysticercosis
DIPYLLIDIASIS Cause : Dipyllidium caninum Predilections&Host :Small intestine dog,cat, human (seldom) Transmission : ingested by Cysticercoid mites or dog lice Pathogenesis : Inside the small intestine, cause of interference of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Heavy infections: enteritis chronics, with colic
Clinical symptoms : * The suffering dogs walks with dragged his anus * They roll on the soil or bitting of the abdomen area * Convulsion, symptom similar with epilepsy * Child (human): anorexia, thin,abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, epigastrium painful, allergy reactions Diagnose: - CS/specifics:suffering walks with dragged his anus - Proglottids inside the anus has a cucumber seed type - Fecal examnations eggs with a morphology as a package form
Prevention: - By elimination the flea&dog lice with: 0,1 BHC – Asuntol (Bayer) – Super Killer
DIPHYLLOBOTHRIASIS CAUSE : Diphyllobothrium latum PREDILECTION&HOST : Small intestine of dog,pig,bear, animals which eat fish&human. ROUTE OF INFECTIONS :By eating raw fish/ uncooked fish and consist of plerocercoid. PATHOGENESIS & CLINCAL SYMPTOM : Adult worm inside the small intestine cause of diarrhea and anaemia perniciosa (deficiency of vit.B12) DIAGNOSE : Fecal examination eggs
TAENIASIS CAUSE : Taenia solium & Taenia saginata PREDILECTION & HOST: Small intestine of human ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION: Ingest of Cysticercus cellulose or Cysticercus bovis from pork / beef, because of meat processing is not completelly accurate
EPIDEMY : HOST HOST PARASITEI.H (pig,cattle) gravid proglottids exit (motile) from the host ⇨ rupture ⇨ free eggs gravid proglottids exit (motile) from the host ⇨ rupture ⇨ free eggs Ingest the eggs by i.h & or human ⇨ Cysticercosis Ingest the eggs by i.h & or human ⇨ Cysticercosis CS/ : - non specific symptom at abdomen: diarrhea, constipation, - non specific symptom at abdomen: diarrhea, constipation, epigastrium painful ⇨ Taeniasis epigastrium painful ⇨ Taeniasis - neurologyc symptom ⇨ Cysticercosis - neurologyc symptom ⇨ Cysticercosis
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION : cysticercoid ingest by definitive host INTERMEDIATE HOST: ⇨ Davainea Proglotina : soil snail (slug) from genus ⇨ Davainea Proglotina : soil snail (slug) from genus Limax, Arion, Cepoea and Agrolimax Limax, Arion, Cepoea and Agrolimax ⇨ Raillietina tetragona : Musca domestica and ant ⇨ Raillietina tetragona : Musca domestica and ant from genus Tetramorium and Pheidole from genus Tetramorium and Pheidole ⇨ Raillietina echinobothrida : ant : Tetramorium ⇨ Raillietina echinobothrida : ant : Tetramorium caespitum and Pheidole vinelandica caespitum and Pheidole vinelandica ⇨ Raillietina cesticillus : Musca domestica and ⇨ Raillietina cesticillus : Musca domestica and beetles beetles
⇨ Amoebotaenia sphenoides : Earth worm from genus Eisenia, Pheretina ocnerodritus, and Allobophora ⇨ Choanotaenia infundubulum : Musca domestica and beetle: Geotripus, Aphodius, Calathus dan Tribolium
PATHOGENICITY INFECTION OF AVIAN CESTODES: -Pathogenicity of each species be different -D.proglotina : the tiny size but most pathogen penetration very deep at intestine mucosae cause of enteritis and often cause of bleeding for heavy infection.
-R. tetragona and R. echinobothrida also pathogen after D. proglotina. Young worms penetrated deepest into the mucosae and sub mucosae of the duodenum cause of nodules. Nodules cavum peritoneum, consist of tissue necrotic and leucocyte. First stage : young worm be found hang up inside the lumen of small intestine. Mature worm be found at a part of posterior small intestine - Other species is not dangerous. CLINICAL SYMPTOM: ⇨ Avian / young bird often infected ⇨ Anorexia, listless, often trifty, weakness and easy to be fatigue, thin and anemia. ⇨ Heavy infection : cause of death at young animals
⇨ Decrease of eggs production at laying hens ⇨ D proglotina : cause of diarrhea, faeces mixed with blood, seldom occur of nervous attacks at a part or totally but not clear CHANGES OF POST MORTEM: D. proglotina : ~ Intestine mucosae tickness + bleeding Degeneration & villies inflammation in the lumen of intestines + much of mucous watery & smelt putridness R. tetragona dan R. echinobothrida : ~ Nodule at the wall of the small intestine
DIAGNOSE: ⇨ Clinical symptom&much occur segment of cestode ⇨ Fecal examination eggs worm inside the animal fecal ⇨ Post mortem: enteritis & nodule-2 Raillietina sp. infections ⇨ Scrapping of intestinal mucosae D/ D. proglotina : deep inside the intestinal mucosae. TREATMENT AND PREVENTION : ~ Panhelmin : mix of levamisole and praziquantel. Each 100 mls consist of 5 grs levamisole and 3,5 grs praziquantel Doses : 100 mls panhelmin to be solved into 100 l water give into drinking water for 2 days & repeat after 10 days for 2 days.
PREVENTION: ⇨ Elimination beetles/ants/grass hopper surrounding the farm with insectiside ⇨ Rearing the avian, preferable put into the pen ⇨ Elimination the snail with molluscida ⇨ Cages Hygiene ⇨ Give feed and drinking water at a good position