1 CESTODOSIS MONIEZIASIS Cause: Moniezia expansa Moniezia benedini Sensitive animal: M. benedini: cattle (main host) & others ruminantsM. expansa: sheep,goat,cattle,& others ruminantsPredilection: Small intestineRoute of infections:Ingested by cysticercoid g mites(fam: Oribatidae) together with the grass
2 Pathogenicity: Clinical symptoms: - Young animals (< 6 bl) very sensitive.- The degree of infections depend on the amount ofcysticercoid- EnteritisClinical symptoms:Its not so clear in general,weakness&thinAcute: Intoxication because of toxin produced by the excretion of the adult wormMild infections: Gastrointestinal disturbance (indigesti) & inhibited of the bodies growthHeavy infections: Anaemia, watery diarrhea, inhibited of the bodies growth, for the young cattle it must be fatal
3 Diagnoses Fecal examination Eggs or Segment/proglottids Egg of M. benediniControl by:Dichlorophene mgs/kgs BWYomesan 75 mgs/kgs BW Control for the mites, photophobia is the characteristic of mites.
4 CYSTICERCOSIS CELLULOSE CYSTICERCOSIS BOVIS CAUSE:Larva Taenia solium / Larva T. saginataPREDILECTION&HOST:Striated muscles, such as m.lingualis, inner parts of m.masseter, muscles of shoulder, muscles of abdomen, diaphragma, mesenterium, pulmo, cor, ren, eyes, and brain of pig (very sensitive parts), cattle,dog ,cat,sheep,monkey,deer, and human.
5 by ingest the eggs of T. solium / T. saginata ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION :by ingest the eggs of T. solium / T. saginataEPIZOOTIOLOGY :* Zoonotic characteristics* in Indonesia it be found at: Bali, North Sumatera(Tapanuli), Tanah Toraja and PapuaCLINICAL SYMPTOM:Pig :- Heavy infections : Hipersensitivity of the nostril, repeat edly rub the nostril on to the wall/floor. Convultion the tongue, striated muscles- Mild infection: not so clear
6 Similar as rabies ~ Dog : ~ Human : - Cerebral cysticercosis : Disturbances of balancedDisturbances of visualEpileptiform- Opthalmic cysticercosis : BlindnessPATHOLOGYS OF CHANGES :Oedema inside the predilectionAnaemiaMeningoencephalitisChoroidae atrophy
7 DIAGNOSES :⇨ Observe the clinical symptom: hipersensitivityat the nostril of pig⇨ ante-mortem examinations at the tongue of pig⇨ post-mortem examinations at the site of predilection⇨ examinations by radiologies⇨ examinations by serologic: sero-precipitation, sero-aglutination, allergy test diagnostic = intra dermal reaction
8 PREVENTION :- to break the life cycles/ : hygienis defecations location for human beeing- treatments for sufferer taeniasis patients- Beeing kept the pig intensively & hygienis- to examinations pork and beef routinely- Well cooked the pork and beef- Freezing the meats which contaminated by cysticercosis at 8 – 10°C for 4 days- Salted meat with concentration of 20 % for 3–4 wks- Stamping out all meats infected by cysticercosis
9 DIPYLLIDIASIS Cause: Dipyllidium caninum Predilections&Host:Small intestine dog,cat, human (seldom)Transmission: ingested by Cysticercoidgmites or dog licePathogenesis: Inside the small intestine, cause of interferenceof the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Heavy infections: enteritis chronics, with colic
10 Clinical symptoms :* The suffering dogs walks with dragged hisanus* They roll on the soil or bitting of the abdomen area* Convulsion, symptom similar with epilepsy* Child (human): anorexia, thin,abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, epigastrium painful,allergy reactionsDiagnose:- CS/specifics:suffering walks with dragged his anus- Proglottids inside the anus has a cucumber seed type- Fecal examnations eggs with a morphology as a package form
12 - By elimination the flea&dog lice with: Prevention:- By elimination the flea&dog lice with:0,1 BHC – Asuntol (Bayer) – Super Killer
13 DIPHYLLOBOTHRIASIS CAUSE: Diphyllobothrium latum PREDILECTION&HOST: Small intestine of dog,pig,bear, animals which eat fish&human.ROUTE OF INFECTIONS:By eating raw fish/ uncooked fish and consist of plerocercoid.PATHOGENESIS & CLINCAL SYMPTOM :Adult worm inside the small intestine cause of diarrhea and anaemia perniciosa (deficiency of vit.B12)DIAGNOSE :Fecal examination eggs
14 by cooking fishes before consumed Stages: Eggs Coracidium Procercoid Plerocercoid (infective stage)TREATMENT:- Quinacrine hydrobromide (=mepacrine)- Yomesan- Arecoline hydrobromide- DichlorophenPREVENTION :by cooking fishes before consumed
15 TAENIASIS CAUSE : Taenia solium & Taenia saginata PREDILECTION & HOST: Small intestine of humanROUTE OF TRANSMISSION:Ingest of Cysticercus cellulose or Cysticercus bovis from pork / beef , because of meat processing is not completelly accurate
16 EPIDEMY : HOST CS/ : PARASITE I.H (pig,cattle) gravid proglottids exit (motile) from the host ⇨ rupture ⇨ free eggsIngest the eggs by i.h & or human ⇨ CysticercosisCS/ :- non specific symptom at abdomen: diarrhea, constipation,epigastrium painful ⇨ Taeniasis- neurologyc symptom ⇨ Cysticercosis
18 ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION : cysticercoid ingest by definitive hostINTERMEDIATE HOST:⇨ Davainea Proglotina : soil snail (slug) from genusLimax, Arion, Cepoea and Agrolimax⇨ Raillietina tetragona : Musca domestica and antfrom genus Tetramorium and Pheidole⇨ Raillietina echinobothrida : ant : Tetramoriumcaespitum and Pheidole vinelandica⇨ Raillietina cesticillus : Musca domestica andbeetles
19 ⇨Amoebotaenia sphenoides : Earth worm from genus Eisenia, Pheretina ocnerodritus, and Allobophora ⇨Choanotaenia infundubulum : Musca domestica and beetle: Geotripus, Aphodius, Calathus dan Tribolium
20 PATHOGENICITY INFECTION OF AVIAN CESTODES: Pathogenicity of each species be differentD.proglotina : the tiny size but most pathogen penetration very deep at intestine mucosae cause of enteritis and often cause of bleeding for heavy infection.
21 R. tetragona and R. echinobothrida also pathogen after D. proglotina R. tetragona and R. echinobothrida also pathogen after D. proglotina. Young worms penetrated deepest into the mucosae and sub mucosae of the duodenum cause of nodules. Nodules cavum peritoneum, consist of tissue necrotic and leucocyte. First stage : young worm be found hang up inside the lumen of small intestine. Mature worm be found at a part of posterior small intestine- Other species is not dangerous.CLINICAL SYMPTOM:⇨ Avian / young bird often infected⇨ Anorexia, listless, often trifty, weakness and easy to be fatigue, thin and anemia.⇨ Heavy infection : cause of death at young animals
22 CHANGES OF POST MORTEM: ⇨ Decrease of eggs production at laying hens⇨ D proglotina : cause of diarrhea, faeces mixed with blood, seldom occur of nervous attacks at a part or totally but not clearCHANGES OF POST MORTEM:D. proglotina :~ Intestine mucosae tickness + bleedingDegeneration & villies inflammation in the lumen of intestines +much of mucous watery & smelt putridnessR. tetragona dan R. echinobothrida :~ Nodule at the wall of the small intestine
23 DIAGNOSE:⇨ Clinical symptom&much occur segment of cestode⇨ Fecal examination eggs worm inside the animal fecal⇨ Post mortem: enteritis & nodule-2 Raillietina sp. infections⇨ Scrapping of intestinal mucosae D/ D. proglotina : deep inside the intestinal mucosae.TREATMENT AND PREVENTION :~ Panhelmin : mix of levamisole and praziquantel. Each 100 mls consist of 5 grs levamisole and 3,5 grs praziquantelDoses : 100 mls panhelmin to be solved into 100 l water give into drinking water for 2 days & repeat after 10 days for 2 days.
24 PREVENTION:⇨Elimination beetles/ants/grass hopper surrounding the farm with insectiside⇨Rearing the avian, preferable put into the pen⇨Elimination the snail with molluscida⇨Cages Hygiene⇨Give feed and drinking water at a good position