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1 LIVE A VALENCY ANALYSIS
2 The verb live has two meanings: He lives (in) London. They lived happily ever after.
3 The same is true of Russian zhit’: On zhivet (v) Moskve. Nam zhilos’ xorosho. ’He lives in Moscow.’ / We had a good life.’
4 …whereas in German we have two different verbs: Er wohnt (in) Berlin Er lebt (ein) schönes (Leben).
5 In Swedish, too, there are two verbs: Han bor (i) Stockholm. Han lever (i) högönsklig välmåga. (The analysis of högönsklig could be elaborated further.)
6 Now let us look into word formation. The derivative life and its equivalents are one-place predicates. life in London ett liv (i) rikedom
7 In Russian there are two derived nouns, one for each meaning. However, the two- place predicate is formed not from zhit’ directly, but from prozhivat’. zhizn’ v Moskve prozhivanie (v) Moskve
8 Actant derivatives are absent in English. In other languages they are mostly formed from the two-place predicate. One exception are words like Lebemann, viveur: mann eur
9 In these examples leben/vivre has, of course, a restricted meaning. We could add an extra predicate («high») to represent this. «hoch» mann «haut» eur
10 In Swedish there are non-actant derivatives from the one-place predicate leva: leverne and levnad. erne way (of) life which means: Leverne can also mean simply ’life’.
11 Levnad: nad «under (loppet av)» which means: time «during» Cf. also: levnadslopp, Lebenslauf.
12 As to the two-place predicate, derivatives occupying the first valency position are quite common. husets ere r
13 In German different words are used for inhabitants of houses and towns. die Ein er der Stadt die er
14 The same is true of Russian: teli Moskvy cy doma
15 The second actant (the place) is expressed by derivatives in several languages: ung ishche stad, ning,
16 The last Swedish noun, bo, is formed by zero suffixation and has a restriction («animals») on the first valency position of the corresponding verb. «djur»
17 Only seldom such derivatives can be used to form syntagms. invånarna (i) staden
18 When other words than derivatives are used, it is necessary to insert an implicit predicate. the inhabitants «live» (of) the house invånarna «bo» (i) lägenheten
19 The implicit verb «live» is extracted from the meaning of either or both of the explicit actants. More examples: «live» flat «live» hive
20 In the last example bee- can be removed without changing the meaning. This means that bee is moved to an implicit node. Cf.: «live» hive «live» hive «bee»
21 The word house is rather weakly connected with «live» and therefore sometimes need specification. ( nings)hus ( stads)hus zhiloj dom
22 In living room the verb live has a modified meaning. It can no longer be regarded as a two-place predicate. living «in» room
23 A common type of first-actant derivatives are formed from the name of the place (mostly proper names). the ers «live» die er «wohnen» are «bo» ichi «zhit’»
24 Kennedy said: ”Ich bin ein Berliner.” Maybe he should have said: Ich (bin er). «wohnen» But ”Ich wohne in Berlin” wouldn’t have the same effect, would it?
25 Much more seldom common names are used as bases for such derivatives. anty «zhit’» ane «zhit’» ’inhabitants of the flat’ / ’inhabitants of the city’
26 Certain suffixes can evoke other implicit predicates than «live». Cf.: ensare «studera» «i»
27 THE END
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