Employee’s Perspective What compensation do you seek? Direct Money Indirect Benefits
Employer’s Perspective What do you compensate? Job: Responsibility Critical function Job content Individual Characteristics: Ability Training Education
Employer’s Perspective What factors influence your compensation policy? Supply and demand skills Unions Ability to pay Cost of living increases Strategy Government (FLSA, min. wage)
Influence of Equity Internal External Market wages Perceived equity
Develop a Job Hierarchy A. Job Evaluation 1. Preliminary planning 2. Select a plan 3. Develop the plan 4. Evaluate jobs, NOT PEOPLE
Factor 8: Decision Making / Supervision Required 1 st Degree (36 points) Limited decision making by the incumbent. Progress of work is checked by others most of the time, and/or 60-90 percent of activities are defined by other than incumbent. 2 nd Degree (89 points) Routine decision making bases on specific criteria. Progress of work is often checked by others, and/or 40-60 percent of activities are defined by other than incumbent. 3 rd Degree (112 points) Significant decision making based on established guidelines and experience. Progress of work is check by others some of the time, and/or 25-40 percent of activities are defined by others than the incumbent. 4 th Degree (180 points) Extensive decision making based on broad policies, procedures, and guidelines. Progress of work is seldom checked by others, and/or less than 25 percent of activities are defined by other than the incumbent.
Example of One Factor in a Point Factor System (Complexity/Problem Solving) LevelPoint ValueDescription of Characteristics and Measures 0 0Seldom confronts problems not covered by job routine or organizational policy; analysis of data is negligible. Benchmark: General secretary, switchboard / receptionist. 1 40Follows clearly prescribed standard practice and demonstrates straightforward application of readily understood rules and procedures. Analyzes noncomplicated data by established routine. Benchmark: Statistical clerk, billing clerk. The mental capacity required to perform the given job as expressed in resourcefulness in dealing with unfamiliar problems, interpretation of data, initiation of new ideas, complex data analysis, creative or developmental work.
Example of One Factor in a Point Factor System (Complexity/Problem Solving) (cont’d) LevelPoint ValueDescription of Characteristics and Measures 2 80Frequently confronts problems not covered by job routine. Independent judgment exercised in making minor decision where alternatives are limited and standard policies established. Analysis of standardized data for information of or use by others. Benchmark: Social worker, executive secretary 3 120Exercises independent judgment in making decision involving nonroutine problems with general guidance only from higher supervision. Analyzes and evaluates data pertaining to nonroutine problems for solution in conjunction with others. Benchmark: Nurse, accountant, team leader
Example of One Factor in a Point Factor System (Complexity/Problem Solving) (cont’d) LevelPoint ValueDescription of Characteristics and Measures 4 160Uses independent judgment in making decisions that are subject to review in the final stages only. Analyzes and solves nonroutine problems involving evaluation of a wide variety of data as a regular part of job duties. Benchmark: Associate director, business manager, park services director. 5 200Uses independent judgment in making decisions that are not subject to review. Regularly exercises developmental or creative abilities in policy development. Benchmark: Executive director.
Pricing Jobs "The acceptability of job evaluation hinges in large part on whether the results are consistent with the ranking of the same jobs in the external labor market."
Pricing Jobs Jobs that are relatively stable in content and found in many organizations A. Use key or benchmark jobs Compare your internal analysis to external wages B. Conduct wage survey to examine external wages
Pricing Jobs C. Use points from job evaluation as a predictor Use predictor to determine wages for non-key positions Non-key positions: jobs that have no similar “comparison job” outside of the organization
Develop a Pay Structure A. Pay on the basis of individual jobs or grades? B. Utilize single rates or a rate range?
Skill-Based Compared to Job-Based Structures Job-BasedKnowledge-Based Pay StructureBased on job performedBased on skills possessed by the employee Manager’s focusJob carries wageEmployee carries wage Employee linked to jobEmployee linked to skill Employee focusJob promotion to earnSkill acquisition to earn greater pay greater pay Procedures requiredAssess job contentAssess skills Value jobsValue skills AdvantagesPay based on the valueFlexibility performedReduced work force LimitationsPotential personnelPotential personnel bureaucracy bureaucracy InflexibilitiesCost controls
Financial Incentives "The basic aim of an incentive should be to encourage good performance by linking performance and rewards, and this in turn requires valid, accurate performance appraisals.”
Incentives for Production Employees Piecework Group incentive plans Attendance Annual bonus
Other Incentives for Mangers, Executives and Other Employees Stock options Long-term incentives
Organization Incentive Plans Profit sharing plans ESOP – Employee Stock Options Plan Cost savings plan SCANLON and Gainsharing
Potential Incentive Plan Problems Worker doesn’t believe that plan will lead to rewards. Unfair standards – too high or unattainable Changing standards – obtain top management commitment to maintain standards
Recommendations 1. Ensure that efforts and rewards are directly related. 2. Incentive rewards are understandable and calculable. 3. Use accurate and effective standards. 4. Guarantee those standards.
Performance Measurement Purposes A. Administrative decisions Promotion Training Compensation Transfer, demotion, and separation
Performance Measurement Purposes B. Employee feedback and development Roles Strengthens E P and P O relationships Allows behavior change
Performance Measurement Purposes C. Evaluations of policies and programs Selection and promotion decisions Aiding in validation of selection tools Helping to determine if programs are effective (e.g. training) D. Defense of policies Use to show job relatedness (performance)
Performance Measurement Issues A. Identifying performance dimensions Most jobs are multi-dimensional Use job analysis to assess performance Errors similar to job analysis B. Establish performance standards Determine legitimate standards Don’t set standards too high or low
Performance Measures A. Comparative methods 1. Ranking 2. Forced distribution 3. Problems with comparative evaluations: No indication of potential performance Little specific feedback No feedback about where to improve
Performance Measures B. Absolute methods 1. Trait rating scale Central tendency problems Doesn’t capture specific behaviors 2. BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales) Complex and costly Not applicable to a broad group of jobs Avoids contamination and deficiency errors 3. MBO – set for individuals, not jobs
Administrative Challenges A. Components that influence the performance appraisal process 1. Appraiser (rater) 2. Appraisee (ratee) 3. Method 4. Purpose of evaluation 5. Motivation to appraise
Administrative Challenges B. Rater errors 1. Unreliability 2. Leniency 3. Severity 4. Central tendency 5. Recency 6. Halo
Administrative Challenges C. EEO Not only for your selection Show that method isn’t discriminating Validate performance appraisal procedures
Trends in PA Research 1. Focused on the accuracy of appraisal and improving method. 2. Focused on rater errors and reduction of errors. 3. Current focus: cognitive processes and interpretation and evaluation of performance.