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William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Francis Marion University

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1 William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Francis Marion University
MMPI-2 William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Francis Marion University

2 ? (Cannot Say) Omitted items Encourage person to complete them
Up to 10 may still be valid above that a concern. Scales are additive.

3 Infrequency Scale (F) 60 items answered in the significant direction by less than 10% High scores suggest Not cooperating Reading difficulty Exaggerating Over 90 invalid, questionable

4 Infrequency Scale (F) 60 items My sex life is satisfactory (F)
I have a cough most of the time (T) Most anytime I would rather sit and daydream than anything else (T)

5 Lie Scale (L) Minor flaws that most people are willing to acknowledge.
High scores Resistant confused Moderate scores Overly moralistic Low scores Normal or exaggerating

6 Lie Scale (L) 15 items At times I feel like swearing (F)
I do not always tell the truth (F)

7 Correction Scale (K) Characteristics many people prefer to deny
High Scores Defensive, lack of insight Moderate Adaptive, self-reliant Low Fake bad, plea for help

8 Correction Scale (K) 30 items
Often I can’t understand why I have been so irritable and grouchy. (F) At times my thoughts have raced ahead faster than I could speak them. (F)

9 VRIN Items have similar or opposite content.
Inconsistent responding. May have answered items indiscriminately.

10 VRIN 67 pairs I wake up fresh and rested most mornings
My sleep is fitful and disturbed

11 TRIN Made up of pairs opposite in content.
High suggests answering all true Low suggests answering all false

12 TRIN 23 pairs My daily life is full of things that keep me interested.
I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.

13 Invalid protocols Cannot say >30 VRIN or TRIN ≥80 F or F(p) ≥100
Fb ≥ 110 L ≥ 80 K ≥ 75

14 Clinical scales Scale labels can be misleading.
Labels also outdated (i.e. psychasthenia)

15 Scale 1 Hypochondriasis
See themselves as physically ill and seek medical explanations Stubborn, pessimistic, narcissistic, egocentric Unhappy, whinny

16 Scale 1 Items I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting (T)
I have a good appetite (F) I wake up fresh and rested most mornings (F) I seldom worry about my health (not on this scale or 3!)

17 Scale 2 Depression Depressive symptoms, apathy, lethargy, brooding
Pessimism Low energy

18 Scale 2 Items I am easily awakened by noise (T)
I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting (T) I have never vomited blood or coughed up blood. (T) I enjoy many different kinds of play and recreation (F)

19 Scale 3 Hysteria Denial of emotional or interpersonal problems
Lack of insight Physical symptoms as an excuse Need for acceptance and affection Seek simplistic, naïve, concrete solutions to problems

20 Scale 3 Items I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting (T)
I am almost never bothered by pains over my heart or in my chest (F) I think a great many people exaggerate their misfortunes in order to gain sympathy and help of others. (F)

21 Scale 4 Psychopathic Deviate
Difficulty incorporating the values of society Alienation and relationship problems Authority problems Poor tolerance for boredom Rebellious and blaming

22 Scale 4 Items I wish I could be as happy as others seem t be (T)
I have not lived the right kind of life (T) I am easily downed in an argument (F)

23 Scale 5 Masculinity-Femininity
Highs scoring males: aesthetic interests, wide range of interests, passivity Low Scoring males, often domineering and impersonal. Narrow interests lack originality

24 Scale 5 Items Female Both Male
I have never engaged in any unusual sex practices (T) I like to talk about sex (F) Both I enjoy reading love stories (T) I like poetry (T) My feelings are not easily hurt (F) Male I have never engaged in any unusual sex practices (F) I like to talk about sex (T)

25 Scale 5 Masculinity-Femininity
High scoring females: rejection of traditional female role Low Scoring females: stereotypically feminine interests and roles. May adopt passive, modest, constricted emotions.

26 Scale 6 Paranoia Suspicious, vengeful, angry Feels mistreated
High scores may indicate psychotic thinking

27 Scale 6 Items I believe I am a condemned person (T)
I am sure I am being talked about (T) I do not often notice my ears ringing or buzzing (F)

28 Scale 7 Psychastenia Anxiety ruminative self-doubt
Psychological turmoil and discomfort Anxious, tense, agitated

29 Scale 7 Items Once a week or oftener I become very excited (T)
Life is a strain for me much of the time (T) I like to study and read about things that I am working at. (F) My memory seems to be all right (F)

30 Scale 8 Schizophrenia Confusion, disorganization Unusual thoughts
Alienated, misunderstood In psychological turmoil

31 Scale 8 Items I am afraid of losing my mind (T)
I am worried about sex (T) My hands have not become clumsy or awkward. (F) I have had no difficulty in keeping my balance in walking (F)

32 Scale 9 Hypomania Manic, excessive purposeless activity Overactive
Energetic and talkative Risk taking, impulsive Low scores Low energy and activity levels

33 Scale 9 Items When I get bored I like to stir up some excitement (T)
It wouldn’t make me nervous if any members of my family got into trouble with the law (T) I am afraid when I look down from a high place (F)

34 Scale 0 Social Introversion
Socially introverted Uncomfortable in group interactions Possible Poor social skills She, insecure Low scores: sociable and extroverted

35 Scale 0 Items I frequently have to fight against showing that I am bashful (T) I wish I were not shy. (T) I do not have spells of hay fever or asthma (F) I like to flirt (F)

36 Code-type interpretation
Often more accurate and useful than individual scales. Most appropriate when scales are above T=65

37 Supplementary Scales Over 450 supplementary scales developed using factor analysis and intuitive procedures.

38 A (Anxiety) High scores
reflect distress, anxiety, discomfort and general emotional upset. Indecisive, conforming, easily upset in social situations Low scores Energetic, competitive, socially outgoing

39 A (Anxiety) Items When in a group of people I have trouble thinking of the right things to talk about. (T) I have often felt that strangers were looking at me critically (T) I very seldom have spells of the blues (F)

40 R (Repression) High Scores Conventional, submissive people Low scores
Expressive, uninhibited

41 Es (Ego Strength) To assess ability to benefit from therapy
High Scores Adaptability, resiliency, effective functioning Low Scores Inhibition, physical aliments, poor self-concept

42 MAC-R (MacAndrew Alcoholism)
49 items no obvious content relating to alcohol . Over 28 strong suggestion High scores General addiction proneness, Extroverted, exhibitionistic, risk taking Low scores Shy, lacking in self-confidence

43 Content Scales Analysis of content More face validity Single dimension
Use to refine interpretations of clinical scales

44 Harris Lingoes subscales
Homogeneous content Help clarify clinical scale observations Constructed rationally by grouping items that seemed similar.

45 Harris Lingoes subscales
Small number of items Should only be used for scales above 65 Should be used to explain elevations in elevated clinical scales

46 Critical Items Face validity Low reliability

47 The End

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