Presentation on theme: "William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Francis Marion University"— Presentation transcript:
1William P. Wattles, Ph.D. Francis Marion University MMPI-2William P. Wattles, Ph.D.Francis Marion University
2? (Cannot Say) Omitted items Encourage person to complete them Up to 10 may still be valid above that a concern.Scales are additive.
3Infrequency Scale (F)60 items answered in the significant direction by less than 10%High scores suggestNot cooperatingReading difficultyExaggeratingOver 90 invalid, questionable
4Infrequency Scale (F) 60 items My sex life is satisfactory (F) I have a cough most of the time (T)Most anytime I would rather sit and daydream than anything else (T)
5Lie Scale (L) Minor flaws that most people are willing to acknowledge. High scoresResistant confusedModerate scoresOverly moralisticLow scoresNormal or exaggerating
6Lie Scale (L) 15 items At times I feel like swearing (F) I do not always tell the truth (F)
7Correction Scale (K) Characteristics many people prefer to deny High ScoresDefensive, lack of insightModerateAdaptive, self-reliantLowFake bad, plea for help
8Correction Scale (K) 30 items Often I can’t understand why I have been so irritable and grouchy. (F)At times my thoughts have raced ahead faster than I could speak them. (F)
9VRIN Items have similar or opposite content. Inconsistent responding. May have answered items indiscriminately.
10VRIN 67 pairs I wake up fresh and rested most mornings My sleep is fitful and disturbed
11TRIN Made up of pairs opposite in content. High suggests answering all trueLow suggests answering all false
12TRIN 23 pairs My daily life is full of things that keep me interested. I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.
13Invalid protocols Cannot say >30 VRIN or TRIN ≥80 F or F(p) ≥100 Fb ≥ 110L ≥ 80K ≥ 75
14Clinical scales Scale labels can be misleading. Labels also outdated (i.e. psychasthenia)
15Scale 1 Hypochondriasis See themselves as physically ill and seek medical explanationsStubborn, pessimistic, narcissistic, egocentricUnhappy, whinny
16Scale 1 Items I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting (T) I have a good appetite (F)I wake up fresh and rested most mornings (F)I seldom worry about my health (not on this scale or 3!)
17Scale 2 Depression Depressive symptoms, apathy, lethargy, brooding PessimismLow energy
18Scale 2 Items I am easily awakened by noise (T) I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting (T)I have never vomited blood or coughed up blood. (T)I enjoy many different kinds of play and recreation (F)
19Scale 3 Hysteria Denial of emotional or interpersonal problems Lack of insightPhysical symptoms as an excuseNeed for acceptance and affectionSeek simplistic, naïve, concrete solutions to problems
20Scale 3 Items I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting (T) I am almost never bothered by pains over my heart or in my chest (F)I think a great many people exaggerate their misfortunes in order to gain sympathy and help of others. (F)
21Scale 4 Psychopathic Deviate Difficulty incorporating the values of societyAlienation and relationship problemsAuthority problemsPoor tolerance for boredomRebellious and blaming
22Scale 4 Items I wish I could be as happy as others seem t be (T) I have not lived the right kind of life (T)I am easily downed in an argument (F)
23Scale 5 Masculinity-Femininity Highs scoring males: aesthetic interests, wide range of interests, passivityLow Scoring males, often domineering and impersonal. Narrow interests lack originality
24Scale 5 Items Female Both Male I have never engaged in any unusual sex practices (T)I like to talk about sex (F)BothI enjoy reading love stories (T)I like poetry (T)My feelings are not easily hurt (F)MaleI have never engaged in any unusual sex practices (F)I like to talk about sex (T)
25Scale 5 Masculinity-Femininity High scoring females: rejection of traditional female roleLow Scoring females: stereotypically feminine interests and roles. May adopt passive, modest, constricted emotions.
26Scale 6 Paranoia Suspicious, vengeful, angry Feels mistreated High scores may indicate psychotic thinking
27Scale 6 Items I believe I am a condemned person (T) I am sure I am being talked about (T)I do not often notice my ears ringing or buzzing (F)
29Scale 7 Items Once a week or oftener I become very excited (T) Life is a strain for me much of the time (T)I like to study and read about things that I am working at. (F)My memory seems to be all right (F)
31Scale 8 Items I am afraid of losing my mind (T) I am worried about sex (T)My hands have not become clumsy or awkward. (F)I have had no difficulty in keeping my balance in walking (F)
32Scale 9 Hypomania Manic, excessive purposeless activity Overactive Energetic and talkativeRisk taking, impulsiveLow scoresLow energy and activity levels
33Scale 9 Items When I get bored I like to stir up some excitement (T) It wouldn’t make me nervous if any members of my family got into trouble with the law (T)I am afraid when I look down from a high place (F)
34Scale 0 Social Introversion Socially introvertedUncomfortable in group interactionsPossible Poor social skillsShe, insecureLow scores: sociable and extroverted
35Scale 0 ItemsI frequently have to fight against showing that I am bashful (T)I wish I were not shy. (T)I do not have spells of hay fever or asthma (F)I like to flirt (F)
36Code-type interpretation Often more accurate and useful than individual scales.Most appropriate when scales are above T=65
37Supplementary ScalesOver 450 supplementary scales developed using factor analysis and intuitive procedures.
38A (Anxiety) High scores reflect distress, anxiety, discomfort and general emotional upset.Indecisive, conforming, easily upset in social situationsLow scoresEnergetic, competitive, socially outgoing
39A (Anxiety) ItemsWhen in a group of people I have trouble thinking of the right things to talk about. (T)I have often felt that strangers were looking at me critically (T)I very seldom have spells of the blues (F)
40R (Repression) High Scores Conventional, submissive people Low scores Expressive, uninhibited
41Es (Ego Strength) To assess ability to benefit from therapy High ScoresAdaptability, resiliency, effective functioningLow ScoresInhibition, physical aliments, poor self-concept
42MAC-R (MacAndrew Alcoholism) 49 items no obvious content relating to alcohol . Over 28 strong suggestionHigh scoresGeneral addiction proneness,Extroverted, exhibitionistic, risk takingLow scoresShy, lacking in self-confidence
43Content Scales Analysis of content More face validity Single dimension Use to refine interpretations of clinical scales
44Harris Lingoes subscales Homogeneous contentHelp clarify clinical scale observationsConstructed rationally by grouping items that seemed similar.
45Harris Lingoes subscales Small number of itemsShould only be used for scales above 65Should be used to explain elevations in elevated clinical scales