Presentation on theme: "Historical Studies in Physical Education. The relationship of bathing and swimming in post-industrial communities."— Presentation transcript:
Historical Studies in Physical Education. The relationship of bathing and swimming in post-industrial communities.
Swimming Allowed anyone to compete as an amateur. Not allowed to receive prize money. Any social class could compete. Women allowed to compete by the end of 19 th century.
Development of Swimming: Bathing stations were built on river banks. Spa towns began to develop extensive bathing facilities. The fashion switched to the seaside and led to seaside bathing. The Wash-House Acts (1846) led to many industrial towns providing public baths to clean up the working classes. Middle class swimming clubs were formed mainly from the private Turkish baths.
Development of Swimming (continued) First National Swimming Championships were held in 1874 when the SAGB was formed. The ASA was formed in 1884. Water Polo developed in the public baths and was codified in 1885. The Amateur Diving Association was formed in 1901. Swimming struggled to establish itself as a serious/acceptable activity from 1850 – 1910. WHY???
Development of Swimming (continued) Transport to the coast for sea bathing influenced the development of swimming, became part of the holiday pattern. Emphasis on teaching swimming for safety/to save oneself from drowning, e.g. swimming teacher training scheme (1896). Swimming seen as good fitness benefit for body and mind – swimming for the millions, captains of industry, private Turkish baths developed.
Development of Swimming (continued) Swimming began to hold popular appeal – feats of endurance, e.g. channel swimming and races on the Thames, development of role models and swimming as a moral force. Swimming developed as a competitive event – development of strokes, swimming clubs est., ASA formed in 1884, Olympic Sport.
Provision of Indoor Public and Private Swimming Baths. Government gave grants to build public baths in large towns. Separate bathing areas for men and women. Charged maximum of one penny per visit (less for children) to encourage entrance. Washing facilities available. Provided a large pool for swimming to take place. Competition developed in the large pool e.g. races and water polo.
Sport on the River Various types of boating – sailing, rowing, canoeing, river jousting and vaulting. River festivals and regattas took place. Skating developed when rivers were frozen. Frost fairs/festivals took place on frozen rivers. Rivers used for commerce for transport, travel and food (fish). Rivers used for bathing, diving and walking along.
Regattas Rowing – ARA est. lower class excluded. Swimming – ASA est. had amateur championships. Sailing – open to wealthy/upper class who could afford it. Canoeing became popular.
Why are natural facilities are seldom used today? Indoor facilities now leisure based – slides, splash pools, jacuzzis, bars and restaurants. Lack of privacy/modesty. Pollution in rivers/streams. Ample provision of indoor facilities, privacy and hygiene. Safety.