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Immanuel Kant categorical imperative HOW DO WE DETERMINE MORALITY?  morality is derived from duty  moral principles are intrinsically valid  moral.

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Presentation on theme: "Immanuel Kant categorical imperative HOW DO WE DETERMINE MORALITY?  morality is derived from duty  moral principles are intrinsically valid  moral."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Immanuel Kant categorical imperative

3 HOW DO WE DETERMINE MORALITY?  morality is derived from duty  moral principles are intrinsically valid  moral principles must be obeyed in all circumstances  all moral obligations must be tested through the categorical imperative

4 HOW DO WE DETERMINE MORALITY?  moral law applies to any and all rational agents  means of an action matter more than the ends  moral actions must have a moral intent  moral law is a principle of reason not of fact

5 WHAT ’ S WRONG WITH IMMORALITY? immorality=irrationality

6 WHAT IS THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE?  a three tiered “ test ” to determine whether a maxim is moral maxim: principle or an action

7 HOW DOES THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE WORK?  the three tiers act as three tests  they must be worked through in consecutive order  if you “pass” test one you move on to test two then test three

8 HOW DOES THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE WORK?  morality is determined by the successful completion of all levels of the imperative  but you can ’ t take two or three without passing test one  if you don ’ t pass any of the tests the maxim is immoral

9 TIER ONE: UNIVERSAL LAW “ act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law. ” ex: lying about harboring jewish people in your attic

10 TIER TWO: HUMANITY FORMULA “ we should never act in such a way that we treat Humanity, whether in ourselves or in others, as a means only but always as an end in itself.” ex: kidnapping to get ransom money

11 TIER THREE: KINGDOM OF ENDS “ act in accordance with the maxims of a member giving universal laws for a merely possible kingdom of ends" 1. it requires that we conform our actions to the maxims of a legislator of laws 2. that this lawgiver lays down universal laws, binding all rational wills including our own 3. that those laws are of ‘ a merely possible kingdom ’ each of whose members equally possesses this status as legislator of universal laws, and hence must be treated always as an end in itself.

12 TIER THREE: KINGDOM OF ENDS  simply put: our fundamental moral obligation is to act only on principles which could earn acceptance by a community of fully rational agents each of whom have an equal share in legislating these principles for their community. liken unto the golden rule: do unto others as you would have done unto yourself

13 TIER THREE: KINGDOM OF ENDS  within the kingdom of ends there is a realm of ends within the realm of ends the end of a maxim is eternal

14 CRITICISMS OF KANT  universal moral law is not binding  laws only applies to rational agents  people are inherently immoral, kant assumes that people are inherently moral  kant also assumes that people automatically desire to be moral

15 any questions?

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17 Fin


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