2TypesMystery plays (biblical scenes, Christ, divine mystery, re-enactment)The Building of the Ark, CrucifixionMorality Plays (interludes, Virtues and Vices, Everyman/Youth, psychomachia)Everyman, The Castle of PerseverenceMiracle plays (saints’ lives and their miracles)
3Morality play: Everyman (15th c.) Everyman Messenger God Death Fellowship Kindred Cousin Goods Good Deeds Knowledge Confession Beauty Strength Discretion Five Wits Angel Doctor
4Morality Play: The Castle of Perseverance, mid-15th c. Mankind Belial World Good Angel Bad Angel Seven deadly sins Virtues Death God the Father Others
5Origins of Mystery plays Divine mystery (cf. Greek drama, Dionysos), holy day – holiday (Eliade: The Sacred and Profane, eternal return)Easter tropes: ‘Quem quaeritis?’ (Christ’s tomb: Angel and the 3 Marys) – later: additional dialogue, props, set, SD, costumes) – out into the (church)yardLiturgical drama: in Latin, sacred music, clergymenSimilarly: Christmas tropes (nativity, shepherds) and Twelfth Night (Magi, star)
7Origins 2. Folk Rituals/Dramatic and Carnivalesque Rituals Secular drama: in English, folk music, dance, amateursThe Battle of Carnival and LentChristmas mummings (miming, music, dance, sword fighting, death and revival)St. George playsHarvest festivals, wedding playlets, etc.
8Brueghel, the Elder: The Battle of Carnival and Lent, 1559
9P. Brueghel the Younger: The Kermesse of St. George, 1628
10P. Brueghel the Younger: Wedding Dance in a Barn
12Mummers' Play at Haddon Hall From Nash, The Mansions of England in Olden Time (1849)
13Performances of Mystery Plays The Feast of Corpus ChristiChrist’s redemptive power through the miracle of the Host (procession of the ‘holy body’)1264, Pope Urban, popular from 14th c.23 May-24 JuneThe whole town taking part (audience, players, etc.) – collective experience
14Archdeacon Rogers, 1594, Harleian Miscellany the Chester plays were given on Whit-Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday."The manner of these plays were, every company had his pageant or part, a high scaffold with two rooms, a higher and a lower, upon four wheels. In the lower they apparelled themselves, and in the higher room they played, being all open on the top, that all beholders might hear and see them." They were played, he goes on to say, in every street:"They began first at the abbey gates, and when the first pageant was played, it was wheeled to the high cross before the mayor, and so to every street. So every street had a pageant playing before it at one time, till all the pageants for the day appointed were played. When one pageant was near ended, word was brought from street to street, that so they might come in place thereof, exceeding orderly, and all the streets have their pageants before them, all at one time playing together, to see which plays was great resort and also scaffolds and stages made in the streets in those places where they determined to play their pageants."
15The reconstrucetd route of the medieval pageant wagons on a 1610 map of York
17Coventry play, Hellmouth, later illustrations Middle English pageant wagon. Scene of Christ before Pilate. From Sharp, A Dissertation on the Pageants... (1825)
18Stage used in the Valenciennes Passion Play, 1547. Paris
19PerformancesPageant wagons (moving through the town or at the main square in a circle) or set scaffolds – each for one scene’epic theatre’ – ‘the whole story’, focus on ChristTrade fairs – trade guilds (advertising, showing the skill, devotion)Elaborate set and props, effects, hellmouth, thunder, etc.Mystery and mastery (amateurism)
20Cycles Chester cycle – 25 episodes York cycle – 48 episodes Coventry/N-town cycle – 42 episodesWakefield/Towneley cycle – 32 episodes, 6 by the Wakefield Master (fl. 1475)Disappearance of mystery plays: 16th c. – new genres, Henry VIII, ‘popish’, last Wakefield perf (The Theatre in London, professional actors)
21KING JAMES BIBLE, 1611, Luke, Chapter 2. 6: And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. 7: And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. 8: And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. 9: And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. 10: And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. 11: For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.12: And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. 13: And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, 14: Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.
2215: And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. 16: And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. 17: And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. 18: And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. 19: But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. 20: And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.
23King James Bible, 1611, John, Chapter 1 29: The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world. 30: This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me. 31: And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. 32: And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. 33: And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. 34: And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God.