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Enter Abraham… Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob & Joseph.

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Presentation on theme: "Enter Abraham… Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob & Joseph."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enter Abraham… Abraham, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob & Joseph

2 Abraham’s Story Gazes at the sky and grasps truth of God Confronts father Azar: rejects idols –“’What are these idols that you worship?’ They said, ‘We found our fathers worshiping them.’ He said, ‘Indeed you and your forefathers have clearly gone astray.’” (21:51-4) –Destroys all idols except the biggest, he blames it so they will admit that idols cannot speak –Abraham is saved from the fire. Promise of a son…and destruction

3 Abraham Quran describes his as “the one who fulfilled”: –He “fulfilled” his duties to God (2:124), like in Genesis he founds sacred shrines… this time in Mecca He is made “a leader (imam)” for mankind: his legacy is David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, Zachariah, John, Jesus, Elijah, Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah, Lot, “everyone of them we favored about the worlds.” (6:86) Established the ‘House’ of God for pilgrimage (and purify it) with his son He prays that God make this land safe and prosperous for the believers (Mecca as the ‘sacred land’) Abraham and Ishmael invoke God to make them “Muslims” to him, and to raise from their descendents a “Muslim nation” (2:128)

4 Warning to the People of the Book God tells Abraham “submit (aslim)” and he submits, saying “I’ve submitted to the Lord of all the worlds”, and then Abraham and Jacob tell their descendents “not to die except as muslims.” (2:132) Remember the Audience!: Jacob’s children promise him to worship the one God of Abraham, but “Now those people have passed away”… when people urge you to be Christians or Jews say that you follow the God of Abraham

5 Sacrifice “And he said: ‘Lo! I am going unto my Lord who will guide me. My Lord, grant me of the righteous.’ So We gave him tidings of a noble son. And when the son was old enough to strive with him, he said, ‘O my dear son, I have seen in a dream that I sacrifice thee. So what thinkest thou?’ He said, ‘O my father, do that which thou are commanded, God willing you shall find me one of the patient (sabirin).’ Then, when they had both surrendered to God and he had flung him down upon his face, We called unto him, ‘O Abraham! Thou hast already fulfilled the village. Lo, thus do we reward the good. Lo, verily that was a clear test (al-bala’ al-mubin). Then We ransomed him with a tremendous victim. And We left for him among the later folk: peace unto Abraham!” (37:99-110).. And We gave him Isaac… Who was almost sacrificed?: –the Quran never mentions who the son was –early Muslim exegetes thought the son was Isaac (attributed to Ibn Umar and others), after the 10 th century the prevailing opinion was that it was Ishmael (Ibn Abbas). Why? One answer is that Abraham had been given certainty of God…:

6 Ismail vs. Isaac in the Quran Abraham thanks God for bestowing Isaac and Ismail on him in his old age as he settles his descendents in a “uncultivated valley” Isaac (Ishaq): –mentioned 17 times (mostly in lists of other prophets) –promised to Abraham and his wife (11:71) Ishmael (Isma’il): –mentioned 12 times, once as “truthful of promise (sadiq al-wa’d)” –he is mentioned with Abraham raising the foundation of the Kaba

7 The Best of Stories - Joseph Dream and the Envy of brothers Advances of Zulaykha: Joseph’s beauty ‘Interpretation of things’: –Jacob is able to interpret dreams because his Lord taught him… “this is the bounty of God unto us and unto mankind, but most men give not thanks.”  true faith has tangible fruit –Vs. falseness: “O my fellow prisoners, are many lords better or the one God, the almighty? Those whom you worship beside Him are but names you have named, you and your fathers. God has revealed no sanction for them.”

8 Morals Sabr (patience) and steadfast faith: Jacob knows what the brothers know not… a dream fulfilled Faith and Gratitude: “O my Lord, thou hast given me sovereignty and taught me the interpretation of events – Creator of the heavens and the earth! Thou art my Protecting Friend in this world and the hereafter: make me die submissive unto thee, and join me among the righteous!” (12:101)

9 Joseph and Muhammad “This is the tidings of the Unseen with which we inspire thee. Thou wast not present with them when they fixed their plans and schemed. And thou thou tryest much, most men will not believe. Thou asketh them no fee for it. It is naught else but a reminder unto thy people. How many a sign is there in the heavens and in the earth, which they pass by with face averted. And most of them believe not in God without attributing partners to Him.”

10 “And We sent not messengers before thee except men that We inspired from amongst their folk of the townships. Have they not traveled in the land and seen the nature of the consequences of those before them? And verily the best abode is the Hereafter, for those who ward off evil – Have you then no sense? Till, when the messengers despaired and thought that they were denied, then came unto them Our help, and whom We willed was saved. And Our wrath cannot be warded off from the guilty. In this story verily there is a lesson for men of understanding. It is no invented story, but a confirmation of the scripture, and a detailed explanation of everything and a guidance and mercy unto those who believe.” (12 final verses)

11 Compared to Bible Omissions: ex. Benjamin as brother, “a brother of yours from your father” Details: in the Quran, he is found and sold “for a few silver coins”, in Genesis the brothers sell him for 20 silver coins Jacob and the Dream: here Jacob knows the meaning and berates Joseph Cause of Joseph’s Imprisonment: king does not believe his wife Jacob’s Reaction: despair vs. SabrReaction

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