3Guiding QuestionWhat are some of the most important technological advances that occurred in Southwest Asia in ancient times?
4Main IdeasThe world’s first civilizations and three of the world’s major religions arose in Southwest Asia in ancient times.In the mid-1200s, Southwest Asia became part of the Mongol EmpireThe Ottoman Empire included much of western Southwest Asia by the mid-1300s and lasted until the early 1900s
5The development of agriculture allowed for the establishment of permanent settlements. Permanent settlements let people do things other than farming.Specialization of labor became the foundation of civilization.
6Ziggurats were constructed in Mesopotamia and served several purposes. There was a temple at the top.The size of the structure showed off the power of the king and the city’s gods.
7Because there was not much good stone in Mesopotamia, buildings such as this were constructed from mud bricks (very similar to adobe).
8Fact-CheckHow long ago did humans change from living as hunter- gatherers to living in permanent settlements and practicing agriculture?Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed a __________ called cuneiform.
9Three Major Religions Religion Founder Core Beliefs Judaism Abraham The one God made an agreement through Abraham and later Moses with the people of Israel. God would bless them and they would follow God’s laws, applying God’s will in all parts of their lives. The main laws and practices of Judaism are stated in the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew BibleChristianityJesusThe one God is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. God the Son became human as Jesus Christ. Jesus died and rose again to bring God’s forgiving love to sinful humanity. Those who trust in Jesus and follow his teachings of love for God and neighbor receive eternal life with God.IslamMohammedThe one God sent a series of prophets, including the final prophet, Mohammed, to teach humanity. Islam’s laws are based on the Quran, the holy book, and the Sunnah, examples from Mohammed’s life. Believers practice the five pillars – belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage – to go to eternal paradise
11Progress CheckWhat are some of the ways in which Islam spread?
12Fact-Check What is the term for belief in one God? Which three major religions developed in Southwest Asia?
13Guiding QuestionWhat are some of the issues facing modern Southwest Asia that have their roots in ancient times?
14Main IdeasAfter World War I, Britain and France divided the territories of the Ottoman Empire.Between 1930 and 1971, various parts of Southwest Asia became independent countries.After World War II, the United Nations divided Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish, giving rise to the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict.Numerous conflicts and wars in Southwest Asia have arisen from ethnic, religious and political differences.
15At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed. The former Ottoman government ruled over the present-day country of Turkey. The British and French empires, however, established “mandates” over other Ottoman lands. Mandates gave authority to the British and French to manage these territories until they were ready for self-rule. Over the next 30 years, the former territories of the Ottoman Empire gained their independence from Britain and France. In addition, a new state, Israel, was created as a homeland for the Jewish people.
16Progress CheckWhat event in Europe helped spur the creation of a Jewish state in Southwest Asia?
17Fact-CheckAt the height of its power in the 1500s, the _________ Empire included much of western Southwest Asia and parts of Southern Europe and northern Africa.In the 20th century, the discovery of _______ brought great wealth to some countries in Southwest Asia.After World War I, Britain and _____ gained control over the region’s territories under a mandate system.One of the mandates received by Britain after World War I was the territory called _____, which was the area where Jewish people lived in ancient times.
18Fact-CheckA revolution in Iran in the late 1970s resulted in the overthrow of the country’s monarchy and the establishment of a(n) ________After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, American and British forces invaded _______ and removed _________ from power.