Presentation on theme: "Общение без границ Презентацию на тему: «How did people communicate in the past?» подготовила: Захарова Дарья, 8 класс Руководитель: Захарова Елена Александровна,"— Presentation transcript:
Общение без границ Презентацию на тему: «How did people communicate in the past?» подготовила: Захарова Дарья, 8 класс Руководитель: Захарова Елена Александровна, учитель английского языка Средняя школа при Посольстве России в Лаосе
Why do we communicate? For connecting with others Giving or providing information Giving advice Teaching Consulting Learning Writing rules and laws Seeking information For expressing our emotions Motivating the people around us Selling goods Advertising Networking with people with common interests
We have done a survey on teenagers’ modern means of communication According to our survey
Children and adolescents seem to communicate with their peers more electronically than face to face. They chat with their friends through instant messaging, texting, social network sites such as Facebook and . Often times they are multi-tasking; they may be texting several of their friends while chatting via instant message and at the same time listening to the latest music download.
Modern means of communication Nowadays we cannot imagine human contact without modern technology devices such as mobile phones, smartphones, i-Pods, i-Pads, Tablets, laptops and so on.
Modern means of communication have made the distance between people unimportant. Mobile phones are portable and let us contact others wherever they and we are. When we think of it we cannot understand how people who lived 50 years ago were able to keep in touch.
How did people get messages to one another in the past? Well, they did not have modern technology, but they certainly had creativity. The pigeon was the fastest means of communication until the 19 th century. Since the ancient Greeks used pigeons to announce the winners of the Olympic games to the Athenians, pigeons have been used throughout history to deliver news about wars, battles and even the latest stock prices! North American Indians used smoke signals to send messages. After lightning a fire on a hill, they would cover it with a blanket and then remove it, causing a puff of smoke to rise up into the air. The messages such as “Attention!”, “All` s well” or “Danger!” could be seen from up to fifty miles away!
A signalling mirror is a simple, effective means of communication and an indispensable item in your bag. On a clear, dry day, a signal mirror can project an attention-getting signal as far as 15 miles. And if you’re looking for the signal, expecting it, you can spot it up to 20 miles away. Rescue teams, first responders, air and sea pilots, and military personnel are all trained to recognize intentional reflective signalling as a distress call.
The ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks all used a highly efficient system involving a messenger running or riding to a ‘station’ with a message and then shouting or passing it on to another waiting messenger and so on, until the message reached its destination. A variation on this system was a network of people shouting their messages from field to field and from farm to farm.
In the late 1700′s and early 1800′s the first telegraph was invented. The telegraph system was a form of communication that transmitted electric signals over wires from different locations to translate messages. The first telegraph was invented by Claude Chappe in 1794, this telegraph was not electric, it was a “semaphores, or tall poles with movable arms, and other signaling apparatus, set within physical sight of one another.” Many others tried to reinvent and improve the way telegraphs worked. However, Samuel Morse was the only one who perfected it. Morse took the significance of those facts found by previous inventors and invented a more practical and commercial system. Morse laid out three major parts of the telegraph the sender, the receiver and the code. The sender opened and closed the electric circuit, the receiver used, the electromagnet to record the signal, and the code translated the signals into letters and numbers.
Throughout history and in every civilization, people have felt the need to communicate in secret. There are two ways to communicate in secret: steganography and cryptology. Although steganography is a very clever way, it does have an Achilles heel. If the messenger does not do a particularly good job concealing their message and someone finds it, all its secrets will be immediately revealed. Another very old form of steganography is invisible ink. Inks made of simple organic materials such as milk or lemon juice, which turn dark when held over a flame, were used as early as the first century AD for very serious communications.
Cryptology hides the meaning of messages by using codes. Codes are essentially secret languages. Julius Caesar invented one. He replaced every letter in a word by the letter three places away from it in the alphabet. A was D,B was E, and so on. You may be surprised to learn that secret communication is a part of everyday life! For a example, every time you use your credit card to buy something from a company over the Internet, cryptology is employed. It is also thriving in the digital world. Secret messages can easily be hidden in , audio and image files.
«Communication is the solvent of all problems and is the foundation for personal development.» Peter Shepherd