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© Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20121 Designing for Usability.

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Presentation on theme: "© Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20121 Designing for Usability."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20121 Designing for Usability

2 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20122 What is Usability?

3 Usability is a quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use. Jakob Nielsen © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20123

4 Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design? Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks? Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they re-establish proficiency? Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how easily can they recover from the errors? Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design? © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20124 Nielsen’s elements of usability

5 Unraveling “user” speak Users : The people who will be using the deliverable (or product) to accomplish a goal. Users are the deliverable's audience or the product’s customers. © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20125

6 Usability : A noun that embodies a variety of factors involving human interaction with a product. These can include ease of use, efficiency, effectiveness, and user satisfaction. © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20126 Unraveling “user” speak

7 User experience : The overall experience a user has with a product that evokes a feeling about the product, company, or brand. © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20127 Unraveling “user” speak

8 User-centered design : A design model that considers user wants, needs, and goals throughout the entire development process with an ultimate objective of usability. Often used when describing the software development cycle or website design. © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20128 Unraveling “user” speak

9 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design20129

10 Designing for Usability © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design what people do well …and what they don’t

11 How people read © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

12 An illegible type, set it how you will, cannot be made readable. But the most legible of types can be made unreadable if it is set to too wide a measure, or in too large or too small a size for a particular purpose. Dowding 1957 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Legibility vs. Readability

13 Serif vs. sans serif the common rule is sans serif for headings and serif for body text the idea is that the serifs “guide the eye” but… there is no research that supports this theory © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

14 serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. sans serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. Alex Poole Usability Designer © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Serif vs. sans serif

15 serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. sans serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. Alex Poole Usability Designer © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Serif vs. sans serif

16 serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. sans serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. Alex Poole Usability Designer © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Serif vs. sans serif

17 serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. sans serif Finally, we should accept that most reasonably designed typefaces in mainstream use will be equally legible, and that it makes much more sense to argue in favour of serif or sans serif typefaces on aesthetic grounds than on the question of legibility. Alex Poole Usability Designer © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Serif vs. sans serif

18 Computer screen vs. paper because screens emit light and are constantly refreshing they are hard on the eyes use fonts that are large enough to create contrast between background and foreground © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

19 white text on a black background can be hard to read too little contrast between the background and text color is hard to read black text on a white background is the easiest to read © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

20 Saccades and fixations our eyes move in quick, sharp jumps with short periods of stillness between them we look ahead during saccades but we also look backward about 10 to 15 percent of the time © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

21 line length research has shown that people read faster with a longer line length—about 100 characters this is due to interruption in saccade and fixation at the end of a line, which adds to reading time © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Line length

22 however, people prefer a shorter line length—about 50 characters this is why long sections of text are often broken up into columns (think newspaper) short or long?...it comes down to whether or not reading speed is important for your content or site © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

23 How people see © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

24 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

25 Inattention blindness people can miss changes in their visual fields adding visual or audio clues can help people notice a change in their visual field © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

26 Peripheral vs. central vision Larson and Loschky 2009: central vision is the most critical for specific object recognition, but peripheral vision is used for getting the gist of a scene put important content in the center of a page but don’t ignore peripheral content as it will help user’s form an overall impression © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

27 if you want users to focus on something central—don’t put animation or blinking elements in the periphery interesting research: when pictures of fearful objects were placed in subject’s peripheral vision the emotional reaction took place 80 milliseconds sooner than when placed in central vision © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Peripheral vs. central vision

28 Color blindness full-color vision red-green color deficiencyblue-yellow color deficiency © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

29 Color and usability when using color for meaning or coding, use a repeating pattern as well use yellows and browns instead of red, green, or blue use to view a website the way someone who is color blind will see it © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

30 How people remember © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

31 Look over the list of terms staff whiteboard phone chair shelf table secretary breakroom meeting work presentation office deadline computer papers pen © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

32 Seven plus or minus two people can remember five to nine things at once however… this is a usability myth that came out of a talk by George A. Miller in 1956…there was no research behind the number © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

33 Four is the magic number human memory studies have determined that people can hold three to four items in their working memory… …as long as they are not distracted © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

34 Chunking information using the magic number four…think about grouping items so that people can remember them phone numbers are designed in groups of three and four © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

35 what did you remember? write down the words you remember from the list © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

36 Look over the list of terms staff whiteboard phone chair shelf table secretary breakroom meeting work presentation office deadline computer papers pen © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

37 Recall vs. recognition this is a recall test recognition is easier than recall when designing for usability, try not to make people recall information © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

38 Inclusion errors some people will remember words not on the list because they made an association…all of the items had to do with the workplace these are called inclusion errors © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

39 How people decide © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

40 Information is addictive dopamine effect: dopamine in the brain increases curiosity which is then rewarded by a feeling of satisfaction people are addicted to information seeking, but will stop once they are confident in their decisions © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

41 Choices people like choices but too many choices may cause them to not choose at all limit choices to three or four (the magic number again) if there are more than four choices try using subsets for better usability © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

42 What people don’t do well © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

43 Stress causes more errors if a task is going to be difficult, be sure to minimize distracting elements like color, sound, or movement people under stress may not see something on the screen and will repeat an action over and over even if it doesn’t work © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

44 Types of errors performance errors: mistakes made while going through the steps of a procedure motor-control errors: mistakes made while using controls of a device when usability testing, it can help to group errors into these categories to help focus the redesign process © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

45 Error recovery strategies systematic exploration: systematically investigating what each menu does trial and error exploration: randomly selecting menus and icons rigid exploration: repeating the same action over and over hoping it will work © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

46 Error recovery people respond to errors with different strategies depending on their age, experience level, or other factors when doing usability testing, try to determine which method of error recovery your audience uses to help predict issues or to focus on redesign © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

47 Design for usability when approaching usability design, there is no need to reinvent the wheel there are established standards of design that have their foundation in psychology and physiology © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

48 Resources 100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People by Susan M. Weinschenk, PhD Universal Principles of Design by Lidwell, Holden, and Butler © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

49 Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Design is knowing which ones to keep. —Scott Adams © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design

50 2012© Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design 50 Approaching a Usability Design

51 2012© Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design 51 A design framework Content designInformation designUser experience design Purpose Substance Presentation Location Navigation Labeling Searching Aesthetics Future iterations

52 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Content design Purpose What user needs and goals are we trying to meet? Substance What content will be useful to the user? What content will help the user accomplish their goal?

53 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Content design Presentation How will the content be presented and formatted? What design elements will be used to communicate information to the user? What design elements will be used within specific content chunks to help the user meet their goal?

54 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Information design Location Where will the content be located so the user can access it? How will the content be managed? Navigation How will the user find their way through the content? How will the user know where they’re at in the content?

55 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Information design Labeling How will you communicate with the user? How will menus, buttons, and links be meaningful? Where will tooltips be used? Searching How will the user find specific content? Will keywords or an index be used? Will there be a search function available?

56 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design User experience design Aesthetics What will the tone and “feel” of the deliverable be? What graphic design elements will be used to convey this?

57 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design User experience design Future iterations What systems are in place to improve usability in the future? Will there be a feedback system? Will an iterative design process be implemented with usability testing?

58 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design Good design and user experience Eliciting a positive user experience can be helped along with good design— design that is user-centered. If we are designing for usability, then it follows that the user will be left with a positive feeling, because they had a positive experience with our deliverable. I like to think of this as enjoyability.

59 © Danalyn Loitz Dashability Design A design that is usable, engaging, and enjoyable means a happy user, happy stakeholder, and happy technical communicator.


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