# Examples of Observations ■ After leaving that pan of seawater in the sun all day, all that was left was white crystal residue. ■ I always feel better.

## Presentation on theme: "Examples of Observations ■ After leaving that pan of seawater in the sun all day, all that was left was white crystal residue. ■ I always feel better."— Presentation transcript:

Examples of Observations ■ After leaving that pan of seawater in the sun all day, all that was left was white crystal residue. ■ I always feel better after I talk with my friend.

Turn your Curiosity of an Observation into a Question ■ I wonder if the size of the residue crystals can change? ■ I wonder if something about me changes when talking with my friend?

Build a Hypothesis ■ Propose an explanation for your question. ■ Must be testable and repeatable! ■ Sometimes written as If…Then… statements ■ Predicts an outcome

Examples of Hypotheses ■ The longer it takes the seawater to evaporate the bigger the crystals grow in the residue. ■ My heart rate drops when I talk with my friend so I’m more relaxed and feel better.

Design an Experiment ■ Think of a procedure to test the Hypothesis. ■ Identify variables ■ Control Variables ■ Experiment Variable ■ Identify list of materials

The Experiment Variable Experiment Variable ■ The factor in the experiment that is being tested. ■ A good or “valid” experiment will ONLY have ONE variable!

The Control Variables ■ The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome. ■ Those factors are called control variables.

The Crystal Experiment ■ Experimental Variable – Vary evaporation time of seawater by using different exposures to air. ■ Control Variables ■ Same volume of seawater ■ Conduct experiment with two jars at same temperature/location. ■ Materials ■ Two same size and shaped jars. One with lid with penny sized hole in it. ■ Seawater ■ Pencil and paper

The Heart Experiment ■ Experimental Variable - Check heart rate before and after talking with friend. ■ Control Variables ■ Call same time of day. ■ Be in same place doing same thing such as sitting alone on bed at home during call. ■ Do same activity one hour before every call. ■ Talk for same length of time each call. ■ Materials ■ Cell phone ■ Friend ■ Pencil and paper

Doing Experiment and Collecting Data ■ Repeat experiment multiple times ■ Evaporate seawater from same two cleaned jars several times. ■ Call Friend every day for a week. ■ Record experiment results ■ Note time it takes seawater to completely evaporate from each jar and compare the size of the resulting crystals. ■ Note heart rate before and after each call.

Analyze Data ■ Tabulate/Chart Data to help you understand and see patterns in the Results of the experiment.

Conclusion ■ The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment ■ Remember some of the most important discoveries were made when conclusions did not match hypothesis.

Engineering Process An Engineer takes what the Scientist discovers and turns it into something that can be used by you and me.

Steps in the Engineering Process ■ Define a Need ■ Do Background Research ■ Establish Design Criteria ■ Prepare Preliminary Designs ■ Build and Test a Prototype ■ Redesign & Retest as Necessary ■ Present Results

Observe a Need ■ Look for better ways to do something! ■ Listen to things people complain about doing. ■ Develop an idea on how to do it better. ■ This is what a engineer/inventor does.

Establish Design Criteria ■ List design requirements. ■ Target cost of product ■ Form factor (size) ■ Functions and features ■ Make decisions about how to manufacture the product.

Do Preliminary Designs ■ Good engineers look at a variety of different possible designs. ■ It's faster and cheaper to improve designs on paper than making changes to something already being built.

Build and Test Prototype ■ A prototype is an initial working model of your idea. ■ Often it is impossible to meet all your design criteria and you need to compromise on choices of materials and features.

Redesign & Retest as Needed ■ Almost every prototype has unexpected flaws ■ Engineers redesign their products to "get the bugs out“ and improve the idea.

Present Results Scientific Method/Engineering Process ■ Share your excitement for your design with others! ■ Learn from others so you can do better with your next idea and the one after that… and after that…

So… ■ Be curious! ■ Observe with your senses! ■ Think about things and try to understand how and why things work the way they do! ■ HAVE FUN!

What can Mom or Dad do? DO Ask how the hypothesis relates to the project. DON’T Write the hypothesis yourself. DO Assist in finding materials. DON’T Do the experiment yourself. DON’T Create the tables, graphs or poster board yourself. DON’T Draw the conclusion – but let your child talk it through with you.

Need Help? ■ Questions about the Science Fair on May 30, 2015? Contact Seana Wagner, 265-2351, swagner@napacoe.org

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