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Engineering and Development: Good Intentions and Real Solutions – Water and Sanitation Thomas Soerens

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1 Engineering and Development: Good Intentions and Real Solutions – Water and Sanitation Thomas Soerens

2 Outline n Background: what’s the problem? n Case Studies: MaldivesMaldives AmazonAmazon ChinaChina n Lessons and Issues

3 n Oct 17, earthquake hits Bay Area, Cal7.0 earthquake hits Bay Area, Cal 63 people killed63 people killed n Jan 12, earthquake hits Haiti7.0 earthquake hits Haiti 230,000 people killed230,000 people killed n What’s the difference InfrastructureInfrastructure Symptom of povertySymptom of poverty

4 Next 2 slides from:

5 Luby, 2009

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7 Background: What’s the problem? n The need for clean water 1.1 Billion people on earth lack improved water source (pipe, well, or protected spring).1.1 Billion people on earth lack improved water source (pipe, well, or protected spring). –2.7 billion lack sanitation 3.4 million people, mostly children, die each year from waterborne diseases.3.4 million people, mostly children, die each year from waterborne diseases. –Twenty 747s full of children per day Millions of people, mostly women, must walk for miles and hours to get water.Millions of people, mostly women, must walk for miles and hours to get water.

8 Water Supply Coverage (2000) Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report (WHO and UNICEF) 0%~25% 25%~50% 51%~75% 76%~90% 91%~100% Missing data Water supply coverage

9 0%~25% 25%~50% 51%~75% 76%~90% 91%~100% Missing data Sanitation coverage Sanitation Coverage (2000) Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report (WHO and UNICEF)

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11 Access to sanitation is one of the strongest determinants of child survival: the transition from unimproved to improved sanitation reduces child mortality by a third

12 Myths, Ironies, Barriers n Myth: They develop immunity No they don’t, they die.No they don’t, they die. n Myth: They’re happy They don’t want their kids to die.They don’t want their kids to die. n Irony: High rainfall areas lack clean water But quantity = quality to a certain degreeBut quantity = quality to a certain degree n Irony: Poor people pay more for water than rich people

13 n 85% of the richest 20% of the population have access to water. Only 25% of the poorest 20% do. n In many places,the poorest people get less water, and they also pay some of the world’s highest prices. note: $1.25 per 20 oz bottled water = $2113 per cubic metre = ~ 2000 times cost of tap water

14 Barriers n Barrier: Lack of hygiene knowledge n Barrier: Not a perceived priority n Barrier: Hard to break tradition n Counterpoint: everyone who has money has decent water and sanitation.

15 Possible Solutions - Water n Terms: WatSan, WASH n Wells Improved, sealedImproved, sealed HandpumpsHandpumps –Cost, maintenance –Playpumps – lessons learned StorageStorage Unintended consequencesUnintended consequences –Africa: deforestation, etc. –Bangladesh: Arsenic poisoning

16 Possible Solutions - Water n Rainwater Catchment Large or small scale, public or householdLarge or small scale, public or household traditional, but currently underutilizedtraditional, but currently underutilized Practicality and economics depend onPracticality and economics depend on –Amount and timing of rain –Scale of application –Other water sources

17 Possible Solutions - Water n Spring capture n Hydraulic ram (uses energy of stream) n Storage and distribution systems Well, spring, surface waterWell, spring, surface water May include treatment, e.g., filterMay include treatment, e.g., filter UrbanUrban –e.g, Bogotá With money, this will ~always resultWith money, this will ~always result

18 Possible Solutions - Water n Household water treatment – (WHO) Household filtersHousehold filters –Biosand filters (cawst.org) –Ceramic filters Potters for PeacePotters for Peace Solar disinfection - SODISSolar disinfection - SODIS Chemical additives (Pur)Chemical additives (Pur) n Education Knowledge of hygieneKnowledge of hygiene Maintenance of systemsMaintenance of systems

19 Possible Solutions - Sanitation n Latrines, pit toilets appropriate?appropriate? n Septic systems infiltration?infiltration?

20 Possible Solutions - Sanitation n Sewer systems small-bore sewerssmall-bore sewers can do at any scalecan do at any scale treatment!treatment! –O&M dischargedischarge enough water?enough water? n Health and Hygiene education

21 Costs

22 Case Study: Maldives n Private project in n Where’s Maldives?

23 Maldives

24 Maalhos Island

25 Our Island

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27 Maldives Project n RAEMAS - Research And Education in Mariculture and Agriculture Systems n Water and Sanitation People want septic systemsPeople want septic systems –but would contaminate well water StrategyStrategy –build rainwater tanks –use drain fields instead of pits

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41 n Keeping it real do you have this on your island?do you have this on your island? Huriha dhon mihun bo sakaraiHuriha dhon mihun bo sakarai what did your mother teach you?what did your mother teach you?

42 Results n Septic tank conclusions given: people were going to build septic systemsgiven: people were going to build septic systems we came up with a way that reduces the effects on well water qualitywe came up with a way that reduces the effects on well water quality can educate, influence, but cannot totally change peoplecan educate, influence, but cannot totally change people

43 Appropriate Technology n Don’t just export your own technology culturally, economically, and technically appropriateculturally, economically, and technically appropriate n Sustainability “sustainability” is broader but includes much of what we used to call “appropriate tech”“sustainability” is broader but includes much of what we used to call “appropriate tech” Five factors (McConville, 2006)Five factors (McConville, 2006) –Socio-cultural Respect –Community participation –Political cohesion –Economic sustainability –Environmental sustainability McConville, J.R. 2006, “Applying Life Cycle Thinking to International Water and Sanitation Development Projects: An assessment tool for project managers in sustainable development work”, Michigan Tech, Environmental Engineering MS Report.McConville, J.R. 2006, “Applying Life Cycle Thinking to International Water and Sanitation Development Projects: An assessment tool for project managers in sustainable development work”, Michigan Tech, Environmental Engineering MS Report.

44 Culturally Appropriate?

45 Appropriate Technology n Counterpoint “Appropriate technology … means good things for rich people and sh*t for the poor”“Appropriate technology … means good things for rich people and sh*t for the poor” –Father Lafontant, “Mountains Beyond Mountains” “Appropriate technology is dead”“Appropriate technology is dead” –Paul Polack: must have market solutions n Maldive mistakes elevated pit toiletselevated pit toilets community toiletscommunity toilets

46 Case Study: Amazon n Indigenous (Ticuna and Yagua) villages near Leticia, Colombia, including Brazil and Peru At the request of missionariesAt the request of missionaries n December ’04 to August ‘06

47 Leticia, Colombia

48 Amazon Project - Background n At request of Christian missionary who works with indigenous pastors n Children were dying of waterborne diseases. Unclean water during rainy seasonUnclean water during rainy season Use river during dry seasonUse river during dry season

49 Amazon Project – Constraints and Assists n Solution needs to make it to village by canoe Note: Leticia is 500 miles from nearest highwayNote: Leticia is 500 miles from nearest highway n Many villages already have water tanks n Most villages do not have sand available n Each village is a little different Accessibility, Resources, Buildings, CountryAccessibility, Resources, Buildings, Country n Have relationship in villages through pastors some have church buildingssome have church buildings

50 On the Amazon on the way to villages

51 With kids at a village

52 A pastor’s wife in front of her church

53 Pastor’s wife grinding yucca in her home What’s in there?

54 Hello boa

55 Many villages have rainwater collection tanks. This village also had a well that yielded good water, although it went dry during the dry season

56 Villagers used this pond for bathing and some drinking and cooking

57 This other village had a well, but it was broken and unused because it yielded bad tasting water (sulfur taste is the main problem).

58 This village was on the Amazon itself and was quite developed, including electricity, yet had pitiful water and sanitation facilities. Here’s a “bathroom”.

59 Many politicians and government agencies like to help the indigenous people and have donated rainwater tanks to the villages. You can see their names on the tanks. Some of the tanks, however, are unused. They also run out of water during the short dry season.

60 A main problem in instituting any type of system is ensuring that the people use and maintain it and take responsibility for it. The one below shows another mostly homemade rainwater catchment. The family with the system above had initiative—they fashioned a rainwater collection system out of materials they had and used a cloth to cover the tank. The cloth is a good idea because it filters out debris including bird droppings and keeps critters out of the water tank.

61 Senior Design Team Sp. 05 n Built a sand filter and a biosand filter side-by-side High coliform creek water put through.High coliform creek water put through. Sand filter removed most fecal coli.Sand filter removed most fecal coli. Biosand filter removed all fecal coli.Biosand filter removed all fecal coli.

62 n Fecal coliform results Creek water without filtration Sand filter Biosand filter

63 Biosand Filter

64 Technical Solution n Rainwater catchment with Increased storageIncreased storage –3 Tanks in series FiltrationFiltration –biosand filter n Installed on church in Zaragoza village Pastor and village have reputation for responsibilityPastor and village have reputation for responsibility

65 Construction of filter

66 Our stuff heading out on the Amazon

67 Our stuff arriving in Zaragoza

68 Kids hanging out in the house

69 Gregorio (the guy who’s doing all the work)

70 Our system installed

71 With the pastor, his wife, and brother Our audience

72 Just for Fun: photos around Leticia

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77 Isla de los Micos

78 Photos at zoo – two anacondas

79 Woo Tapir Sooeee!

80 5 systems constructed 2006 n Rio Loretoyacu, an Amazon tributary in Colombia with John Lawrence, engineerwith John Lawrence, engineer with authority of the governor we built water collection and filtration systems in 5 indigenous (Ticuna tribe) villages.with authority of the governor we built water collection and filtration systems in 5 indigenous (Ticuna tribe) villages. systems on schools and health clinicssystems on schools and health clinics

81 Rio Loretoyacu Leticia Colombia Peru Brazil Peru Rio Amazonas

82 San Juan de Soco n 145 people in 30 families n system on health clinic n modified design

83 Puerto Rico n Especially industrious and precise workers n System on health worker’s residence n Added to his existing tank

84 Dos de Octubre n woman chief n brought gutter around building n plans for big system

85 Villa Andrea n not happy to see us; system on school; headhunter rumor

86 San Francisco n larger and more developed than other villages; not real friendly n system on catholic school on top of hill n hooked filter up to existing tanks

87 photos from various places

88 The Future n Peru ministry of Agricultureministry of Agriculture n Household systems? n Hygiene education. n Sanitation systems?

89 China Project n Leon Chen, Kerr-McGee, project leader Dick Greenly, Pumps of OklahomaDick Greenly, Pumps of Oklahoma OthersOthers n Solar pumps in Zuang villages, Guanxi, China Poor area with countless small villagesPoor area with countless small villages Karst geologyKarst geology Shorten time and ease work for getting waterShorten time and ease work for getting water

90 Guanxi, China

91 China Project n Leon and team visited in February ‘05 n Went in July ’05 to install pumps n Issues Storage of waterStorage of water Arsenic treatment?Arsenic treatment? Buy goats?Buy goats? n Status Leon is living there now with contract to install thousands of systemsLeon is living there now with contract to install thousands of systems –Coffee and tea exports

92 With kids at a village

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95 Lessons and Issues n It’s not that easy It’s hard to changeIt’s hard to change Everyone is differentEveryone is different The importance of cultureThe importance of culture –respect –anthropology positivespositives negativesnegatives –human zoo –Yanomami (-amo, ao, …) Language is a big dealLanguage is a big deal

96 How appropriate. n “Appropriate” does not necessarily mean low tech n “Appropriate” does not necessarily mean traditional n Observation: everyone in the world who has money has piped water to their home and a flush toilet.

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98 Keeping it going n O&M n financially sustainable? n ownership, responsibility?

99 n Community development You go to do engineering, but end up involved in broader scale community developmentYou go to do engineering, but end up involved in broader scale community development –Agriculture, Industry –Medicine –Education

100 n Community Responsibility Need people in village to take ownership of projectNeed people in village to take ownership of project Hard to change entrenched attitudes and habitsHard to change entrenched attitudes and habits Know who you’re dealing with (e.g., culture)Know who you’re dealing with (e.g., culture)

101 n How to Measure? by $$$$$ spent?by $$$$$ spent? by results?by results? life cycle analysis?life cycle analysis?

102 What can we do? n One of the problems with poor people is that they don’t have a lot of money Funding spread real thinFunding spread real thin Not “cutting edge”Not “cutting edge” –Nothing new about poor people with bad water

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104 Then again, a lot is happening… n Engineers Without Borders n Church groups n Foundations: Gates, Clinton, etc.. n NGOs – PeaceWork, Save the Children, Care, Heifer international n Look at the positives

105 The University of Arkansas n Goal: combine academia with practice Service LearningService Learning Build a better mousetrapBuild a better mousetrap –but don’t reinvent the wheel Professional musicians, athletes, and you?Professional musicians, athletes, and you? –A few get paid; most pay to do it

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