Introduction Educators are using disruptive innovation to invert the classroom. The concept is gaining acceptance in colleges and universities. So, what is and how do we flip the classroom?
Disruptive Innovation Mash-up of current technologies Radically alters the established system Improves the quality of the deliverables
DI in Education History Writing - 6 th to 4 th millennium BC Printing Press - 1450 A.D. Electronic Calculator - 1970-1980 PC – 1977 (PET, Apple, TRS) Tablets - 1990-2010 (iPad) Each changed education by itself Now, numerous technologies are used together to create new teaching models.
Flipped Classroom Constructivist theorists Piaget (1896-1980) Vygotsky (1896-1934) Bruner (1915-) Kolb (1939-) Constructivism Learners construct new ideas based on their current and past knowledge Allows the learners to go beyond the information provided
Constructivism Process Elements Context Actual life settings (learned experience) Construction of knowledge Within a certain context Collaboration With others to gain information Conversation With others to construct new knowledge
The Un-flipped Classroom 19 th and 20 th Centuries model: Industrial based Imitates Ford’s assembly line Aimed at the average student Lecture me into a stupor Little interactivity One right answer (Taylorism) Intention: develop workers for the country’s industrial complexes
The Flipped Classroom 21st Century model: Knowledge based Critical thinking and application Aimed at motivated students Do not lecture at me Great interactivity Many perspectives and solutions Intention: develop employees for the knowledge economy
Flipping the Classroom Revise the pedagogy Abandon teacher-centered model Adopt student-centered model Move the lecture outside the classroom Move the activities to the classroom In the classroom, apply the theories presented in the outside-the-classroom lectures Engage students in their own learning Let students guide each other in their learning (peer instruction) Flexible classroom
How to Flip the Classroom 1. Content Know the content backward and forward before making a video or podcast. Use story boards. Create a beginning, a middle and an end ○ Beginning – titles and introduction and over view ○ Middle – the concepts and ideas ○ End – summary
2. Know your audience Understand their needs, experiences and discourses 3. Don’t be academic Get student engaged Make connections between the student and academics Work concepts you wish to convey
4. Multimodality Sound Pictures Other videos Secret is creating a mashup Do not reinvent the wheel Remember the knowledge section of learning takes place at home
How It Works Instructor creates outside-the-classroom activities using asynchronous clusters. The time the student interacts with these clusters does not matter The interaction is what matters! The instructor develops activities for synchronous (real time) clusters What takes place in these clusters paints the picture of the flipped classroom
Asynchronous Clusters Student explores concepts and discovers meaning by seeking answers to “What” and “So What” questions These activities are technology driven. Internet, YouTube, Khan Academy Instructor creates audio and video lectures Engage in chats, blogs, podcasts and vodcasts, discussions with other students.
Consequences Ensure student participation in the out-of- classroom materials and activities. Measureable means to determine extent of participation. ○ Specific discussion questions about materials ○ Quizzes on specific materials and activities ○ Incorporate questions about materials and activities into semester tests and final exam. The bottom line: Students must know a consequence exists for not participating.
In the Classroom Instructor needs to create in-class activities Instructors should use the resources that are provided within the textbook to construct these activities. These activities should apply concepts students were to learn in the work they did at home through the videos, podcasts, etc.
Example Activities These activities can include: Debates Role-play Lab activities Case studies Discussions Scenarios Simulations and more…
Gear to Make Videos Screen-casting software Computer Pen-tablet input device Microphone Webcam. Pen-table device and software may be all that is needed because most new computers have built in microphones and cameras.
Simple Tools Pen and tablet (Bamboo - $60 on up) Graphics software (Gimp – Free) Microphone ($10 on up) Video camera (most computers have cameras) Computer (iMac or PC)
Screen casting software Captures your computer screen. With microphone, software can record voice. Many available programs, some are free and open source. Find a program that works for you. Video capture software (Screen-o-Matic is free; Camtasia Studeo is not)
Pen annotation Key Piece of Equipment – software that has pen annotation feature One is Wacom Bamboo.
The Upside Students become engaged in their own learning. Since concepts are learned at home, the classroom becomes an active laboratory for application of these concepts. The instructor is readily available to help lagging students, challenge exceptional students and nurture the average student.
The Downside Creation of the videos and podcasts and other resources is time intensive. Instructors need to learn a variety of skills outside of their teaching area. Creation of classroom activities is a vital part of flipping the classroom. This is where concepts are applied to real-world situations. Finding or creating appropriate videos on-line
Some Tips Start small Don’t flip all of your courses Don’t flip everything in a course Do simple things Do talk overs on PowerPoint slides Use a pen and tablet to animate the lecture Use screen capture along with a computer camera
More Tips As you become more comfortable with the concept, move to using mounted cameras, lighting, green screens and other video technologies. Don’t re-invent the wheel Don't hesitate to use already created videos on sites such as YouTube, Khan Academy, Alanis Business Academy, Finance Learning Academy, etc.