Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Cities: Coupling Cycles of Energy, Water, & Land-use to Reinvent the Urban Landscape Kimberly A. Gray Professor Dept. of Civil & Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
1Sustainable Cities: Coupling Cycles of Energy, Water, & Land-use to Reinvent the Urban LandscapeKimberly A. GrayProfessorDept. of Civil & Environmental EngineeringEnergy, Cities, and the Control of Complex Systems Workshop47th Session of International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies14 May 2014
2Global Conditions Urban face of planet - Since 2008 > ½ world’s population urban; 70% by 2050- Creating a precarious condition where 3.5 billion people occupy only about 2% of the earth’s land areaPost-industrial countries urbanized relatively slowly and have been 80% urban for decades; in contrast, many developing countries undergoing massive demographic shifts – in terms of scale and time
3• Urban Development as Opportunity - Cities may be our “greatest invention”…• 70% of global GDP• 70% of global energy• 75% of global resources• lowest energy, GHG / capita- But the typical city in U.S and elsewhere in world is woefully inefficient in the way it• transports its citizens• supplies information• manages its water supply• produces food and energy• treats its wastes- We must reinvent old & new cities by devising strategies for sustainable urban design, which is based on the ecological principles of material & energy cycling and on policies & incentives that make business sense.- Cities are hotbed of adaptation, resilient actions
4• Human Footprint on Earth System: • Human Footprint on Earth System: - Beyond the Boundary; Limits to Growth? - MetricsRockstrom J. et al. (2009) A safe operating space for humanity, Nature, 461:
5Key vulnerabilities may be associated with many climate & ecologically sensitive systems: • Food supply• Infrastructure• Health• Water resources• Coastal systems• Ecosystems• Global biogeochemical cycles• Ice sheets• Modes of ocean & atmospheric circulationS. Schneider (2009) Science as a Contact Sport (National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.)
6Overarching Question What makes a city truly sustainable? How do we design a truly sustainable city?
7Yet. . .• Over last 50 years we have seen many examples of green or eco-designBedZed (London, England)Dockside Green (Victoria, B.C.)Frieburg, GermanyHammarby Sjöstad (Stockholm, Sweden)Curitiba, BrazilCopenhagen, DenmarkSingaporeMasdar (Abu Dhabi, UAE)• Why, then, do we continue to question the feasibility of eco-developments & don’t we observe projects scaling up?
8Why? • Economic viability – incompatibility with principles of sustainability• Scale – neighborhood vs. city vs. region• Metrics - not single parameter• Is sustainability still possible?- Lack of definition – can mean almost anything- Less bad- Not an end state; dynamic, process (flows & networks)- Human systems (institutions, behavior, acceptance, etc.); not technology constrained.
9City Today HEAT Energy CO2 Used Water Water Biomass Waste Food Solid WasteMaterialsDiffuseLarge Inputs & Outputsof Energy & MaterialsLinear FlowsValue Added:Economic outputWealthQuality of Life
10Diminished Inputs & Outputs FutureReduced HEATC - NeutralEnergyHinterlandZero Net Waste WaterWaterCityBiomassWaterFoodMaterialsEnergyZero Net Biomass WasteFoodZero Net WasteMaterialsIncreased Value Added:Economic outputWealthQuality of LifeDiminished Inputs & Outputsof Energy & MaterialsCoupled & Cyclic Flows
11Four storiesLiving Cities: Transforming APEC Cities into Models of Sustainability by 2030Transforming Chicago’s Water Cycle to Closed Loop SystemBiorefinery – coupling energy-water-land-use systemsHuman Engineering vs. Nature’s Engineering
12APEC 2011- We were asked to research: Environmental Goods and ServicesEco-CitiesLEED and other green certifications“conduct study on the best practices using environmental goods and services in new construction and development. . .particular interest in eco-city design & in LEED. . .”
13Demographic ShiftsDeveloping world --Unprecedented demographic shifts (both rates & scale) are occurring.- It is estimated that an urban area supporting a million people will be developed every 5 days for the next 40 years, effectively doubling the urban face of the planet at about 10 times the rate of previous eras.Post-industrial world is changing, too.- Some cities shrinking; others growing, but both slower rates & smaller scale
14Living Cities: Sustainable Urban Design in the 21st Century
15Living CityInner workings based on ecological principles of material & energy recyclingLocally tailoredDistributed vs. centralized systemsResilient & adaptiveAll major functions linked****Coordinated through networks of smart connections that monitor, manage, integrate & inform – central nervous systemTeaming with business opportunitiesA sentient place, the city will not just gather information but change and react to feedback.Leo Hollis, The Future of the City, April 11, 2013.