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Chapter 4 Roots, bases, stems & other structural things

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1 Chapter 4 Roots, bases, stems & other structural things
Morphology Lane 333

2 Roots Some elements of the word are more central than others
Root: the central morpheme, or the key element to which others are added Roots have a lexical (dictionary) meaning, but some (lingu, arrog) have a full meaning only when joined to other elements

3 Exercise 4.1 identify the roots of the following words.
hymns breakage insane majority outbreak linked renew boarder knowingly actions rediscover untainted

4 Exercise 4.3 identify the morphemes which are used to form derived lexemes warmth passage accountable endanger neutralize hearty consultant preschool

5 Affixes & the base Affixes not independent added to other elements
not all affixes are lexical (also grammatical)

6 The base Base: whatever you can add affixes to
All roots are bases (but not vice versa) can be a plain root (e.g. switch) or more than one plain root (e.g. window-seat) or a root + one or more affixes (e.g. ex-husband)

7 The stem Stem: what you add grammatical affixes to
a special kind of base All stems are bases, but not all bases can be stems in English because some lexical categories (e.g. prepositions) don’t take grammatical affixes

8 Summary Root: morpheme in which the rest of the word is built
Base: any structure to which an affix may be added Stem: any base to which a grammatical affix may be added Affix (1): lexical affixes form separate dictionary words by being attached to bases (derivation) Affix (2): Grammatical affixes add grammatical meanings to the meaning of their stems (inflection)

9 Examples crow base consisting of a single root
crows base consisting of a single root; stem+ gram. Affix crowbar base consisting of two roots crowbars stem+ gram. Affix minority base consisting of root+ affix gentlemanly base consisting of two roots+ lexical affix southernmost base consisting of root+ lexical affix deserted base consisting of a root; also a stem Irish- American base consisting of two bases, each consisting of a root+ a lexical affix

10 Exercise 4.8 which words consist entirely of roots and/or affixes which are bound morphemes? outgrow presently quicksilver bathrooms agriculture reinvent bricklayer sleepyhead

11 Conversions Conversions:
pairs of words which belong to different lexical categories (e.g. drink, love, review)

12 Compounds Head: the most important element in a compound (e.g ‘bag’ in ‘handbag’; a kind of bag) The head is of the same lexical category as the compound itself e.g.: pathway (noun) househunt (verb) headstrong (adj) Dependant: the element in a compound word which depends on the head (e.g. hand)

13 Compounds Endocentric: having the centre inside (e.g. junkmail)
Exocentric: having the centre outside (e.g. Redeye)

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