Presentation on theme: "Our Precedential Court System"— Presentation transcript:
1Our Precedential Court System Stare decisis et non quieta movere:“to stand by precedents and not disturb settled points of law”
2Stare decisisWritten judicial opinions in the American common law system, like English common law operate under the doctrine of Stare decisis.Stare decisis compels a court to decide a present case in accord with decisions rendered in similar cases in the past.
3Advantages:Judicial resources are conserved by eliminating the need to reinvent solutions.Litigants perceive that they will be treated fairly.Lawyers are more likely to be able to predict outcomes.
4Possible Disadvantages Stare decisis must also be flexible enough to allow for changes in the law.This may be done by modifying a legal rule or by overruling precedent.Conflicts arise between the competing goals of allowing for changes in the law and of following established precedent.
5Primary AuthorityThe application of certain sources of authority determine the outcome of a legal dispute.These sources of legal authority are called “primary authority” because they are established law.
6Primary Authority What are some examples of primary authorities? Judicial opinions, Statutes and Constitutions.
7Primary Authority Trump Chart ConstitutionStatutesRegulationsSo, we have several different kinds of primary legal authority. If there’s a conflict between these various sorts of laws, what wins out? What trumps what? This is perhaps a skeptical view, but at the end of the day, it’s whatever the courts say wins out. For example, sometimes the courts will apply a common-law doctrine that contradicts a statute directly on point. It’s like a blown call in baseball. In one of the most traumatic moments of my life, a blown call by umpire Don Denkinger --- damn him! --- arguably cost my beloved St. Louis Cardinals the 1985 World Series. Yes, Todd Worrell clearly beat Jorge Orta to the bag, but it showed up as a hit in the box score. Anyway, the following chart shows how I’d call the game.Cases Interpreting Statutes and RegulationsCommon Law
8Secondary AuthorityOther resources in which people write about the law or collect general theories about rules of law are referred to as secondary authority.Secondary authorities may influence a court but may not mandate a result.
9Secondary Authority What are some examples of secondary authority? Law review articles, treatises, restatements of the law, legal periodicals,annotations and legal encyclopedias.
10An Exception to the Rule Do you know how secondary material such as the Restatement of Torts can become primary authority?When a State Supreme Court “adopts” a restatement section in a judicial opinion, the section becomes primary authority.The comments to the section do not unless the court specifically adopts them as well.
11Mandatory and Persuasive Precedent Stare decisis operates within a court system according to an internal hierarchy.Courts are bound by decisions of courts higher in the same court structure.Decisions that a court must follow are called “mandatory” or “binding” precedent.
12Mandatory and Persuasive Precedent To determine mandatory vs. persuasive authority you must know two things:1) Jurisdiction (state/federal)2) Level of the court (trial/appellate)
13Alabama Circuit Courts are bound by Decisions of The Alabama Court of Appeals andDecisions of the Alabama Supreme Court
14Federal District Courts are bound by Their circuit court of appeals and ofThe U.S. Supreme Court
15Persuasive PrecedentPersuasive precedent is a decision or statement of law which a court does not have to follow.When do courts rely on persuasive precedent?When there is not yet any binding precedent on the subject or when the law has been undergoing a change as set forth in the persuasive precedent.
16How much does it weigh?Often courts will have to consider and weigh persuasive precedent.Several factors are used in determining the weight of various cases:The relative level of the issuing courtThe date of the opinion
17How much does it weigh?The comparison between what the opinions says and what the court doesThe strength of the court’s reasoningSubsequent treatment by authoritiesWhether the statements pertaining to your issue are Holding or Dicta
18How much does it weigh?The factual similarity between the opinion and the present situationThe number of subscribing judgesWhether the opinion is publishedTrends in the law and reputation of a judge
19Remember! Primary authority may be mandatory or persuasive. Secondary authority is never mandatory.