Presentation on theme: "The Future of the Integrated Library System: moving toward the next-generation of library automation Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technologies."— Presentation transcript:
The Future of the Integrated Library System: moving toward the next-generation of library automation Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technologies and Research Vanderbilt University Wednesday January 14, 2009 George E. Bello Center for Information and Technology Bryant University, Smithfield, Rhode Island
HELIN Consortium of academic and hospital libraries Initially formed in 1984 to share CLSI circulation system Implementation of INNOPAC system 1991 Migration to Millennium Brown Josiah catalog based on separate Millennium implementation InRhode Library Catalog = HELIN + Brown Initial deployment of Encore
Library Technology Guides Repository for library automation data Lib-web-cats tracks 38,000 libraries and the automation systems used. – Expanding to include more international scope Announcements and developments made by companies and organizations involved in library automation technologies
LJ Automation System Marketplace Annual Industry report published in Library Journal: 2008: Opportunity out of turmoil 2007: An industry redefined 2006: Reshuffling the deck 2005: Gradual evolution 2004: Migration down, innovation up 2003: The competition heats up 2002: Capturing the migrating customer
Upheavals in the library automation arena Industry Consolidation Abrupt transitions for major library automation products Increased industry control by external financial investors Demise of the traditional OPAC Frustration with ILS products and vendors Open Source alternatives hit the mainstream Breeding, Marshall: Perceptions 2007 an international survey of library automation. January 2008.
ILS Industry in Transition Consolidation through mergers and acquisitions have resulted in a fewer number of players; larger companies Uncomfortable level of product narrowing Increased ownership by external interests Yet: Some companies and products continue on solid ground Breeding, Marshall “Automation system marketplace 2008: Opportunity Out of Turmoil” Library Journal. April 1, 2008.
Library Automation M&A History
Product and Technology Trends Innovation below expectations Conventional ILS less tenable Proliferation of products related to e-content management New genre of discovery-layer interfaces
Web 2.0 / Collaborative Computing Currently implemented ad hoc Many libraries putting up blogs, wikis, and fostering engagement in social networking sites Proliferation of silos with no integration or interoperability with larger library Web presence Next Gen: Build social and collaborative features into core automation components
Part II. A Mandate for Openness
Opportunities for Openness Open Source – Alternative to traditionally licensed software Open Systems – Software that doesn’t hold data hostage
Open Source Alternatives Explosive interest in Open Source driven by disillusionment with current vendors and near-evangelical promotion of this software licensing model Beginning to emerge as a practical option TOC (Total Cost of Ownership) still roughly equal to proprietary commercial model Still a risky strategy for libraries – traditional licensing also risky
A result of industry turmoil Disruptions and business decisions to narrow options have fueled the open source movement Benefit to libraries in having additional options Traditionally licensed and open source ILS alternatives will coexist in the ILS arena
Open Source ILS enters the mainstream Earlier era of pioneering efforts to ILS shifting into one where open source alternatives fall in the mainstream Off-the-shelf, commercially supported product available Still a minority player, but gaining ground
Open Source ILS options Koha – Commercial support from LibLime Evergreen – Commercial support from Equinox Software OPALS – Commercial support from Media Flex
Business case for Open Source ILS Comparative total cost of ownership Evaluate features and functionality Evaluate technology platform and conceptual models Are they next-generation systems or open source version of legacy models? “Making a Business Case for Open Source ILS.” Marshall Breeding, Computers in Libraries March 2008
Software Development Models How do companies approach software development: – Ongoing maintenance work on existing products (enhancement requests, bug fixes) – R&D toward future products (capital investment) – Sponsored Development: contracted custom development paid for by individual sites, code shared with current and future implementers.
Observations on Open Source ILS Current Open Source ILS products similar in modular organization and functionality to existing systems. Evolving to achieve the same level of features and capacity present in established commercial systems. Initial wave of Open Source ILS commitments happened in the public library arena. Recent activity among academic libraries: – WALDO Consortium (Voyager > Koha) – University of Prince Edward Island (Unicorn > Evergreen) Do the current open source ILS products provide a new model of automation, or an open source version of what we already have?
Impact of Open Source ILS Library automation industry cannot be complacent Some libraries moving from traditionally licensed products to open source products with commercial support plans Disruption of ILS industry – new pressures on incumbent vendors to deliver more innovation and to satisfy concerns for openness New competition / More options
More Open Systems Pressure for traditionally licensed products to become more open APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) let libraries access and manipulate their data outside of delivered software A comprehensive set of APIs potentially give libraries more flexibility and control in accessing data and services and in extending functionality than having access to the source code. Customer access to APIs does not involve as much risk to breaking core system functions, avoids issues of version management and code forking associated with open source models.
A Continuum of Openness
Closed Systems Circulation Acquisitions Cataloging Staff Interfaces: End User Interfaces: Data Stores: Functional modules: No programmable Access to the system. Captive to the user Interfaces supplied by the developer Programmer access:
Standard RDBM Systems Circulation Acquisitions Cataloging Staff Interfaces: End User Interfaces: Data Stores: Functional modules: Database administrators can access data stores involved with the system: Read-only? Read/write? Developer shares database schema Programmer access:
Open Source Model Circulation Acquisitions Cataloging Staff Interfaces: End User Interfaces: Data Stores: Functional modules: All aspects of the system available to inspection and modification. Programmer access:
Open API Model Circulation Acquisitions Cataloging Staff Interfaces: End User Interfaces: Data Stores: Functional modules: Core application closed. Third party developers code against the published APIs or RDBMS tables. Programmer access: Published APIs
Open Source / Open API Model Circulation Acquisitions Cataloging Staff Interfaces: End User Interfaces: Data Stores: Functional modules: Core application closed. Third party developers code against the published APIs or RDBMS tables. Programmer access: Published APIs
Depth of Openness Evaluate level of access to a products data stores and functional elements: – Open source vs Traditional licenses Some traditional vendors have well established API implementations – SirsiDynix Unicorn (API available to authorized customer sites that take training program) – Ex Libris: consistent deployment of APIs in major products, recent strategic initiative: “Open Platform Program” – Innovative Interfaces: Patron API; Encore Web services
Universal open APIs? Some progress on API to support discovery layer interfaces, but no comprehensive framework yet. Many industry protocols work like APIs: – Z39.50, SRU/W, NCIP, OAI-PMH, OpenURL, etd It would be ideal if there were an open set of APIs that were implemented by all automation system products. – Third party components and add-ons would then work across all products.
Opportunity out of the Upheavals More options – Commercial + Open Source More vendors – New open source support companies provide new competition More library involvement – Libraries re-energized to make significant contributions to the body of library automation software Traditionally licensed and open source automation systems will co-exist. We have an interest in the success of both alternatives.
Part III. Moving toward new generation of library automation
Rethinking the ILS Fundamental assumption: Print + Digital = Hybrid libraries Traditional ILS model not adequate for hybrid libraries Libraries currently moving toward surrounding core ILS with additional modules to handle electronic content New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS OPACS Working toward a new model of library automation – Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by fabric of SOA applications – Comprehensive Resource Management “It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007
ILS: a legacy concept? ILS = Integrated Library System (Cataloging + Circulation + OPAC + Serials + Acquisitions) Focused on print and physical inventory Electronic content at the Journal Title or collection level Emerged in the 1960’s – 1970’s Functionality has evolved and expanded, but basic concepts and modules remain intact Note: Some companies work toward evolving the ILS to competently handle both print and digital content (e.g. Innovative Interfaces)
ILS: ever diminishing role Many libraries putting much less emphasis on ILS Just an inventory system for physical materials Investments in electronic content increasing Management of e-content handled outside of the ILS Yet: libraries need comprehensive business automation more than ever. Mandate for more efficient operations. Do more with less.
Dis-integration of Library Automation Functionality ILS -- Print and Physical inventory OpenURL Link resolver Federated Search Electronic Resource Management Module Discovery layer interface
Is non-integrated automation sustainable? Major burden on library personnel Serial procurement / installation / configuration / maintenance cycles take many years to result in a comprehensive environment Inefficient data models Disjointed interfaces for library users Very long cycle to gain comprehensive automation
New genre of discovery layer interfaces Traditional ILS OPAC inadequate for today’s Web-savvy library users Scope too narrow Complex, non-intuitive interface Yet: Necessary for some types of research Working toward a single point of entry for all the content and services offered by the library
Common Next-Gen Interface features Decoupled interface Advanced search engines Relevancy ranked results Faceted Navigation Graphically enriched displays Real-time interaction with ILS Advanced user services and information delivery features
Current Products Encore (Innovative Interfaces) Primo (Ex Libris) Aquabrowser (Bowker / Serials Solutions) WorldCat Local (OCLC) BiblioCommons Visualizer (VTLS) eXtensive Catalog (University of Rochester) VUFind (open source / Villanova University) Scriblio (open source)
Deep search Entering post-metadata search era Increasing opportunities to search the full contents – Google Library Print, Google Publisher, Open Content Alliance, Microsoft Live Book Search, etc. – High-quality metadata will improve search precision Commercial search providers already offer “search inside the book” No comprehensive full text search for books quite yet Beginning to appear in library search environments – U of Mich ( ) Deep search highly improved by high-quality metadata See: Systems Librarian, May 2008 “Beyond the current generation of next-generation interfaces: deeper search”
Architecture and Standards Need to have an standard approach for connecting new generation interfaces with ILS and other repositories Proprietary and ad hoc methods currently prevail Digital Library Federation – ILS-Discovery Interface Group Initial foray into a broader set of protocols that open up other aspects of the ILS
Moving toward a new Generation of Library Automation Are Legacy ILS concepts sustainable? New automation environment based on current library realities and modern technology platforms Equal footing for digital and print Service oriented architecture
Breaking down the modules Traditional ILS – Cataloging – Circulation – Online Catalog – Acquisitions – Serials control – Reporting Modern approach: SOA
Service Oriented Architecture
Legacy ILS + e-content modules Federated Search Circulation Acquisitions Cataloging Serials OpenURL Linking Electronic Resource Mgmt System Staff Interfaces: End User Interfaces: Data Stores: Functional modules:
SOA model for business automation Underlying data repositories – Local or Global Reusable business services Composite business applications
SOA for library workflow processes Data Stores: Reusable Business Services Composite Applications Granular tasks:
Comprehensive Resource Management Broad conceptual approach that proposes a library automation environment that spans all types of content that comprise library collections. Traditional ILS vendors: Under development but no public announcements Open Source projects in early phases Projection: 2-3 years until we begin see library automation systems that follow this approach. 5-7 years for wider adoption.
Open Library Environment (OLE) project Andrew W. Mellon Foundation – Research in Information Technology program – Solicited proposal / Lead institution Duke University selected to lead project Core Participants: Kansas University, Lehigh University, National Library of Australia, Library and Archives Canada, University of Pennsylvania, Marshall Breeding Advisory Participants: University of Chicago, Wittier College, University of Maryland, ORBIS Cascade Alliance, Rutgers University
OLE Project Status Phase I to create requirements underway. Kick-off Meeting at Duke – Project scope, SOA training Regular online meetings Meeting at Rutgers: – Training in business process modeling – More SOA Regional workshops – Business Process Modeling for library workflows Jan meeting at Lehigh Feb meeting at University of Kansas Final report due end of July Organize Phase II – Build Project – Open source reference implementation
Ex Libris Universal Resource Management Next generation system Management of digital and print resources Forward path for both Voyager and ALEPH
OCLC WorldCat local in pilot phase Additional WorldCat-based automation services under development?
Innovative Interfaces Evolutionary path to next-generation automation Suite of products already offers comprehensive automation – Millennium – Electronic Resource Management – Research Pro – federated search – Encore – Encore Web services API
Is there a future for the ILS? Yes – libraries need efficient business process automation more than ever No – not if ILS means the current legacy model based on print Revolutionary and evolutionary approaches will compete, both working to address major shifts in library missions. Urgent need to reinvent library automation Opportunities abound for existing commercial providers and open source initiatives. Opportunities for libraries to take a more direct role in reshaping the automation products they use