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SPIE 2006 – 6274-06 Application d evelopment using the ALMA Common Software G.Chiozzi a, A.Caproni a e, R.Cirami e,P.Di Marcantonio e, D.W.Fugate d, S.Harrington.

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Presentation on theme: "SPIE 2006 – 6274-06 Application d evelopment using the ALMA Common Software G.Chiozzi a, A.Caproni a e, R.Cirami e,P.Di Marcantonio e, D.W.Fugate d, S.Harrington."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPIE 2006 – Application d evelopment using the ALMA Common Software G.Chiozzi a, A.Caproni a e, R.Cirami e,P.Di Marcantonio e, D.W.Fugate d, S.Harrington b, B.Jeram a, M.Pesko c, M.Sekoranja c, H.Sommer a, V.Wang a, K.Zagar c a ESO b NRAO c Cosylab d U.Calgary e INAF-AOT

2 2 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Contents What is ALMA? Status? What is ACS? Where are we? Main features Platforms Looking back: considerations and lessons learned Projects and community Conclusion Free software Asynchronous communication Multithreading and distributed applications Components and containers …more in the paper

3 3 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software The ALMA project 50x12m antennas 4x12m antennas optimized for total-power (Japan) Compact array of 12x7m antennas for higher sensitivity to broad, low-surface brightness features (Japan) Antennas can be moved to ~185 different pads. Maximum baselines from 150m to 18km, resolutions from 1” to <0.01” at 850 µm.

4 4 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Sensitivity and Angular Resolution

5 5 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Operation Support Facility (OSF) ALMA Sites in Chile Antenna Operations Site (AOS) Santiago Central Office (SCO)

6 6 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Chile, Chajnantor plateau m

7 7 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software ALMA AOS Technical Building, Apr 2006

8 8 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software ALMA Operation Site Facility (2900m – Atacama desert)

9 9 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software ALMA Operation Site Facility today

10 10 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Antenna’s construction timeline First antenna delivered on site in Q Further antennas coming from Q with new antenna every 2 months. First science: end of Full completion: 2012.

11 11 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software ALMA Computing Large but extremely distributed team 40 Full Time Equivalent for whole E2E sw => Total development effort to 2011 ~280 FTE-years Staff in 14 Institutions Europe/North America/Japan

12 12 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software What is ACS? ACS is a software infrastructure for the development of distributed systems based on the Component/Container paradigm end-to-end: from data reduction to control applications common application framework and design patterns, not just libraries well tested software that avoids duplication make upgrades and maintenance reasonable common development environment and tools

13 13 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Where are we? Developed for ALMA and used by several other projects. ACS is based on a kernel of software contributed by cosylab and developed for the ANKA Synchrotron. Our collaboration started in Trieste at ICALEPCS ½ of allocated development effort spent until now Total allocated ~30 man years + additional external contribution (~10). 10 th release Extensively used in the field: –ALMA Test Interferometer and labs –ALMA software integrations –Other projects

14 14 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Main Features ACS provides the basic services needed for object oriented distributed computing. Among these: –Transparent remote object invocation –Object deployment and location based on a container/component model –Distributed error and alarm handling –Distributed logging –Distributed events The ACS framework is based on CORBA and built on top of free CORBA implementations.

15 15 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Supported Platforms Operating system: Linux, RH-E + other flavours Real-time: RTAI and VxWorks Languages: C++, JAVA, Python CORBA middleware: TAO (& ACE) (C++), JacORB (Java), Omniorb (Python), CORBA services. Embedded ACS Container: PC104, Debian, 300Mhz Geode, 256MB RAM, 256 MB flash (CosyLAB microIOC)

16 16 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software LGPL and free software The strategy to provide common features to our users is: –Use as much as possible open-source tools, instead of implementing things. Do not reinvent the wheel Reuse experience of other projects Do not pay for licenses Support from user’s community –Identify the best way to perform a task among the possibilities –Wrap with convenience and unifying APIs ACS is distributed under LGPL license Free software has also drawbacks: –Fast lifecycle and support only of the newest –Free/commercial support –Documentation not as good as commercial products

17 17 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Asynchronous communication ACS provides 4 ways to communicate between Components: –Synchronous method calls –Asynchronous method calls (callbacks) –Notification channel (publisher-subscriber) –Bulk data (hi-performance streaming, 60 Mbytes/s)

18 18 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Notification channel usage Notification Channel has been used much more than expected to: –Synchronize subsystems: synchronization events –Publish data to multiple subscribers, not known a priori Preferred to callbacks because easier to implement Very easy to use: evolution of ACS implementation classes, coding conventions and tools Drawbacks: –more difficult to keep track of dependencies –Circular dependencies make a system more fragile Stick to unidirectional dependencies! Callbacks can help reversing dependencies.

19 19 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Multithreading and distributed applications: the problems Component based systems like ACS are intrinsically: –Highly distributed –Asynchronous and multithreaded Methods can be called at any time, in parallel to the same or other methods. Developers need to be well aware of concurrency issues Debugging is more problematic than with single threaded applications

20 20 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Multithreading and distributed applications: the solutions ACS addresses these problems by means of: Threading management classes Centralized logging Distributed error handling Dynamic loading/unloading of Components Component’s simulation Tools for automatic regression tests involving distributed Components

21 21 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Components and Containers In recent releases we have improved decoupling of Components and Containers: –Container services –Dynamic components –Tasks Configuration of the runtime system is being re- discussed. We need better tools to keep aligned the configuration of the various ALMA deployments We have started concentrating on the deployment of Containers: requirements form pipeline and offline subsystems.

22 22 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software ACS installations and projects

23 23 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software The ACS community HPT Hexapod Telescope (Germany → Chile) Sardinian Radio Telescope (Italy) OAN 30m (Spain) ALMA (Chile) ANKA (Germany) APEX (Chile)

24 24 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Conclusion Core concepts are now very stable. Most packages are implemented, but not 100% Most of the work comes now from change requests and feedback and not from long term planning items ACS is significantly improving in stability, usability and global consistency. Analysis of the applications developed and of the feedback from the developers tells us what is good, what is bad and how to improve. More in the paper! Having a user’s base in addition to our main project has provided important feedback, cross-fertilization of concepts and ideas and contributed to software quality

25 25 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Questions (& Answers) The Atacama Large Millimeter Array: overview and status Application development using the ALMA common software Integrating the CERN laser alarm system with the ALMA common software Time synchronization within the ALMA software infrastructure Bulk data transfer distributer: a high performance multicast model in ALMA ACS SC-644Course: An Introduction to Scalable Frameworks for Observatory Software Infrastructure Phase correction studies for ALMA, System engineering in the ALMA project, SPIE Papers on ALMA/ACS

26 26 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Reserve slides

27 27 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Observing in different bands 10 Frequency bands coincident with atmospheric windows have been defined. Bands 3, 6, 7 and 9 will be available from the start. Bands 4, 8 and 10 will be built by Japan. Some band 5 receivers built with EU funding.

28 28 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Highlights of the Last Two Years New in ACS for: developers to use in their code: libraries, convenience classes, utilities to improve the quality of the code test/integration/administrators, transparently from application code (i.e. in principle transparent to Component developers)

29 29 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Component Container Evolution/Cleanup Container Services –Full separation between Container and Container Services –Cleaner interfaces –Easier to replace Container implementation –The most important services provided now by the ContainerServices are… Component life cycle –Plain instantiation of Components not sufficient –Standard lifecycle state machine introduced for the Container to manage Components lifecycle interface: init() cleanUp() container Comp functional interface: observe() container service interface getComponent(“CompB”); Logger getLogger();

30 30 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Master Component ALMA subsystems interact with the Executive. Executive treat all in the same way.  Lifecycle for subsystems, not only components Fits smoothly into acs concept: -each subsystem needs a mastercomponent -it is a component with a specific interface -ACS defines the underlying state machine Implementation: -a generator (using open-architectureware) maps UML to state machines -generator creates convenience base classes -state machine has been refined in a couple of design iterations The introduction of the Master Component has been very effective. Cost of prototype generator not higher than cost of developing the MasterComponent in code

31 31 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Event Handling and Notification Channel Events are widely used in ALMA for synchronization and asynchronous, *-to-* communication. Decoupling of Consumers and Suppliers Very easy interface: –Supplier classes –Consumer classes Contract based on IDL data structures. Strong naming conventions and checking tools Administrative interface Quality of service

32 32 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Threading Support Many Components have a multi-threaded structure Management of threads was a source of problems Developed easy-to-use threading classes: –Override a run() method –Use the thread manager Based on ACE Threads in C++, concurrent library in Java

33 33 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Concurrency patterns Concurrent execution is allowed. Access to resources is protected. The newly invoked request shall be rejected The newly invoked request shall supersede the old one The newly invoked request is queued and executed after completion of the previous one

34 34 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software A change in paradigm! Real-time Support VxWorks → TICS Entire LCU in real-time OS ACS provides complete Container/Component in real- time environment Support will probably remain for other projects (VLT) RTAI → ALMA RT Kernel inside Linux Component not real-time ↔ small time-critical functions in Kernel. Less code in real-time, but more complex to debug ACS provides easy: –Communication with kernel modules –Logging from kernel modules –Kernel module management

35 35 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Bulk Data Transfer Requirements from the correlator: –64 MB (megabyte)/sec Based on CORBA A/V streaming service TAO C++ implementation Very easy interface, based on our use cases No CORBA A/V visible Achieved Performance Gigabit P2P Ethernet BD throughput around 800 Mbits/s (~100 MB/s) requirements fulfilled CORBA throughput around then 500 Mbit/s (~ 55 MB/s) Estimated gain in the throughput around 30%

36 36 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Simulation Why simulation? –Distributed development –Features or entire subsystems not yet available –Test a subsystem in isolation Simulation of Components from IDL interface spec. Dumb default or “intelligent” simulation

37 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software CERN Laser ACS Alarm System: Laser Feasibility prototype to re-use CERN Laser Alarm System Keep the same API Reuse the Laser Alarm Console ACS Component/Container replaces J2EE acsjms implements jms for ACS on top of Notification Channel IDL interfaces replace EJB interfaces Reimplementatio n of Laser interfaces The challenge: reuse a complete subsystem/service in a very different software infrastructure

38 38 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Tasks and Parameters ACS is used in ALMA also as data reduction infrastructure framework Requirement: data reduction to be started as a stand-alone process. A program which starts-up, performs processing and shuts down. Implementation: –Stand alone executable –Static container –Works with and without ACS suite Input parameters are complex data sets: –Parameter set definition (xml) –Parameter set instantiation (xml) –Validation –Parsing

39 39 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software GUIs A LabView prototype has been implemented ACS Supports ABeans development with an Eclipse plug-in Some projects are using Qt Different projects and different subsystems have different requirements!

40 40 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Performance and Benchmarking ACS has performance requirements to satisfy Changes to code and upgrade of external libraries can affect performance Created performance measurements and reporting framework Performance of Component to Component communication, notification channel, logging system…

41 41 SPIE 2006 – ALMA Common Software Performance Average C++ throughput: 1500 event/s (100 bytes) Average C++ throughput: 3500 event/s (100 bytes)


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