Presentation on theme: "Channel Choice Citizens’ Channel Behavior Drs. Willem Pieterson March 26 th, 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Channel Choice Citizens’ Channel Behavior Drs. Willem Pieterson March 26 th, 2009
Channel Behavior Channel choice: the picking of the channel at a certain moment Channel usage: the aggregated use (long term)
Background Why study channel choice? –ICT’s (technological evolution) 1990’s Internet/WWW/ Dot-com hype –e-Commerce – e-Government Focus of e-Government shifts to: –Internet (technology) –The external side
Background Optimism about the e-Channels: “The explosive entry of technology into every aspect of life has changed how people live, how they work, how companies do business – and how governments serve their people. For the first time since the creation of the modern welfare state, there is now a real opportunity to ‘reinvent’ government” (Silcock, 2001)
Background: Channel Usage Channel Usage after the hype
Background The Internet is a succes –Use of the web has ‘exploded’ (e.g. number of hits) –The Internet does in some cases replace other channels: Electronic taxation Books, Online banking, Travel However: Especially when it comes to customer service, the traditional channels remain important and use doesn’t decline. So, what factors determine the choice of channels by citizens?
The literature Several fields of research have addressed the issue: –e-Government / Citizen Initiated Contacts Citizen’s channel choice –Communication Media use and choice –Marketing Channel choice (mainly for shopping) –Human-Computer interaction Information source selection / usability –Technology Adoption/Acceptance research Comparing Internet/New media choice with traditional media
The literature Possible Determinants: Information need, Having a problem, Transaction/Informa tion, Task uncertainty, Task equivocality, Race, Income, Education, Gender, Age, ‘Emotional form’ Trust, ‘Channel Satisfaction’, Time, Effort, Motivation, Media Richness, Social influences, Channel Experience, Perceived risk, Propensity, Convenience, Transaction Costs, Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Personal contact, Safety concerns, Complexity, Flexibility, Interactivity, Channel preference, Perceived fit (channel/task), Marital status, Homeownership, Perceived accessibility, Values about channels, Views of peers, Situational demands, Perceived competence, Quality of information sources, Symbolic Values, Distance, ETC…
The Theory Some Channel (media) Choice Theories Exist –Media Richness Theory Tasks & Channels have different characteristics, Tasks: Uncertainty and Ambiguity Media: Varying Richness Best communication when task & channels match –Social Influence Model Task & Channel Characteristics are not ‘fixed’ but perceptions These perceptions are socially constructed –Channel Expansion Theory Perceptions are shaped by experiences
The Theory Theories share the same rational assumptions about behavior Citizen Task Channel (question/problem/etc..) Elaboration Channel Choice Many Critiques on this perspective Now what? But no solutions
The Research General Decision Making Literature Qualitative study among Dutch Citizens Results: –Two choice processes exist in channel choices: The rational process of ‘matching’ Habitual decision making through experiences –These processes are influenced by Task Characteristics Channel Characteristics Personal Characteristics Situational and Emotional Constraints
The Model Emotional constraints Personal Character- istics Task-Channel Elaboration Habits Channel Choice Perceived task & channel characteristics Experiences Sequential & causal relation Causal relation Situational constraints
The Research Survey among 2461 Dutch Citizens Questions regarding the influence of the factors Questions regarding the decision strategies Scenario’s for (additional) interaction effects Results: –All four groups of factors are of importance for channel choices:
Results In first instance, people are guided by habits In second instance, people start reasoning In first instance, factors as the situational and emotional constraints are more important In second instance, task and channel characteristics are more important This turns channel choice more in an emotional and (inter)subjective than a rational process However, all factors are of importance Our model ‘fits’ very well!
Conclusions Whereas rationality is often assumed in channel choices in both theory and practice, –channel choices in reality are more complex –more factors play a role and –different factors play a role in different situations –and personal differences play a role. Situational and emotional factors are very important and often ignored The influence of habits was a surprise! Implications for channel strategies (Jan) Implications for channel marketing (Marije)