Presentation on theme: "REINVENTING NIGERIAN HIGHER EDUCATION FOR YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN A COMPETITIVE GLOBAL ECONOMY Joel Babatunde Babalola Department of Educational Management,"— Presentation transcript:
Higher education in Nigerian Definition –Education in universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, monotechnics including correspondence courses (FRN, National Policy on Education, 2004:36) The goals include to: –contribute to national development through high level relevant manpower training; –develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of the individual and society; –develop the intellectual capability of individuals to understand and appreciate their local and external environments; and –acquire both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society
Training Components A= Attitude to survive (heart) S= Skills for self-reliant (hands) K= Knowledge to subdue (head)
The Array of Higher Education Benefits PublicPrivate Economic Social Increased Tax Revenues Greater Productivity Increased Consumption Increased Workforce Flexibility Decreased Reliance on Government Financial Support Higher Salaries and Benefits Employment Higher Savings Levels Improved Working Conditions Mobility Reduced Crime Rates Increased Charitable Giving/Community Service Increased Quality of Civic Life Social Cohesion/Appreciation of Diversity Improved Ability to Adapt to and Use Technology Improved Health/Life Expectancy Improved Quality of Life for Offspring Better Consumer Decision Making Increased Personal Status More Hobbies, Leisure Activities Source: The Institute for Higher Education Policy, “Reaping the Benefits: Defining the Public and Private Value of Going to College”, March 1998. NOTE that emphasis of this paper is on the benefits indicated by red letters
A Scientific Estimate 1.A 1-year increase in the stock of Africa’s tertiary education would boost the annual rate of economic growth by 0.63 percentage points. 2.If the current stock of tertiary education in Africa increased to the level of Egypt (0.59 years/person), the annual rate of GDP growth would increase by 0.28 percentage points. –Notes by PN Materu for the BBL on The Challenges of Tertiary Education in Africa ; Washington, DC March 8, 2007
Table 1: Graduate unemployment rate in Nigeria Sources: ILO (Al-Samarrai, S. and Brighton, P. B. 2003); Nigeria data from CBN Annual Report FME (2006) retrieved from http:/www.fme.gov.ng Country (group – year)Youth unemployment rate (%) Lesotho (total – 1997)47.40 Malawi (total – 1987)0.80 Namibia (total – 2002)10.90 South Africa (total – 2000)55.80 Swaziland (total – 1997)55.20 Zimbabwe (total – 1999)14.00 NIGERIA (all ages -2003 )2.30 NIGERIA (pry school leavers -2003 )14.70 NIGERIA (sec school leavers -2003)53.60 NIGERIA (tertiary graduates – 2003)12.40
The Questions A recent survey by the Federal Ministry of Education (FRN, 2006) clearly showed a disturbing trend that over 60% of youths were unemployed or under employed, the questions are: 1.Why do large numbers of university graduates go jobless for months or even years, while business complain of lack of skilled workers? 2.Considering the enormity of the youth employment in Nigeria, is there no labour policy to link education with market? 3.What is the overall effect of the graduate unemployment on national productivity and development? 4.Is Nigerian government folding its arms and looking at how the next generation of workers, parents and leaders goes into the drain? 5.In what ways should institutions of higher learning reinvent their systems to empower the youth to meet the changing needs of the economy, market and the expectation of the society?
Question 1: Why do large numbers of university graduates go jobless for months or even years, while business complain of lack of skilled workers? FME (2006) Labour supply problems (institutional failure) A mismatch between teaching in our institutions and the needs of the labour market Lack of consultation with private sector has lead to teaching of outdated Curriculum, resources and teaching methods Majority of students learn through lectures and academic text books and are academically sound limited opportunities of acquiring practical experience by using machinery, equipment and practical techniques associated with the profession Lack of qualified teachers to teach vocational, innovative, entrepreneurship and job skills serious shortage of skilled workers and technicians in growth sectors of petroleum, gas, agriculture, manufacturing, solid minerals, tourism and ICT Labour demand problems (market failure) General low demand from private sector Low absorptive capacity of the economy following SAP
Table 3 Advertised Vacancies in Nigerian Newspapers & Magazines, 1994- 2003 Sector19941996199820002003Total for 10 Years (1994-2003) No. % Agriculture56576421024591.38 Mining & Quarrying274548541385141.55 Manufacturing129178845840810016,26118.84 Electricity, gas & Water629624722510.76 Construction10310972833511,1283.39 Trade, Restaurants & Hotels 4391151591534581,8605.60 Transport & Communication 794587634211,1613.49 Banking, Finance & Real Estate 999254982108293,1099.36 Social Services3021259910221673174518,48355.63 Total 6021404119562710511733,226100.00 Source: Dabalen A. & Oni, B. (2000)
Table 4 University graduates required and employed by Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM) providers, dealers and agents 2005-2007 Disciplinesanticipated employmentActual employment Number% % Administration/accounting43368.19113958.33 Agriculture60.94422.08 Arts172.68793.91 Education142.20824.06 Engineering/Technology 7712.1327813.75 Law20.32371.83 Medical & Pharmaceutical60.94261.29 Sciences121.89773.81 Social Sciences6810.7126212.96 Total635100.002022100.00 Source: National Manpower Board (2006)
Table 5 Polytechnic graduates required and employed by Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM) providers, dealers and agents 2005-2007 Disciplinesanticipated employmentActual employment Number% % Environmental Studies21.18419.62 Computer and Science Tech2514.7117031.91 Food Science and Tech10.5971.64 Engineering and Technology 8248.2451.17 Business/Management 3118.2410524.65 Accounting/insurance/Finance2212.948319.48 Secretarial Studies63.53143.29 Islamic and Legal Studies10.5910.23 Total170100.00426100.00 Source: National Manpower Board (2006)
Average Annual Salaries of Persons Employed by GSM in First Six Well-Paid Occupations in Nigeria (2005-2007) Occupation Average Annual salaries in Naira Personnel Managers443,750.00 Legal Professionals384.000.00 R & D Managers336,500.00 Computing Services Managers 325,787.88 Elect & Telecom Engineers318,059.49 System Designer % Analyst259,500.00 Source: National Manpower Board (2006)
Manpower Mix in Nigeria Manpower Level Graduates produced Manpower ratio University67,024 (1999) 7 Polytechnic 9,344 (1998) 1 Craftsmen (FME, 2003) 37,376 4
Table 6 Registered Unemployed, Vacancies Declared and Placements by Level of Workers LOWER PROBABILITY OF BEING ABSORBED AT THE TOP Year Registered unemployedVacancies declaredplacements Low-levelHigh-levelLow-level High level Low level High level 1970 117325181533 80 (15.44%) -- 1975 232391793989 172 (96.09%) -- 1980 256623-34947 - -- 1985 96580416511156 748 (17.96%) 2139 145 (3.48%) 1990 89752101827637 3695 (36.29%) 1917 986 (9.68%) 1995 81730329424182 3708 (11.26%) 1119 49 (0.15%) 2000 853681049606583 115 (0.10%) 923 110 (0.10%) 2002 85648946637010 121 (0.13%) 1389 102 (0.11%) Source: Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, 2002) Statistical Bulletin, Volume 13 Note: Figures in parenthesis are percentages of registered unemployed
Nigeria needs to redirect manpower towards the growth sector (e.g. through vocationalization, information, regulation, legislation and subsidization) Economy’s Demand (Petroleum, gas, agriculture, manufacturing, solid minerals, tourism and ICT ) -ESA (2003) Market’s Demand (Service Sector) Student’s Demand (Economics/Accounting, Law and Medicine)
Question 2: is there no labour market policy? There is a National Policy on Higher Education The National Policy on Education [FRN, 2004:36, 37], indicates that Nigeria aspires to gear its higher education towards national development. Nigeria expects all higher education institutions to pursue these goals using –a variety of modes [such as full-time, part-time, block-release, day- release, sandwich, etc.] –teaching, research, generation and dissemination of knowledge –virile staff development, –access to training funds [e.g. ITF], –Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme [SIWES], –maintenance of minimum educational standards, –inter-institutional cooperation, –dedicated community services through extracurricular and extension services
The Policy Provides for Strategic Thinking and Change Nigeria expects that –Teachers should undergo training in the methods and techniques of teaching. –institutions to explore endowments, consultancy services and commercial ventures. as long as they are in consonance with the national goals, government allows each higher education institution to determine: –its internal organization and administration, –student selection procedure, –appointment of staff, –course contents –teaching procedure, and –areas of research
The National Policy Sounds Perfect Nigeria expects the university system to –increase and diversify programmes, –make professional course contents to reflect national requirement –inculcate community spirit in student through team projects and action research, and by making all students to offer liberal or general study courses. –technically-based professional courses should compose exposure to practical work experience. government anticipates –a close positive link between university research and nation’s developmental goals. –a mutual relationship between university researchers and the end users including industries. Emphasis on Science and Technology –greater share of expenditure to science and technology, –not less than 60% of places to science in conventional universities –not less than 80% in the universities of technology.
The National Policy adopts a binary model of higher education polytechnics/monotechnics should –Provide technical knowledge and skills, instruction and training –Provide professional studies leading to graduates who can apply science to solve society’s problems. –Make students to use their hands in making, repairing and assembling things.
Historically, Nigeria adopts the liberal/critical academic culture with an increasing blend of research and scientific model Types of academic culture Research and scientific culture –German culture Professional and vocational culture –French culture Liberal and critical culture –Represented by Oxford and Cambridge –Adapted by NIGERIA as a British colony »Peter Scott (2005)
Nigeria is one of the 3 African countries that see higher education as a strategic tool for poverty alleviation Nigeria specifies the following goals of tertiary education in the NEEDS: –Strict adherence to the University Autonomy Act. –Diversification of funding, including attracting private sector and hostel accommodation. –Update and restructuring the curricula to meet the demands of the national economy –Mainstreaming of science and technical education especially ICT. –Effective monitoring of universities & adherence to standards. –Developing innovative approaches to ensure continuing re-tooling and capacity building of lecturers in order to operate at the cutting edge of their disciplines. –Increasingly moving towards decentralized and competitive wage bargaining system among the tertiary institutions, thereby promoting performance-based reward system. –Mass mobilization and value re-orientation among students to emphasize diligence, discipline, and selfless service.
Question 3 what is the overall effect of the graduate unemployment on national productivity and development in Nigeria? Year UCTNP Education as % public total budget University as % of public recurrent budget 79/80 0.465.2028.43 80/810.437.8038.60 81/820.427.9033.47 82/830.437.4042.13 83/840.388.0037.93 84/850.378.0037.45 85/860.304.8031.28 86/870.262.7039.14 87/88 0.192.0040.09 88/890.197.2024.75 89/900.175.3021.78 90/910.124.1023.08 91/920.206.3030.81 92/930.177.3025.23 93/940.0814.9025.46 94/950.0613.0025.46 95/960.0610.0022.94 96/970.1311.5021.84 97/980.089.602.44 98/990.0911.103.01 Source: Babalola (2001)
CHANGE IN UNIVERSITY MANPOWER PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA: A CASE OF IBADAN UNIVERSTIY OUTPUT 1990-19991999-20031990-2003 Un-weighted productivity +0.60+0.10+0.61 Weighted with NUC ratings +0.53+0.09+0.62 (increasing emphasis on postgraduate) Weighted with (economic) average earnings +0.65-0.06+0.59 economic value increasing at a decreasing rate Weighted with Cultural output +0.58-0.04+0.59 Total weighted productivity +0.56+0.03+0.59 Aiyelari, T.E (2005) Productivity of University Education in Nigeria. A Case of University of Ibadan, Ibadan, unpublished M.Ed Project.
DECLINING SCHOLASTIC PRODUCTIVITY ( offshore science educ publications) –Nigeria was about the best in research output up to 1988 (karani cited in UNESCO 2000:94) when training, motivation, equipment, library facilities prevailed –As from 1988, there was a shift from collaborative long-term to solo short-term work. –Use of out-dated methodology and –Fewer research, travel and publication grants »source: unesco abuja (2000) 626466687072747678808284868890929496 1223333344468108421
DECLINING SHARE IN THE GLOBAL SCHOLARLY AND SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS Nigeria was one of 5 world countries with a decrease in the number of academic publications in sciences and social sciences between 1981 and 1995. Nigeria had 24.49% of number of international papers published from Sub-Saharan Africa in 1981, the number reduced to 12.69% (half) in 1995. Number of citations from Nigeria dropped from 3,670 in the 1980s to 3,559 in the 1990s That was a period when the world generally experienced phenomena increase in the number of citations »IBRD/the World Bank (2000
KNOWLEDGE GAP Between 1981 and 1995: –Ukraine had 6761 scientists and engineers in R&D per million people –Japan came second with 5677 –Israel came third with 4826. –Nigeria had only 15. –Nigeria ranked 77th of 80 countries IBRD/The World Bank, 1999, Table 19
NOBEL LAUREATES AND PULITZER PRIZE WINNERS Harvard University had 84 Teachers (in 2004) Out of these, 40 were Nobel Laureates Remaining 44 were Pulitzer Prize winners –Stanley A  Guardian News Paper of Feb 27 Prof Wole Soyinka, the only Nobel Prize Winner in Nigeria is now retired Prof Gabriel Oyibo (a Nigerian in Diaspora who propounded GAGUT = God Almighty Ground Unifying Theory) presented his theory three times for Nobel prize and failed at the final stage three times. All stakeholders are now concerned –Government, NUC, universities, donors
Question 4 What has Nigerian government done to address these problems? Finding employment for the graduates –FMoLP networked 31 Employment Exchanges and 17 Professional and Executive Registries to advertise vacancies and provide vocational guidance and counselling Skills programmes –The NDE developed 4 major programmes: (1) Vocational Skills Development (VSD), (2) Small Scale Enterprises (SSE), (3) Rural Employment Promotion (REP), and (4) Special Public Works (SPW).
Strategies Involved in the Skill Programmes –The programmes have the following training strategies: Vocational Skills Acquisition, Entrepreneurship/Business training, Rural Employment promotion, Labour-based works, Employment Counselling; and Linkages as well as resettlement of trained beneficiaries to set up their own businesses.
Initiation of Higher Education Reforms Since 1999, the Federal Government of Nigeria has made the following training efforts –Government enacted the Autonomy Act –Nigeria allows Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and Universities as degree awarding institutions with the Universities taking care of the high-level manpower requirements. –The National open Universities of Nigeria, is now revived and currently in full operation. –Increase in the number of State and Private Universities. By 2005, Nigeria had 75 universities comprising 26 Federal, 25 State and 23 Private universities [Adedipe, 2005] –synchronize the university calendar to bring sanity. –reduced the incidences of militant labour crises and cult activities on campuses. –communication and ICT improvements which have positively influenced teaching and research technologies in higher education. –improved remuneration and therefore, the motivation –Post-JAMB Screening
Question 5 In what ways should institutions of higher learning reinvent their systems to empower the youth to meet the changing needs of the economy, market and the expectation of the society? Mega Universities Source: Adekanmbi, G (2007). Ran k InstitutionLocationFounde d Affiliati on Enrolme nt 1Allama Iqbal Open University IslamabadIslamabad, Pakistan Pakistan 1974Public1.8 m 2Indira Gandhi National Open University New DelhiNew Delhi, India India 1985Public1.4 m 3Islamic Azad UniversityTehranTehran, IranIran1982Privat e 1.3 m 4Anadolu UniversityEskişehirEskişehir, Turkey Turkey 1982Public884,08 1 5Bangladesh Open University GazipurGazipur, Bangladesh Bangladesh 1992Public600,00 0 6Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh, IndiaIndia 1982Public450,00 0 7California State UniversityCaliforniaCalifornia, United States United States 1857Public417,00 0
Evolving Higher Education Systems Demand outcomesChanging training needs Changing higher education landscape Changing modes of operation and organization Advanced human capital Demand for higher skills Appearance of new providers More interactive pedagogy with emphasis on learning New knowledgeMethodological and analytical skills Development of borderless education Continuing education programmes Adaptation of global knowledge for resolution of local problems Demand for internationally recognised degrees and qualifications o Increased reliance on ICT for pedagogical, information and management purposes o Multi- and transdisciplinarity Democratic values o Humanistic dimension of education and training o Adaptability and flexibility Source: World Bank (2002:8)
REINVENTING HIGHER EDUCATION USE ENTERPRISE MODEL to change the landscape and mode of operation PARNER WITH THE NDE ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMMES  Training and active labour market policies LABOUR MKT ORIENTED MEGA HIGHER EDUCATION DEGREE (HEAD) VTE (HANDS) PREDEGREE; (HEART) Influence schooling DECISIONS INCORPORATE REMIDIAL EDUCATION
TWELVE “Ts” OR ASSUMPTIONS THAT MUST BE CROSSED About trainees (informed decisions, customers) About tools (bureaucracy, ‘disciplinarity’, autonomy) About teachers (are experts and researchers) About teaching (is monetarily rewarded) About techniques (lecture centred) About training (pre-work plus on-the-job) About textbooks (Hard copies or e-book, e-library) About technology (face-to-face/at distance via ICT) About technical /vocational education (not for the best) About time (full/part time, 2-3-4years for low-middle-top) About timeliness (programme/curriculum/content review) About thinking and thinkers Scientific, strategic and social thinking
ISSUES AT STAKE Choice of courses Culture of academic Content of curriculum Currency of curriculum Commitment to teaching Compensation of teachers Closeness with customers Connectivity with community
ELEMENTS OF A SCIENTIFIC, STRATEGIC AND SOCIAL HIGHER INSTITUTION OF LEARNING CUSTOMER CENTRED Economy Students Market ENTERPRISE ORIENTED (Accountability And Reward) COMMUNITY AND PROBLEM BASED RESEARCH (/knowledge and information) HINGED LEARNING AND TRAINING FOCUSED
WHAT DOES THIS SUM UP TO? M= Mega Higher Educ B= Bureaucratic reform I= Information based P= Productivity focused O= Optimization directed M= Market driven