ReceptiveExpressive Oral ListenSpeak Written ReadWrite VisualAppreciateCreate Read aloud
Language Rule Systems Phonology (sounds) Semantics (meaning) Syntax (structure) Pragmatics (function)
Language Rule Systems Gunning (2008, p. 4) adds two more: Morphology – word formation (a part of syntax) Prosody – intonation and rhythm of speech (a part of pragmatics)
Phonology ~ 77 Phonemes ~ 45 in English Int’l. Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Articulatory Phonetics Voice anatomy
Semantics Meaningful cries: hunger, anger, pain Vocabulary Fast mapping 12 months = 1 word, 18=20, 24=270 Hart and Risley Professional / Middle / Poor families 11 / 6 / 3 million words by age 3 Over- and underextension
Pragmatics Communicative competence Knowing when to speak, when not to, what to talk about and with whom, when, where, and in what manner to interact Burst feeding
Pragmatics, continued Infants must Focus attention Recognize gaze and gesture Associate sounds and voices with certain events and people Develop reciprocity Use language to communicate
Pragmatics, continued Cultural context Dialect, hierarchy, space Language functions Halliday, Tough Baron: Affection, Control, Information, Pedagogy, Social exchange Discourse - Tele-talk, greetings, lecture, caregiver speech
Language Acquisition Theories Virtually every child, without special training, exposed to surface structures of language in many interaction contexts, builds for himself – in a short period of time and at an early stage in his cognitive development – a deep-level, abstract, and highly complex system of linguistic structure and use. (Lindfors 1987)
Nature = Nativist Language Acquisition Device Chomsky: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously Pinker: Language Instinct (1995)
Biological Influences Brain’s role Hemispheric specialization Broca’s area – structure Wernicke’s area – comprehension
Biological prewiring Chomsky’s view: Language Acquisition Device Critical Period for Language Case of Genie Critical period not certain
Social interaction Responsive interaction Siegel: “human connections shape the neural connections from which the mind emerges” Bruner’s Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) Caregiver speech
Social interaction Piaget: Thought and Language Egocentric Addressed to no one Vygotsky: Language and Thought Private speech Inner speech Communication with the self
Social interaction Whole Language approach Emergent Literacy
Language Development Milestones COOING 4 weeks – precursors to vowels 8 weeks – real vowels 12 weeks – discovers own voice BABBLING 6 months – Echolalia m, p, b, k, g with vowels 8 months – Vocables
Milestones FIRST WORDS 12 months – Holophrases Overgeneralized speech
Language Development Infancy Vocalization: Begins with babbling Early communications are pragmatic One-word (holophrase) stage: 10 to 13 months Two word (telegraphic) stage: 18 to 24 months Roger Brown: Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) Five stages of MLU index language maturity
Early childhood: Advances in Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Sequences of development Words/vocabulary emerge (12 months) Transition to combining words/phrases into sentences (24 months) Transition to complex sentences (age 2 to 3 through elementary years) Language Development
Middle and Late Childhood: Reading Chall’s model describes the development of reading in five stages with the first ranging from birth to first grade and the final stage in the high school years.
Debate There is debate about the whole language approach vs. the basic skills-&-phonics approach.
Whole language approach stresses that the learning to read should parallel the child’s natural learning of language. The premise is that reading should be integrated with other skills.
Basic skills-&-phonics approach emphasizes teaching phonetics and its rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
A combination of the two approaches is probably best.