2 Development is the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death . It encompasses changes in physical, cognitive and social behaviors.Major issuesA. Nature versus nurture — are we more affected by heredity or environment?B. Continuity versus discontinuity — is developmental change gradual, or do we progress through distinct stages ?
3 Developmental Research Methods A. Cross-sectional research involves studying a variety of ages at a given point in time.B. Longitudinal research follows the same group of subjects for many years.C. In cohort-sequential research, several age groups are studied periodically.D. Historical research revolves around the particular historical circumstances of an era.
5 It is divided into 3 phases (these are NOT the same as trimesters) The prenatal period extends from conception to birth, usually nine months.It is divided into 3 phases (these are NOT the same as trimesters)The germinal stage (first 2 weeks)The embryonic stage (2 weeks to 2 months)The fetal stage (2 months to birth)
6 The germinal stage The zygote is formed by the union of sperm and egg. The zygote moves through the fallopian tubes to uterus.7th day, the mass of cells implants itself in the uterine wallAs many as 1 in 5 pregnancies end at this point if implantation is not successful.Placenta starts to form
7 Embryonic Stage Vital organs and bodily systems begin to form Heart, spine, and brain emerge1 inch long but arms, hands, feet , fingers, toes, eyes and ears are discernable.This is a time of great vulnerabilityAll of the basic systems are forming and interference or damage at this time will have wide ranging and permanent effectsMost miscarriages occur at this time.
8 Fetal Stage The baby becomes capable of movement Organs grow and begin to functionSex organs start to develop in the 3rd monthFinal three monthsBrain cells multiplyRespiratory and digestive systems matureLayer of fat deposited under the skin for insulationBetween 22 and 26 weeks the fetus becomes viable or able to live outside the womb.
10 Maternal nutritionSevere malnutrition at this time increases the risk of birth complications and neurological defects.These effects can last for years or the entire lifetime.This has been linked to schizophrenia, heart disease, diabetes
11 Maternal Drug UseMost drugs consumed by the mother pass through the placentaHeroin: babies are born addicted, increased risk of early death, birth defectsCocaine: birth complications and cognitive/learning problems in childhoodMarijuana: cognitive issues, attention and impulse control issues and problem solving difficulties
12 Alcohol: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- a collection of physical and psychological problems including irritability, hyperactivity and delayed mental and motor development, depression, suicide, drug problems and criminal behaviourTobacco: SIDS, slower cognitive development, attention deficit, hyperactivity and behaviour issues.Many presciption drugs also can affect the fetus.
13 Maternal IllnessThe fetus has a very weak immune system so therefore is basically defenseless against infectionsAll of this damage depends, in part, on when the mother is exposed to the danger,Generally speaking an embryo will be much more damaged than a fetus.
16 Infancy:1. Growth rate declines throughout infancy but is faster than during any other postnatal period.2. Maturation and learning combine to determine skill development and replace reflexes.
17 Motor/co-ordination development Humans develop in two ways1. Cephalocaudal (head to tail) developmentBabies gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part2. Proximodistal (from the center outward) developmentBabies gain control over their torso before their extremitiesMotor development is based on the infants’ experimentation and learning and remembering of the consequences of their behaviourHowever each baby has their own genetic rate of maturation determined in part by their genetic make up.
19 Temperament: “Easy” vs “Difficult” Babies Temperament refers to the characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivityBabies exhibit their own characteristic temperament by between 2 and 3 months.This is a very good predictor of their personality at age 10.Temperament can be described in several ways
20 Temperament IS NOT destiny. Temperament is heavily influenced by heredity and tends to be stable over timeHOWEVER it is not unchangeable.Parental reactions and other social experiences can gradually shape children’s personality.Temperament IS NOT destiny.
21 Temperament: Thomas and Chess 1977 Easy: happy, regular sleeping and eating patterns, adaptable to change and not easily upset. 40%Slow to warm up: less cheery, predictable and adaptable. Don’t like new experiences. 15%Difficult; glum, erratic sleepers and eaters, resistant to change, irritable 10%35% of babies are combinations of all three
22 Social and emotional development AttachmentThe close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and caregivers.By 6-8 months most babies will show a preference for the primary caregiver and protest when separatedSeparation AnxietyEmotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from those people they have formed an attachment with.
23 Social and emotional development 1. Harry Harlow's surrogate mother research with monkeys demonstrated the importance of contact comfort.2. Attachment stylea. Secure attachment means the infant seeks proximity, contact and interaction with the caregiver after separation.b. Insecure attachment means the infant cannot be calmed or ignores the caregiver after separation.3. Stranger anxiety peaks at about 6 months; separation anxiety peaks at about 18 months.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrNBEhzjg8I
24 INFANCY: Cognitive development 1. Infants show a preference for face-Iike patterns.2. Visual cliff experiments suggest that infants perceive depth by the time they are able to crawl.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VPaBcT1KdY&list=PLE8ACCF549E785776These also demonstrate the influence of other people’s reactions on behaviour.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6cqNhHrMJA&list=PLE8ACCF549E785776
26 I. Childhood A. Physical Development 1. More extensive neural networks continue to develop in the brain.2. Growth rate continues to decline.B. Social development1. Interaction with the environment provides a sense of gender identity.2. A greater sense of independence develops as peer relationships begin td become more important.C. Cognitive development continues at a rapid rate. There are advances in the areas of1. Learning2. Language3. Thinking skills
27 Feral Children 1Feral Children 2Feral Children 3Feral Children 4Feral Children 5GenieChild of Rage
28 II. Adolescence A. Physical/sexual development-puberty B. Social development1. Peer groups take on an increasingly important role.2. Opposite-sex relationships gradually become less recreational and more intimate.C. Cognitive development1. Capability for logical, hypothetical and introspective thinking develops.2. Growing awareness of one's own mental processes develops-metacognition.D. Adolescent development relates to many important societal problems, such as suicide, teen pregnancy and eating disorders.
30 I. Adulthood A. Physical changes 1. Abilities peak and begin a gradual (1 percent a year) decline.2. Women undergo menopause with its hormonal and reproductive changes.B. Social changes center around such issues as:1. Mate selection2. Parenting3. Career selectionC. Cognitive changes vary significantly with some people showing declines and others not.1. Reaction time appears to decline.2. Some adults show a decline in memory.
31 II. Later years A. Physical changes B. Social issues include: 1. There is a general decline in muscle tone and sensory abilities.2. Senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease are two disorders that may develop.B. Social issues include:1. Retirement2. Social isolation, which may be caused by loss of spouse and others, lack of mobility and declining healthC. Cognitive declines are likely to continue.
32 Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson Important Developmental PsychologistsPiaget, Kohlberg and Erikson
33 I. Piaget's theory of cognitive development Essential Processesa. Cognitive structures/schema are the means by which humans acquire and apply knowledge about their world.b. Assimilation is the use of available cognitive structures to gain new information.c. Accommodation is the process of modifying cognitive structures in the face of newly realized complexities in the environment.
34 A. Sensorimotor stage, birth to 18 months 2. Developmental achievementsa. Circular reactions are repetitive motions babies engage in as they gradually learn to explore their environment nonreflexively.b. Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when hidden from view.
35 B.Preoperational stage, 18 months to 6 years 1. Characteristicsa. Egocentrism is a limited ability to comprehend a situation from a perspective one has not experienced.b. Animism is the tendency to attribute life to inanimate things.c. Artificialism is the tendency to believe everything is the product of human action.2. Developmental achievementsa. Symbolic representation and languageb. Readiness for operational thought
36 C. Concrete-operational stage, 6 years to early adolescence 1. Characteristicsa. Use of simple logicb. Use of simple mental manipulationsc. Decline in egocentrism2. Developmental achievementsa. Conservation is the principle that matter does not increase or decrease because of a change in form.b. Reversibility is the understanding that mathematical operations and other actions can be undone.d. Decentration : ability to focus on more than one aspect of a problem at once
37 D. Formal-operations stage, adolescence and adulthood 1. Characteristicsa. Hypothetical/ What if thinking? and deductive reasoning How or Why did this happen ?b. Propositional logic: If this …then that…c. Abstract thought: Symbolism, discussing Big Ideas2. Developmental achievement indicates a readiness for adult intellectual tasks.3. Piaget believed that not all adolescents or adults achieve formal operational reasoning ability.
38 Kohlberg Theory of Moral Development Heinz’s Dilemma
39 Heinz’s DilemmaHeinz's wife was near death, and her only hope was a drug that had been discovered by a pharmacist who was selling it for an exorbitant price.The drug cost $20,000 to make, and the pharmacist was selling it for $200,000.Heinz could only raise $50,000 and insurance wouldn't make up the difference.He offered what he had to the pharmacist, and when his offer was rejected, Heinz said he would pay the rest later.Still the pharmacist refused. In desperation, Heinz considered stealing the drug.Would it be wrong for him to do that?
40 Kohlberg:Moral development: The ability to tell right from wrong and behave accordingly.Kohlberg believed that there were levels and 6 stages in the development of moral behaviour.Kohlberg studied Piaget and tried to apply his ideas to morality.
41 A. Preconventional level : toddler and preschool Stage 1:Right and wrong are determined by what is punished,so a child does the right thing to avoid something bad.Stage 2, Right and wrong are determined by what is rewardedSo a child does the right thing in order to get a something good
42 B. Conventional level: school age Stage 3, Right and wrong are determined by the approval or disapproval of the people close to usWe want our loved ones to see us as goodStage 4, Right and wrong are determined by society's rules and laws which should be obeyed at all timesWe do what’s right because it’s the law even if it could hurt our close friends and family
43 C. Postconventional level : begins in teens but may never be attained Stage 5, There are general rule about what is right and wrong but sometimes exceptions need to be madeStage 6, Each individual must have their own moral code.Right and wrong are characterized by universal ethical principles that emphasize equality and justice for all people, not just the ones close to us.
44 IssuesIt is not unusual for a person to be operating on more than one level depending on the situation.These stages tend to represent “Western cultural values of individual human rights” and are not always the same across the globe.Some believe that Kohlberg did not do enough research on the differences between men and women
45 It appears that males are more interested in the morality of justice: Is this fair? and women are more interested in the morality of care: How will this affect other people?
50 VocabularyCRISIS: the developmental challenge that must be met at each stageBasic Strength: the personality characteristics and beliefs that derive from successful resolution of crisis in each stage
51 Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development 8 successive stages over the lifespanThe result of each crisis must be met adaptively or maladaptively. If the child respondsadaptively: s/he will acquire strengths needed for next developmental stagemaladaptively: s/he is less likely to be able to adapt to later problems
52 II. The stages A. Trust versus mistrust — infants B. Autonomy versus shame and doubt — toddlersC. Initiative versus guilt — young childrenD. Industry versus inferiority — older childrenE. Identity versus role confusion — adolescentsF. Intimacy versus isolation — young adultsG. Generativity versus stagnation — adults
53 Stage1CRISIS: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Birth to age 1Totally dependent on othersCaregiver meets needs: child develops trustCaregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrustBasic strength: HopeBelief our desires will be satisfiedFeeling of confidence
54 Stage 2 CRISIS: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Ages 1-3Child able to exercise some degree of choiceChild’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with othersBasic Strength: WillDetermination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands
55 Stage 3 CRISIS: : Initiative vs. Guilt Ages 3-5Child expresses desire to take initiative in activitiesParents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-directed activity throughout lifeBasic strength: PurposeCourage to envision and pursue goals
56 Stage 4 CRISIS: Industriousness vs. Inferiority Ages 6-11Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play)Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacyBasci strength: CompetenceExertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks
57 Stages 1-4 Stages 5-8 Largely determined by others (parents, teachers) Individual has more control over environmentIndividual responsibility for crisis resolution in each stage
58 Stage 5 CRISIS: Identity vs. Role Confusion Ages 12-18Form ego identity: self-imageStrong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidenceIdentity crisis: confusion of ego identityBasic strength: FidelityEmerges from cohesive ego identitySincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others
59 Stage 6 CRISIS: : Intimacy vs. Isolation Ages (approximately)Undertake productive work and establish intimate relationshipsInability to establish intimacy leads to social isolationBasic strength: LoveMutual devotion in a shared identityFusing of oneself with another person
60 Stage 7 CRISIS: : Generativity vs. Stagnation Ages (approximately)Generativity: Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next generationStagnation involves not seeking outlets for generativityBasic strength: CareBroad concern for othersNeed to teach others
61 Stage 8 CRISIS: : Ego Integrity vs. Despair Ages 55+Evaluation of entire lifeIntegrity: Look back with satisfactionDespair: Review with anger, frustrationBasic strength: WisdomDetached concern with the whole of life
62 III. Critique of Erikson A. There is no agreed-upon set of measures for the various stages.B. The stages imply a rigidity of development that may not exist.C. The theory may not reflect differences in personality development between men and women.