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The Annunciation of the Birth of Yeshua to Joseph Para 9.

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1 The Annunciation of the Birth of Yeshua to Joseph Para 9

2 Here we switch over to Matthew’s account and the narrative is given from Joseph’s perspective Emphasis is place on the virgin birth: 1. vs. 18 – “before they came together 2. vs. 23 – quote of Isaiah 7:14 (this reveals how Isaiah was understood in the 1 st century 3. vs. 25 – no sexual relationship until after Yeshua was born (Miriam had at leas 6 more children)

3 Joseph after learning of Miriam’s pregnancy considered divorcing her privately Message of the angel to Joseph focuses attention on three things: 1. Fulfill the marriage vow 2. Believe Miriam’s story 3. All this is according to God’s plan vs. 21 – call his name Yeshua ( ישוע ) = “save his people from their sin

4 The Birth of the King Para. 10

5 Based on Luke & Matthew, and the historical record of Josephus we can pinpoint the year of Messiah’s birth to within 2 years This is deduced from 4 clues: 1. Herod the Great dies in 4 BC Thus, Yeshua must have been born sometime before 4 BC

6 2. The Decree of Quirinas was issued in 8 BC Thus, Yeshua was born after the decree. Because of the decree Joseph & Miriam travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem 3. Josephus – Herod left Jerusalem in 5 BC and went to Jericho never to return to Jerusalem; Jericho is where Herod died The Magi came to Herod before he left for Jericho

7 4. Para. 14 – By the time the Magi arrive in Bethlehem Yeshua is almost 2 years old Conclusion: Yeshua was born between 7-6 BC The tax spoken of here is a land tax. Evidently Joseph owned property in Bethlehem

8 The Announcement to the Shepherds Para. 11

9 vs. 8 – “shepherds in the field” Some say Yeshua could not have been born on Dec. 25 th because one can’t have sheep in the field in Dec. Rainfall in Israel – End of Oct-Feb much rain March – rain begins to taper off April – rain dies out Mid-April-mid Oct. – no rain Dec. – Israel is a carpet of green We don’t have enough information to know when Yeshua was born – may have been Dec. 25 th but we don’t know

10 Shekinah appears – an angel tells the shepherds: 1. vs. 10 – Do not be afraid of what you are seeing 2. vs. 11 – The Savior has just been born Israel has had many saviors (the Judges) 3. vs. 12 – This Savior is the Messianic Savior -Go find the child – How would they know which child born is the right child? vs. 12 – “sign” – something out of the ordinary

11 Two elements in the sign: 1. The Messianic Savior will be wrapped in swaddling cloth - burial cloth 2. The Messianic Savior will be lying in a manger Don’t look in private homes but in stable-caves in the hill country of Judah Caves were used for burials and there they would store burial cloths

12 Why in stable-caves? There was no room in the inn Messiah was found wrapped in burial cloth on both the first and last days of his life The purpose of his birth – he was born not to live but to die vs. 13 – Multitude of angels appear Two-fold message concerning God 1. Glory to God in the highest 2. Peace to those with whom God is well pleased

13 vs. 14 – angels make a proclamation – the text does not say they sang vs – First recorded Jewish worship of the Messiah Initiated by means of the Shekinah Glory vs. 19 – Miriam kept all these things in her heart Later she will relate them to Luke

14 The Circumcision Para. 12

15 Overarching Theme: What happens to the herald happens to the King Like John – though Joseph & Miriam know what the name of the Messiah is to be, they do not officially give him his name until eight days after the birth at his circumcision Circumcision is commanded under two Jewish Old Testament Covenants

16 Covenant Those Obligated Meaning Abrahamic Covenant Jewish People Only Sign of Jewishness Mosaic Covenant Jews and Gentiles Submission to the Law

17 Messiah’s death brings the Mosaic Law to an end No reason to practice circumcision with respect to the Law Book of Galatians – Paul warns if you submit to circumcision with respect to the Law you are to keep the entire Law Messiah’s death brings the Mosaic Law to an end for both Jews and Gentiles Abrahamic Covenant is an eternal covenant which requires Jewish believers to circumcise their children on the 8 th day

18 Circumcision reveals the faith and obedience of the parents, not the child Baptism reveals the faith and obedience of the one being baptized not the parents Baptism is not the anti-type to circumcision. Baptism shows the faith of the one being baptized The anti-type for circumcision is not baptism but the circumcision of the heart

19 The Presentation Para. 13

20 vs. 22 – These events occur 40 days after Yeshua is born Mosaic Law: A woman who gives birth to a girl is unclean for 80 days and then is to undergo the cleansing process If she gives birth to a son she is unclean for 40 days and then undergoes the process of cleansing

21 Because Yeshua is Miriam’s first-born son she goes to the temple for two basic reasons: 1. The ceremonial purification of the mother The offering provided is a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons a. One used for a sin offering b. One used for a burnt offering These offering reveal the economic status of Joseph and Miriam

22 Joseph and Miriam were extremely poor for only the poor were permitted to make the substitute for a lamb or ram Isaiah 11:1 – the House of David was reduced to a stump 2. For the redemption of the first-born a. The first-born of humans and animals belonged to the Lord b. First-born of kosher animals offered up to the Lord c. First-born of unclean animals – substitute sacrifice d. First-born of males – payment of a price Numbers 18:15-16 – 5 shekels

23 Luke then gives us a Jewish and Gentile perspective on the presentation of Yeshua at the Temple Simeon: 1. Member of the remnant of that day, a believer 2. God revealed to Simeon he would not die until he saw Messiah Simeon recognized the fulfillment of this promise in this 40 day old baby

24 Simeon – Once Simeon sees the child he is ready to die Note: Simeon’s play on words: “For my eyes have seen thy salvation.” Yeshua – Jesus – ישוע = salvation as a name Yeshuah – Salvation – ישועה – salvation as a noun “My eyes have seen your “Yeshua”/salvation” vs. 32 – 1. Light to the Gentiles 2. Glory of your people Israel

25 vs. 34 – Simeon now says something negative to Miriam 1. The child will be a new point of division in the Jewish faith 2. For those who believe in him it will be an “arising” 3. For those who do not believe in him he would be a cause for a “falling” Messiah will be a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense

26 vs. 35 – Miriam’s heart will be pierced as she sees those among the people of Israel reject her son And her heart will be pierced even deeper when she sees her son hanging on the cross Yet the death of Yeshua is essential for the hearts of many to be revealed

27 Anna: The second encounter Luke records Anna is the Anglicized form of the Hebrew name Hannah She is described as: 1. A prophetess 2. The daughter of Phanuel 3. Of the tirbe of Asher 4. Quite old – over a century old (she lived with her husband for 7 years and then a widow for 84 years)

28 5. She recognizes this 40 day old child to be the Messiah 6. She deeply and devoutly worshipped the Lord 7. She was thankful 8. She told many others of Messiah’s coming Those she told were the believing remnant

29 In Bethlehem Para. 14

30 Magi – At least two, but we don’t know how many When they came they caused all kinds of excitement Probably more than two or three Magi – “wise men” or astrologers (not kings) They came from the east, Mesopotamia or Babylon Their questions: “Where is he that is born king of the Jews?”

31 Being Gentiles how would they know of the Messiah concept? Why would they want to come and worship him? Gentile kings from the east knew of the God of Israel and did not worship him. Why would these Gentiles want to worship him now? The thing that attracts the Magi’s attention is a star in the east

32 5 things about this star in the east that reveals it is not an ordinary star: 1. The star is referred to as “his star.” That is, the Messiah’s star – uniquely Messiah’s star or his private star 2. The star appears and disappears on at least two occasions (vs. 3, 9,8) 3. The star moves from east to west (vs. 9) 4. The star moves from north to south 5. The star hovered over one particular home in Bethlehem

33 “Star” – Greek = “radiance,” or “brilliance” The reference is to the Shekinah Glory In the ancient world astronomy and astrology were not different sciences or disciplines Just as God used the profession of shepherds to find the stable-cave; so now he uses the astronomer/ astrologer to follow the Shekinah Glory to the home where Messiah is

34 Being Gentiles how would they know about the Messianic king? 1. Daniel 9:24-27 Only prophet who gives the time table of Messiah’s coming Daniel was not written in Israel but in Babylon Half the book of Daniel is written in Aramaic the language of the Babylonians

35 Two things recorded in the book of Daniel are relevant to the account of the Magi in Matt. 2: 1. Daniel saved all the wise men of Babylon (Dan. 2:2) 2. Daniel became the head of the school of astrology in Babylonia (Dan. 2:48) 2. Balaam A prophet of Babylonia – a Gentile in the east (Numbers 22:5; Deut. 23:4) Numbers 24:17 – “A star will come out of Jacob; A scepter will rise out of Israel”

36 Balaam’s prophecy connects the coming Messiah with two issues: 1. A Star 2. Kingship The Magi go to Jerusalem because that is the capital of Israel; the kingdom of the coming King They were not familiar with the works of Micah and thus did not know the prophecy of Messiah’s birth- place

37 Herod hearing of a rival king gathers the chief priests and scribes to learn where the Messiah is to be born Herod also wants to know when the star appeared to the Magi Herod learns the star appeared 2 years prior (Matt. 2:16) How did the Magi know which child was the Messiah? The star reappears (vs.9). It leads the Magi north to south

38 vs. 9 -“stood over” or “hovered over” – the house where Messiah was. The shekinah showed them where the Messiah was vs. 11 – no longer is Messiah in a stable-cave but a private home The first recorded Gentile worship (the Magi) and the first recorded Jewish worship (the shepherds) was initiated by the shekinah

39 The gifts the Magi brought: 1. Gold – symbol of kingship (Dan. 2) Messiah is a king 2. Frankincense – symbol of deity (Lev. 3:2; 5:11) Messiah is God 3. Myrrh – symbol of death and sacrifice (Mark 15:23; John 19:39) Magi return to Babylon on a different route

40 In Bethlehem Para. 15

41 Herod the Great was known for his paranoia 1. He had killed 3 sons 2. He had killed Miriamni his favorite wife because he believed she conspired to assassinate him 3. It was said that Caesar Augustus said, “It was safer to be Herod’s pig then Herod’s son.” Herod was a nominal convert to Judaism and as as such did not eat pig 4. Here, he kills all the male children 2 years old and younger. Why? That is when the star appeared to the Magi (vs.16)

42 The gifts of the Magi become the means by which Joseph and Miriam can live in Egypt: Gold Frankincense Myrrh

43 In Nazareth Para. 16

44 An angel tells Joseph to leave Egypt for Israel Herod dies and his inheritance is divided up between his three sons: Archelaus receives control of Judea and Samaria Archelaus is a cruel overseer At his crowning he had 3,000 Jews killed in the Temple during Passover Herod Antipas ruled in Galilee and was noted as a milder ruler, so Joseph goes there

45 Galilee was looked down upon by the religious establishment: No rabbinic schools were in Galilee at this time The rabbis said, “If you want to gain wealth you go north, if you want to gain wisdom you come south.”

46 Four Ways OT Prophecy is Interpreted 1. Literal Prophecy & Literal Fulfillment Para. 14- Matt. 2:6 quoting Micah 5:2 Micah- Messiah to be born in Bethlehem of Judea Matt.- Messiah was born in Bethlehem of Judea 2. Literal Prophecy & Typological Fulfillment Para. 15- Matt. 2:15 quoting Hosea 11:1 Hosea- Refers to the Exodus and the deliverance of Israel the national son of God (Ex. 4:22-23) Matt.- Messianic Son returns from Egypt to Israel

47 3. Literal Prophecy & Application Fulfillment Para 15- Matt. 2:17 quoting Jer. 31:15 Current event of Jeremiah’s own time Israel taken into captivity to Babylon, the surviving soldiers marched through Ramah (where Rachel is buried) en route to Babylon Rachel became a symbol of Jewish motherhood Matt. applies Jeremiah’s statement to the Jewish mothers mourning the death of their children in Bethlehem

48 In this usage of prophecy all the details can be different except for one: Jer.- the location is Ramah Matt.- the location is Bethlehem Jer.- sons taken into captivity Matt.- sons killed Jer.- sons are adult prisoners of war Matt.- sons are 2 years and younger

49 The point of agreement between these two events is: Weeping by Jewish mothers for the children they will not see again Another example: Joel 2 quoted in Acts 2 The point of similarity is: the outpouring of the Spirit of God will be accompanied by unusual manifestations

50 4. Literal Prophecy & Summary Fulfillment Para. 16- Matt. 2:23 referring to many prophets No specific prophet is mentioned No particular passage is in mind Summarizes what the prophets taught A Nazarene in the 1 st century was looked down upon Messiah would be “despised and rejected” Judeans looked down upon Galileans and Galileans looked down upon Nazarenes

51 These four ways of interpreting OT prophecy was the common practice in Judaism of the 1 st century The technical term for the system of interpreting prophecy is called: פרדס (pardes) פ = Pshat = Literal meaning of the text ר = Remez = “A hint” (stands for the literal/typological) ד = Drash = Exposition (that leads to application) ס = Sod = Secret (referring to summation)

52 His Growth Para. 17

53 Luke focuses on the humanity of Yeshua He alone provides a statement like this Summarizes Yeshua’s development to 12 years of age Yeshua’s home life: 1. Jewish home 2. Spiritual home (believing home; Scripture central) 3. 5 years: begin study of Scripture in Jewish school years: begin study of “oral law” (Jewish tradition) years: apprenticed in a profession stay at home if learning the father’s profession go to another to learn his profession continue to study from years when he would be ordained

54 At 12 the decision is made regarding the direction the Messiah would take Isaiah speaks of the “Servant of the Lord” Isa. 50:4-9 – Messiah’s mission vs. 4 – Messiah is discipled by the Lord vs. 5 – Messiah to endure physical suffering vs. 6 – Messiah did not shield himself from the abuse vs. 7-9 – Messiah strengthened by the Lord

55 With respect to Messiah’s divine nature – he knows everything With respect to Messiah’s human nature – he was taught by the Lord By 12 Yeshua understood the Father’s will and calling

56 The Visit to Jerusalem Para. 18

57 vs. 41 – Yeshua was raised in an observant home 3 times a year pilgrimage was to be made to Jerusalem: 1. Passover 2. Shavuoth 3. Sukkoth It was customary to bring one’s child to Jerusalem for Passover when the child turned 12, one year before his bar mitzvah

58 In 1 st century it was common to travel in groups When returning to Nazareth from Jerusalem: 1. Joseph and Miriam travel one day not realizing that Yeshua remained in Jerusalem – vs At the end of their day’s journey they realize Yeshua is not with them – vs They then travel back to Jerusalem to look for Yeshua – vs After looking for him for 3 more days they find him

59 When Miriam and Joseph find Yeshua he is in the temple with the experts in the interpretation of the Law Yeshua both understood what they were saying, and was raising the right questions All were amazed at his answers – God taught Yeshua

60 vs. 49 – Mary asks, “where were you?” vs. 50 – Yeshua points out that God is his father. Thus, he was in his Father’s house, the Temple Miriam should have known where to find him – for he is following in the occupation of his Father At 12 a Jewish boy determines his vocation. Yeshua is stating his “business,” or “vocation” is that of fulfilling his Father’s will By 12 Yeshua clearly recognizes the sonship relationship with God the Father

61 His Development Para. 19

62 vs. 51. – The Superior subjected himself to the inferior Yeshua submitted himself to his mother and father vs. 52 – Yeshua developed: intellectually, physically, spiritually, and socially These are the same areas in which we all must develop


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