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Physical Activity and the Early Years

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1 Physical Activity and the Early Years
Section Index Section 1 – Intro/Benefits Section 2 - Statistics Section 3 – Physical Literacy Section 4 – Activity Guidelines Section 5 – How to Get Kids Active Section 6 – Resources Target Audiences (a) Municipal Council - Section 1, 2, 3, 6 (b) Early Childhood/Daycare Workers – Section 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 (c) Public Health Units – Health Promoters – Section 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (d) Public Health Units – Managers – Section 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 (e) Students – Section 1, 3, 4, 5, 6

2 Physical Activity and the Early Years
Target Audiences (a) Municipal Council: Sec 1,2,3,6 (b) Early Childhood/Daycare Workers: Sec 1,3,4,5,6 (c) Public Health – Health Promoters: Sec 1,2,3,4,5,6 (d) Public Health – Managers: Sec 1,2,3,4,6 (e) Students – Sec 1,3,4,5,6 (a) Municipal Council - Section 1, 2, 3, 6 (b) Early Childhood/Daycare Workers – Section 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 (c) Public Health Units – Health Promoters – Section 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (d) Public Health Units – Managers – Section 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 (e) Students – Section 1, 3, 4, 5, 6

3 Physical Activity and the Early Years
This presentation was developed by The Physical Activity Resource Centre for use by physical activity promoters across Ontario.

4 Workshop Objectives By the end of this workshop, participants will:
Know the current physical activity levels of young children Be reminded of the many benefits of physical activity Be knowledgeable of the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years and be able to promote the guidelines to parents, caregivers and early childhood educators Have knowledge and access to tools and activities that they can effectively integrate into their programming, helping to develop and foster physical literacy

5 PARC Services Website (parc.ophea.net - sign up for listserv)
PARC is the Centre of Excellence for physical activity promotion in Ontario. PARC is managed by Ophea and is funded by the Government of Ontario. PARC services support capacity-building, knowledge-sharing and learning opportunities. PARC services include: Consultations & referrals Trainings & workshops Physical activity resources: Website (parc.ophea.net - sign up for listserv) Posters Informational tools and booklets Walk This Way kits PARC is the Centre of Excellence for physical activity promotion in Ontario. PARC is managed by Ophea and is funded by the Government of Ontario. PARC supports community leaders working in public health, community health, recreation and sport organizations non-government organizations and schools to enhance opportunities for healthy active living in Ontario. PARC services support capacity-building, knowledge-sharing and learning opportunities. PARC services include providing: Consultations & referrals Trainings & workshops Physical activity resources Annual Symposium Resource database

6 Ophea Overview Vision All children and youth value and enjoy the lifelong benefits of healthy, active living. Mission Ophea champions healthy, active living in schools and communities through quality programs and services, partnerships and advocacy. A provincial not-for-profit organization - established in 1921 and incorporated in 1990 Dedicated to supporting Ontario schools and communities through quality program supports, partnerships, and advocacy Supportive of Health and Physical Education (H&PE) as a foundational component of healthy schools and communities Vision All children and youth value and enjoy the lifelong benefits of healthy, active living. Mission Ophea champions healthy, active living in schools and communities through quality programs and services, partnerships and advocacy. Works in partnership with school boards, public health, government, non-government organizations and private sector organizations to deliver a broad range of programs and services that help support the development of healthy schools and communities. Provides quality programs and services to leaders in schools and communities so that they are equipped to foster healthy active living for all.

7 Physical Activity and the Early Years
SECTION 1 Intro/Benefits Of Physical Activity

8 Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of a child’s
physical, mental and emotional development. According to the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card (2010): Children under five require adequate unstructured play and time outdoors for physical, cognitive and emotional development. The early years are a critical period for healthy development. Research shows lifestyle patterns set before the age of five predict obesity and health outcomes in later childhood and through adulthood. Movement is an important part of a child’s physical, mental and emotional development. Movement is one of the important ways that young children form impressions about themselves and their surroundings. Activity satisfies a child’s curiosity of movement.

9 Benefits of Physical Activity
Strengthens the heart and lungs Helps build strong bones and muscles Develops good posture Increases energy Improves fitness levels Enhances flexibility Improves coordination and balance Helps maintain a healthy body weight Helps improve sleeping and eating habits Helps develop fundamental movement skills Enhances development of brain function and neural pathways Physical activity is one of the easiest ways to improve your overall health. Physical inactivity is linked to over 25 chronic conditions including: heart disease, diabetes, cancer. A study conducted in 2009 estimated that in Ontario the annual economic burden of physical inactivity was $3.4 billion of direct and indirect costs.

10 Benefits of Physical Activity
Psychological / Emotional Encourages fun and makes children feel happy Reduces anxiety and helps young children feel good about themselves Prevents, reduces, manages depression Improves the ability to deal with stress Helps build confidence and positive self-esteem Enhances emotional development Helps young children form impressions about themselves and their surroundings The very young child is most likely to think about their worth based on family and physical experiences. For example, when a child says “watch me”, s/he is often demonstrating his/her ability to perform a physical skill. Positive self-esteem is built through a child’s belief that s/he has the ability to perform skills and the family support to be active. This in turn boosts her/his enjoyment and serves to encourage her/him to continue to participate in physical activity. A child believes s/he is successful at physical activity skills when s/he: - feels able to perform simple tasks (such as making contact with the ball) - is trying hard - is learning a new athletic skill - is enjoying the activity - is receiving positive feedback and reinforcement from parents, teachers and coaches.

11 Benefits of Physical Activity
Academic Improves problem-solving skills/abilities Improves learning and attention Increases concentration Improves memory Enhances creativity Physical activity plays an important role in facilitating learning and academic performance. Research indicates that parents, educators and policy-makers who are concerned that physical activity participation decreases study time should in fact welcome time devoted to physical education, physical activity or sports. Even when the time is taken away from other subjects, physical education does not negatively affect academic achievement. In fact, increased physical fitness and active living opportunities have positive effects on academic performance. Studies within Canada and from across the globe indicate that physical activity, sport and comprehensive school health approaches are related to enhanced learning and academic performance through: • production of substances that protect delicate neurons in the brain • improvements in memory, concentration and attention span • improvements in grades and test scores • increased self-esteem, self-confidence and self-image • reduced misconduct behaviours at school • increased feelings of school connectedness • facilitating the inclusion of children with developmental or learning differences For example: A comprehensive Ontario school health initiative that includes physical activity as a key element indicated a 36% increase in reading and a 24% increase in math scores over a two-year period. A study of over 5,000 students by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that girls with the highest levels of physical education participation had higher math and reading scores. Another U.S. study of over 12,000 students indicated that daily physical activity was associated with higher math and reading achievement, echoed by an Alberta study of 5,000 students, which showed that active living had positive results on school performance. Healthy bodies and healthy minds are what Canada needs to have a strong, thriving society! Source: The Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, 2009

12 Benefits of Physical Activity
Social Teaches important skills such as sports skills and life skills Provides opportunities for children to practice/develop social skills and leadership skills Encourages interaction and helps develop friendships Develops positive lifelong attitudes toward physical activity Encourages healthy family engagement Helps nurture and promote imagination and creativity Children learn about sharing, cooperation, fair play, creativity, being a good sport (win or lose) Some children take a leadership role and others follow the leaders! Being involved in sport may help those more shy in other situations to take on a leadership role. Most games, activities require some degree of interaction and cooperation Being active as a family is a great way for family time and for parents to establish themselves as role models. It also introduces to children that physical activity is an important way of life and a family value Children should be encouraged to be creative in their play: make up new games; change the rules of existing games to make it different, potentially more fun, and active.

13 Let’s get moving! Lead stretching exercise March on the spot
Climb a ladder Walk in a circle…..follow the leader

14 Physical Activity and the Early Years
SECTION 2 Statistics Presentation title| Date

15 Physical Inactivity 69% of Canadian children are not meeting international physical activity guidelines. (Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card, 2010) Only 36% of 2-3-year-olds and 44% of 4-5-year-olds engage regularly in unorganized sport and physical activity each week. (National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth) Measures of physical fitness are declining. In children, there is strong evidence that the prevalence of obesity is at unprecedented high levels. Obesity levels are high even in the early years (0–4 years). Engaging in regular physical activity is widely accepted as an effective preventative measure for not only obesity, but a variety of health risks in school-aged children. 69% of Canadian children are not meeting international physical activity guidelines (AHKC Report Card 2010) – this means, the great majority of our children are not even doing 1 hour of physical activity per day. The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth indicates that only 36% of 2-3-year-olds and 44% of 4-5-year-olds engage regularly in unorganized sport and physical activity each week Measures of physical fitness include: cardiovascular fitness, strength, flexibility, agility, balance, speed. Sources: Shields, M Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Rep. 17(3): 27–42. PMID: Tremblay, M.S., Katzmarzyk, P.T., and Willms, J.D Temporal trends in overweight and obesity in Canada, 1981–1996. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 26(4): 538–543. doi: /sj.ijo PMID: Tremblay, M.S., and Willms, J.D Secular trends in body mass index of Canadian children. CMAJ, 163: 1429–1433. PMID: Colley, R.C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C., Clarke, J., and Tremblay, M.S Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007–2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep. 22(1): 15–23. PMID: Canning, P.M., Courage, M.L., and Frizzell, L.M Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a provincial population of Canadian preschool children. CMAJ, 171(3): 240–242. doi: /cmaj PMID: Spence, John C., Cutumisu, Nicoleta, Edwards, Joy and Evans, Judy (2008) 'Influence of neighbourhood design and access to facilities on overweight among preschool children', International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 3:2, 109 — 116

16 Physical Activity Levels
Physical activity levels start to decline at age three. Compared with 3-year-old children, 4 and 5-year-old boys and girls spent more time in sedentary activity. Consistently, girls are less active than boys; in some studies - in children as young as infancy and 18 months. Boys engage in greater overall amounts of physical activity; they also tend to engage in higher intensity activities than girls. The estimated prevalence of overweight among 2- to 5-year old children in two different studies was 11% and 18%. Two Studies: He, M and Sutton, J. (2004). Using routine growth monitoring data in tracking overweight prevalence in young children. Can. J. Public Health 95, 419 – 423. Canning, P.M., Courage, M.L. & Frizzell, L.M. (2004). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a provincial population of Canadian preschool children. CMAJ. 171 ( ). Factors Associated with Physical Activity in Early Childhood, Brian W. Timmons PhD, Dept. of Paediatrics, McMaster University

17 26% of Canadian children are overweight or obese (Tremblay 2010)
Compare charts: Boys to Girls 1981 to National data show that 15.2% of 2-5-year-olds are overweight and 6.3% are obese. It is estimated that overweight 2-5-year-olds are 4 times as likely to be overweight as adults. Children who were obese at age six had a fifty percent chance of becoming obese adults. Sedentary lifestyles are a major contributing factor to the development of obesity in children and adolescents.

18 Physical inactivity is an important public health issue.
Lets take a step back for a moment and highlight the real issue: physical inactivity. Only 7% of children 6-19 years meet Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 1 hour of physical activity daily. (Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2011) This contributes to several health and societal issues such as the rising rates of obesity, declining fitness, decreased productivity, not to mention …(next slide) References: Statistics Canada (2011). Canadian Health Measures Survey: Physical activity of youth and adults. Retrieved from Tremblay, M et al. (2010). Fitness of Canadian children and youth: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Statistics Canada, Health Report.

19 Economic Burden of Physical Inactivity in Canada
Heart Disease Economic Burden of Physical Inactivity in Canada $6.8 Billion Stroke Breast Cancer High Blood Pressure Type 2 Diabetes Colon Cancer We know that 15-39% of the top chronic diseases can be attributed to physical inactivity, and the total economic burden of physical inactivity Canada is estimated to be $6.8 billion dollars References: Ian Janssen (2012). Health Care Costs of Physical Inactivity in Canadian Adults, Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37 (4): Osteoporosis

20 Sedentary Behaviour These sedentary activities, especially those that are screen-based, are associated with… fitness, risk for obesity self-esteem, pro-social behaviour, academic achievement (Tremblay et al. 2011c)

21 Screen Time In 1971, the average age at which children began to watch TV was 4 years; today, it is 5 months! More than 90% of kids begin watching TV before the age of two. Compared with school-aged children, screen time may be associated with additional negative health outcomes in early years (Christakis et al. 2009; Lillard & Peterson 2011). Increased television viewing is associated with unfavourable measures of obesity, psychosocial health, and cognitive development. There is no evidence to support television viewing as beneficial for improved psychosocial or cognitive development. In several instances, a dose–response relationship existed between increased time spent watching television and decreased psychosocial or cognitive development. Television viewing is only a crude measure of sedentary behaviour and it is likely that caregivers underestimate this time, meaning that our results may in fact be underestimating its overall impact of television viewing on poor health. There is evidence to show that violent television is more harmful than educational programming (Christakis and Zimmerman 2007; Zimmerman and Christakis 2007), but there is little evidence supporting the idea that children learn better through electronic stimulation. In fact, the opposite appears to be true (i.e., children learn better by engaging with parents and caregivers than with a television). Babies and toddlers should learn from play, not screens – A 2011 article from the American Academy of Pediatrics BOSTON -- The temptation to rely on media screens to entertain babies and toddlers is more appealing than ever, with screens surrounding families at home, in the car, and even at the grocery store. And there is no shortage of media products and programming targeted to little ones. But a new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says there are better ways to help children learn at this critical age. In a recent survey, 90 percent of parents said their children under age 2 watch some form of electronic media. On average, children this age watch televised programs one to two hours per day. By age 3, almost one third of children have a television in their bedroom. Parents who believe that educational television is "very important for healthy development" are twice as likely to keep the television on all or most of the time. The policy statement, "Media Use by Children Younger Than Two Years," was released Tuesday, Oct. 18, at the AAP National Conference & Exhibition in Boston and was published in the November 2011 issue of Pediatrics. The AAP first provided guidance on media use for children under age 2 in This consisted of a recommendation in the Academy's policy statement, "Media Education," which discouraged TV viewing for children in this age group. At the time, there was limited data on the subject, but the AAP believed there were more potential negative effects than positive effects of media exposure for the younger set. Newer data bears this out, and the AAP stands by its recommendation to keep children under age 2 as "screen-free" as possible. More is known today about children's early brain development, the best ways to help them learn, and the effects that various types of stimulation and activities have on this process. The report set out to answer two questions: Do video and televised programs have any educational value for children under 2? Is there any harm in children this age watching these programs? The key findings include: Many video programs for infants and toddlers are marketed as "educational," yet evidence does not support this. Quality programs are educational for children only if they understand the content and context of the video. Studies consistently find that children over 2 typically have this understanding. Unstructured play time is more valuable for the developing brain than electronic media. Children learn to think creatively, problem solve, and develop reasoning and motor skills at early ages through unstructured, unplugged play. Free play also teaches them how to entertain themselves. Young children learn best from -- and need -- interaction with humans, not screens. Parents who watch TV or videos with their child may add to the child's understanding, but children learn more from live presentations than from televised ones. When parents are watching their own programs, this is "background media" for their children. It distracts the parent and decreases parent-child interaction. Its presence may also interfere with a young child's learning from play and activities. Television viewing around bedtime can cause poor sleep habits and irregular sleep schedules, which can adversely affect mood, behavior and learning. Young children with heavy media use are at risk for delays in language development once they start school, but more research is needed as to the reasons. The report recommends that parents and caregivers: Set media limits for their children before age 2, bearing in mind that the AAP discourages media use for this age group. Have a strategy for managing electronic media if they choose to engage their children with it. Instead of screens, opt for supervised independent play for infants and young children during times that a parent cannot sit down and actively engage in play with the child. For example, have the child play with nesting cups on the floor nearby while a parent prepares dinner. Avoid placing a television set in the child's bedroom. Recognize that their own media use can have a negative effect on children. According to Dr. Brown, "In today's 'achievement culture,' the best thing you can do for your young child is to give her a chance to have unstructured play -- both with you and independently. Children need this in order to figure out how the world works."

22 Amount of Physical Activity in Children
Grade: F The 2012 Report Card, released in partnership with ParticipACTION and the Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO-HALO), assigns an “F” grade to Active Play and Leisure. Only 7% of children and youth are meeting Canada’s guidelines of 60 minutes of physical activity a day.

23 Let’s get moving! Lead exercise to increase heart rate
Take participants on a jungle walk. Walk through a field of growing flowers Walk through tall trees Monkeys hanging from the trees Elephants at the stream Zebras running through the forest.

24 Physical Activity and the Early Years
SECTION 3 Physical Literacy

25 PHYSICAL What is interesting is that if you talk to most people, even those who are inactive, sedentary or most at risk they seem to know they should be more active and they seem to get the message that physical activity is good for them but the struggle becomes getting them to actually change their behaviour. It forces us to ask the question …do they actually have the skills and abilities needed to lead an active lifestyle? And this is where we really start to look at the concept of physical literacy What is physical literacy? the development of fundamental movement skills that enable the child to move with competence and confidence in a wide variety of physical activities, in both indoor and outdoor environments that benefit the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of the whole child.

26 Why is physical literacy so important?
Physically literate children lead healthy active lives. Children who are not physically literate avoid physical activity and may turn to sedentary or unhealthy lifestyle choices. Children who are physically active: are ready to learn, have better personal satisfaction, have better and safer relationship.

27 Physically literate individuals...
move with competence and confidence in a wide variety of physical activities in multiple environments that benefit the healthy development of the whole person. -PHE Canada, 2012 So what is physical literacy? And there are several definitions out there, this is one that we tend to use the most, developed by Physical and Health Education Canada. Basically it describes a physically literate individual as someone who can move with competence and confidence, in a wide variety of activities, and in multiple environments (the four main environments being land, air, water and ice or snow) and that all of this contributes to the healthy development of the whole person. So really speaking not just to their physical development but also their psycho-social and cognitive development as well. Research has shown that being physically active later in life depends on an individual's ability to feel confident in an activity setting. That confidence most often comes from having learned fundamental movement and sport skills, or physical literacy, as a child. Research has also shown that without the development of physical literacy, many children and youth withdraw from physical activity and sport and turn to more inactive and/or unhealthy choices during their leisure time (CS4Life). References: Mandigo, J., Francis, N., Lodewyk, K. & Lopez, R. (2009). Position Paper – Physical Literacy for Educators. Physical & Health Education Canada (2012). Retrieved from

28 Skill-Based Literacies
Literacy Numeracy Physical Literacy Letters Numbers Movement Skills Words Fractions Sequences Sentences Equations Tasks Developing skills and then being able to understand and apply So when trying to understand the importance of movement skills in the development of physical literacy a good comparison is to look at literacy itself, we know that having a variety of language skills and vocabulary to draw from, and being able to understand, communicate and apply it within the right context, is important for literacy. Much is the same for physical literacy in the sense that to be physically literate we need to have a variety of movement skills to draw from, which we can then confidently apply depending on the environment. The outcome of all skill-based literacies is dependent on the foundation. If you don’t have the foundation you WILL not progress to creation and participation. Physical literacy is no different from literacy and numeracy in this regard.

29 Physical literacy is essential for optimal growth and development
So we know physical literacy is essential for growth and development especially in the early years but you may be wondering why this is the ideal time. And the answer has a lot to do with early brain development which occurs in the first 5 years of life when all the connections are being made. References: Canadian Sport for Life (n.d.). Developing physical literacy – A guide for parents of children ages Retrieved from

30 Physical literacy lays the foundation for an active life.
Without physical literacy, people are often not confident in their abilities so they will tend to avoid or withdraw from physical activities and sport. In fact, not being able to perform just one fundamental movement skill can seriously restrict future opportunities for physical activity, sport and recreation.

31 Early Brain Development
In an attempt to explain we can use the comparison to building a house. When you’re building a house you usually want to wire and make sure all the connections with your electrical and plumbing are made as your house is being built, before the drywall and paint goes up. If there are problems later on you can always go back and fix or re-wire but it is much more difficult. The same is true for the development of physical literacy and those fundamental movement skills, it’s important that children get to learn those skills when their brain is developing so those initial connections can be made and strengthened. It is not impossible to go back and learn a new skill later on but it will be a lot more difficult for a number of reasons.

32 Developing physical literacy and participation in regular physical activity supports learning, readiness and positive behaviours. Academic Performance Self-esteem Anxiety & Depression Behaviour related problems Outside of the physical health benefits physical literacy and physical activity has also been associated with other benefits including increased creativity, concentration, problem solving skills, academic performance and self esteem, it has also been linked to reductions in anxiety, depression and behaviour related problems Additional points: Active children and youth are fit to learn. Physical activity in the early years helps increase creativity, learning and academic performance through improvements in cognitive function (e.g., concentration, memory, problem-solving skills/abilities), reduced misconduct and increased attention span. 7,8 Aerobic physical activity is associated with positive self-concept, psychological well-being, and reduced anxiety or depression.9 Physical activity and physical fitness have been directly correlated with improved academic performance.10 Healthy active living benefits students in a number of ways including: Increasing productivity and readiness for learning; Improving morale; Decreasing absenteeism; Decreasing bullying and violence; Promoting safe and healthy relationships and; Heightening personal satisfaction. References: Active Healthy Kids Canada (2009). Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth: Active kids are fit to learn. Retrieved from Ontario Ministry of Education (2010). The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Health and Physical Education. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. 9 Healthy Active Living and Sports Medicine Committee Canadian Paediatric Society (2012). Position Statement - Healthy active living: Physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents. Paediatric Child Health, 17(4), Retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws.com/files.cps.ca/document/874/print-ready_e.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIQDIKLPWFMPMSEAA&Expires= &Signature=HA3ecUsbp4mS5EB%2BFM3oYJY4Smw%3D 10Sattelmair, J., & Ratey, J. (2009). Physically Active Play and Cognition An Academic Matter? American Journal of PLAY, 1, 365 – 374. 11Cancer Care Ontario, Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario) (2012)0. Taking action to prevent chronic disease: recommendations for a healthier Ontario. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario

33 Physical Literacy HANDS UP | Part 1 - Introduction to Physical & Health Literacy HANDS UP | Part 2 - Exploring Physical & Health Literacy HANDS UP | Part 3 - Applying Physical & Health Literacy

34 How do we develop children who are “Active for Life”?
So why is physical literacy so important, especially in the early years? I will go through a few reasons in the following slides but this graphic from Canadian sport for life really sums it up well. You can see the Active start stage, which is really from birth to age 6 is the ideal time for learning these fundamental movement skills like running, jumping, throwing, swimming, skating, and so on. And then up until around age 12 they continue to refine these fundamental skills and can even use them to start to learn more sport specific skills. The whole concept, as you can see bottom of the diagram, is that the development of physical literacy in the early years provides that foundation of knowledge, skills, and healthy behaviour that helps set them on a path to become active for life. And in the larger sense, having a population of physically literate individuals would probably go a long way in helping to change our culture and start to reverse the trend of physical inactivity.

35 Who helps children develop these skills?
Physical activity is essential for healthy child development during the critical first six years of life, and is especially important during the first three years since brain growth is extremely rapid, and learning creates more brain cell connections than in later years (Gruhn, 2002). Active Start = 0-6 years At the Active Start stage, children should be encouraged to run, jump, catch, throw, balance and alter their body shape. They should try both water and swimming, and ice and snow activities. They should also learn to wheel on a tricycle or bicycle. At this age, physical activity should always be a fun part of the child’s daily life, not a worrisome task they are “required” to do. Active play in a safe and stimulating environment is the best way to keep children physically active. It’s not enough to hope that children will discover activity by themselves. Parents need to model activity for their children, and they must participate in the activity with them. Play should be informal and unstructured. From CS4L: Children will learn new skills, such as crawling, walking and running, when their bodies have developed enough and are strong enough to do the activity and when the brain and nerves are developed enough to send the right messages between the brain and the muscles. A normal age range exists for each skill but some children will develop early and others will be late developers. Brain, nerve and muscle development depends on the individual and those who are late in some cases, will not always develop later in other skills. For example, a child who crawls later, may walk earlier than another child the same age. About one in ten babies never crawl, but go straight to walking when the body is ready. There are no advantages or disadvantages to starting early or late. As long as the child hits movement milestones within the normal range, there’s no need to be concerned. If children are much later than most of their peers in several different actions, parents should speak with a health care provider. Providing children with active role models, encouragement, and the opportunity to safely explore their environment will help all children develop physical abilities. Give children the opportunity to learn movement skills and encourage them to physically explore their play spaces. One way to do this is to ensure there are spaces in the house where children can move around and be active while safe. Be there to supervise activities such as climbing stairs, walking, throwing and running, rather than not allowing the child to try these skills at all. Many short periods of vigorous play per day are best. Children shouldn’t go longer than one hour without being active (unless they are sleeping). FUNdamental = girls 6-8; boys 6-9 Focus on developing the ABCs of movement. A-Agility B-Balance C-Coordination S-Speed Allow children to try many activities in many different environments. Source: Developing Physical Literacy, Figure 2 Who is responsible for Physical Literacy? Canadian Sport for Life,

36 Fundamental Movement Skills
Kicking Swimming Hopping Throwing Cycling Crawling Climbing Skating Striking Running Falling Catching Jumping Dribbling Volleying Balancing Skipping Dodging When we look being at able to move well and with confidence, this really starts with the development of fundamental movements skills, many of which you see listed on the screen. Skills such as running, kicking, throwing, striking and dodging which are transferable to many different types of recreational activities and sports.

37 Running, jumping, catching, kicking, throwing, swinging and hitting are the basic sports building blocks. Learning these fundamental sport skills allows children to play several sports with ease.  Missing out on these skills can lead to a lifelong disconnect from recreation and sport. There is an important difference between fundamental movement skills and fundamental sport skills. Fundamental movement skills also prevents injuries.

38 Impacts of Physical Literacy
And here is a nice graphic from Canadian Sport for life that illustrates that. So for example, if you never learn how to swim well and you don’t feel confident in your ability to swim, you likely won’t take part in a number of outdoor activities like swimming, diving, water polo, kayaking, sailing, or any other activity that may require swimming. This means you probably aren’t going to join a group of friends on a canoeing trip and you probably aren’t going to get in the pool or take your kids to the beach to help them learn to swim because you don’t feel competent or confident enough in your ability to do so. The same is true for all other movement skills like throwing, running, striking, or any of the others we listed earlier. At the same time you can see how learning these skills can open up a world of opportunity for future participation. Even though there are only 3 movement skills displayed on the screen you can see the huge impact they can have a large number of different activities. not to mention the opportunities for making new friends and social inclusion that come with participating in these activities as well. Source: Canadian Sport For Life

39 Physical Literacy Across Sectors
Leisure: Recreation & Sport Fundamental Movement Skills  General Movement Sequences  Performance Excellence and Participation Performance Arts Circus, dance Vocational Any vocation with physicality: firefighter, armed services, dry waller, iron worker, underwater welder Activities of Daily Living Garden, paint, hammer, walk on slippery surfaces Injury Prevention Lift, carry, transfer Falls, stumble recovery, landing Source: Dr. Dean Kriellaars PL is key in all aspects of life! PL is not just for sport, it is for preparation for almost all vocations and activities of daily living. Importantly, it is primary prevention for injuries! Many injuries like back injuries (50% of all workplace injuries) could potentially be reduced with a physically literate workforce. Balance and fall prevention programs are really just physical literacy programs. Source: Dr. Dean Kriellaars

40 Supporting Physical Literacy
Evaluation Quality Programs and Instruction Supportive Environments Opportunities for active play So what can we do to support the development of physical literacy in our next generation so we can not only enjoy the health benefits but continue to have a healthy, productive society? And there is a lot we can do, but I’ve tried to summarize much of it in 4 key points. We can start to evaluate and actually measure physical literacy, right now we don’t measure it We can ensure that recreation leaders, coaches, teachers, and daycare providers receive training in physical literacy so they can deliver quality programs and instruction. We can work to provide supportive environments both built, where there are accessible places in our community like parks, playgrounds, green space and other facilities where children can be active and learn new skills, and also through a supportive social environment that provides positive feedback and encouragement. Finally, we know that children learn through experience. So we need to provide them with plenty of opportunity for active play whether out in their community, home, or childcare setting where they can experience a wide variety of activities and learn the valuable skills they will need to be active for life.

41 Let’s get moving! Lead balance and coordination exercise.
Head and shoulders Over/under with a ball

42 Physical Activity and the Early Years
SECTION 4 Activity Guidelines

43 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology
Physical Activity Guidelines Early Years 0-4 years Children 5-11 years Youth 12-17 years Adults 18-64 years Older Adults 65 years + How old are the kids that you work with everyday in your centre? Today we are only going to talk about the PA Guidelines for 2 age groups….but there are PA guidelines for all age groups.

44 Presentation title| Date
Guidelines For healthy growth and development: • Infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily – particularly through interactive floor-based play. • Toddlers (aged 1–2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3–4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including ▪ A variety of activities in different environments. ▪ Activities that develop movement skills. ▪ Progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits. The major difference between the school-aged children guidelines and those for the early years relates to physical activity intensity. The early years’ guidelines recommend that toddlers and preschoolers accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity, whereas the guidelines for school-aged children recommend they accumulate at least 60 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily (Tremblay et al. 2011a). Some may perceive that the activity recommendations decrease from 180 to 60 min when children go to school. In fact, the early years’ recommendation to progress toward at least 60 min of energetic play (e.g., moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity) by 5 years of age brings the two guidelines together while respecting language and context suitable for the age groups. To reconcile the apparent difference in the recommended physical activity duration, school-aged children should meet their 60 min recommendation “above and beyond the incidental physical activities accumulated in the course of daily living” (Tremblay et al. 2011a), whereas this is embedded in the early years’ recommendation. Source: Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0–4 years); Mark S. Tremblay, Allana G. LeBlanc, Valerie Carson, Louise Choquette, Sarah Connor Gorber, Carrie Dillman, Mary Duggan, Mary Jane Gordon, Audrey Hicks, Ian Janssen, Michelle E. Kho, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Claire LeBlanc, Kelly Murumets, Anthony D. Okely, John J. Reilly, John C. Spence, Jodie A. Stearns, and Brian W. Timmons Presentation title| Date

45 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines: 0-4 years
These guidelines are relevant to all apparently healthy infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1–2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3–4 years), irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status of the family. Infants, toddlers, and preschoolers should be encouraged to participate in a variety of age-appropriate, enjoyable and safe physical activities that support their healthy growth and development, and occur in the context of family, child care, school, and community. Children in the early years should be physically active daily as part of play, games, sports, transportation, recreation, and physical education.

46 Being active 0-4 years means…
Infants Tummy time Reaching and grabbing for toys Playing or rolling around on the floor Crawling Toddlers/Preschoolers Any activity that gets toddlers moving The activity should be more intense as the child gets older

47 A Word About Infants Physical activity helps to build a babies sense of his/her own identity. When babies control their movements better, they start to be able to make things happen in their environment. Moving and Growing. Physical Activities for the First Two Years Canadian Child Care Federation, Canadian Institute of Child Health, 2004

48 A Word About Infants Physical activity helps babies to be healthy, alert, relaxed and happy. Regular activity establishes connections in the brain that lead to improved: Strength, endurance, ease of movement, flexibility, coordination, balance Parents/caregivers also notice that with regular activity, babies are often: Easier to soothe Have better sleep habits Have improved digestion

49 Another tool designed by CSEP for parents to use.
Can be used by other caregivers, daycares, etc. as well Presentation title| Date

50 Read through the Guidelines
Presentation title| Date

51

52 Being active 5-11 years means…
Moderate to vigorous intensity physical activities should cause children to sweat a little and breath a little harder. Bike riding Playground activities Vigorous intensity physical activities should cause children to sweat and be “out of breath” Running Swimming

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54 Let’s get moving! Lead exercise to increase muscle tone. Inch worm
Rocking chair Fly like a plane

55 Physical Activity and the Early Years
SECTION 5 Getting Kids Active

56 Tips for Getting Infants Active
Provide opportunities for supervised tummy time several times each day. Provide opportunities for movement both indoors and outdoors. Provide a variety of play objects with different textures, sizes and shapes. Use large blocks, stacking toys, nesting cups, textured balls, squeeze toys, parachutes. Limit an infant’s time in bouncy seats, swings, car seats and playpens to no more than 15 minutes at a time. Encourage and assist infants to roll, reach, scoot, sit, stand, crawl and walk. Provide parents with a daily update of their infant’s physical activity and skill development Remember! Screen time is not recommended for infants.

57 Tips for Getting Young Children Active
Ensure that physical activity experiences: Are fun and safe Are a positive experience, free of negative pressure Provide diverse and interesting activities, games and skill development opportunities Are challenging Consist of small but achievable goals Emphasize basic motor skill development, such as running, rolling, climbing, throwing, catching and kicking Take place in short bursts with frequent breaks Are part of a child’s daily routine

58 Tips for Getting Young Children Active
While it is important to provide challenges for young children, it is equally important to ensure that activities are developmentally appropriate and safe. Children are not small adults. It is important to modify the equipment, space to suit the needs of young children. Tips: Use lighter softer, larger balls Choose shorter, lighter bats and racquets Choose larger goals or target areas Partially deflate balls for dribbling and kicking Simplify games by having children drop and catch the ball rather than bouncing it consecutively Modify the size of the playing area to make it easier for all players to participate

59 Tips for Getting Young Children Active
Be an active role model and an active participant in games and play with the children. Display photos of the children being active. Put up posters depicting physical activity. Use equipment that does not label by gender, such as balls, hoops, beanbags, etc. Limit rules that discourage physical activity (e.g., no balls, no running, etc.) Encourage and facilitate outdoor play as much as possible.

60 Tips for Getting Young Children Active
Provide opportunities for children to participate in vigorous forms of physical activity such as running, dancing, chasing a ball and jumping. Promote activities that use large muscle groups and encourage movement of the whole body. Develop physical activity programming that benefits all children regardless of body type, size, skill, coordination. The goal is not to produce Olympic athletes but to contribute to lifelong attitudes that value physical activity.

61 Children with a Disability
An inclusive environment is one that provides the opportunity for children of all abilities and interests to participate in all activities. Inclusive environments recognize the inherent value of each child, the right to take risks and make mistakes, the need for independence and self-determination, and the right to choice. In all age groups, Canadians with a disability are less likely than other Canadians to participate in regular physical activities. Everyone has a responsibility to remove barriers for children with disabilities so that they can have equal access to physical activities. For more information on physical activity modifications, see Ophea’s Steps to Inclusion resource.

62 Children with a Disability
In an inclusive program: Activities are modified, adapted and individualized as necessary. Expectations are realistic yet challenging. Assistance is provided only to the degree required. Dignity of risk and availability of choices are respected and fostered. Visual cues include children with varying abilities. Activities are taught/led using different learning styles. Equipment is adapted/modified as necessary.

63 Reflecting a Variety of Cultures
Select visuals (e.g., posters, wall cards, etc.) and resources that reflect diversity in gender and ethnicity. Use music and activities that reflect various cultures including songs, instruments and dances. Encourage children to express themselves according to their culture when participating in imaginative games and activities. Use culturally appropriate props, equipment and materials.

64 Teaching Physical Literacy in children prevents injuries!
Learning the basic fundamental movements early in life will help children grown to be confident and competent adults. Being physically literate is also a protective factor against injuries.

65 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active
Some young children may be hesitant to engage in physical activity. It is important to use observational skills to identify clues that may explain a child’s reluctance to be active. It is also helpful to have some general strategies at your fingertips! Think, Pair, Share What might be some reasons that young children do not participate in physical activity? What are some strategies for implementing/promoting physical activity (how, what, when)? Think, Pair, Share – can also do in table groups for the sake of time. Capture the ideas on flip charts (can be added to slides)

66 Let’s Get Active Circle Time Ready-to-go Activities:
1. Circle Fitness (from Rainbow Fun): children move around in a circle clapping hands. Leaders stands in the centre calling out activities for the children to do while moving – e.g. walk with big steps, walk with tiny steps, run, walk on all four, hop, march with high knees, skip, leap, etc. Can also do a “zoo walk” with this. Shake Your Sillies Out (Rainbow Fun): The children stand in a circle, shaking their arms and legs. Song is: Shake, shake, shake your sillies out (repeat 3 times) and Wiggle your worries away – children wiggle their bodies all over. Continue but change words to Hop, Climb, Run, dance, etc. Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes Parachute games 5. Bean Bag chase – start with one bean bag and pass it around the circle. Introduce a second bean bag but don’t let it catch up with the first one being passed around. With older kids, you can introduce a third bean bag, etc.

67 Let’s Get Active Small Spaces Ready-to-go Activities: Small Spaces
1. Use a soft ball that doesn’t roll too far, kick it gently to the child, and have her/him use her/his feet to kick it back. Don’t worry if he/she picks it up or wants to roll it back with their hands - it all helps the eyes learn to track the movement of the ball. 2. Follow-the-leader. Take turns with the child being the leader and the follower. When it’s your turn to lead, try making different shapes with your body. Stand as tall as you can with your arms above your head, crouch down small, grow like a flower, or fly like a bird. Try jumping, marching on the spot, etc. – things that can be done on the spot. 3. Dog Walk (dainty poodle; big powerful great dane; trotting Sheppard; galloping retriever; goofy mutt; wet dog) 4. Bouncing ball (Moving and Growing #11) – Child squats down and pretends to be a ball. You kneel beside her. Put gentle but firm pressure on her back. Child pretends to bounce up and down like a ball by straightening and bending her knees. You can also roll the “ball”, etc. 5. My Body Lies over the sofa – My Body Lies over the sofa, My Body Gets Too much TV, My Body Lies over the Sofa, Oh Bring Back my Body to me. Bring Back, Bring back, Oh bring back my body to me, to me … repeat. Stand up / sit down every time you sing a word starting with B. 6. Active Alphabet (individual and group) – try making the letters of the alphabet with your body – they can also do this with a partner. 7. Read a book with activity in it (fiction or non-fiction) and the kids act out the active parts. Eg. Where is Gah-Ning? Robert Munsch.

68 Let’s Get Active Large Spaces Where to get activities:
1. Choose activities from the following resource (Healthy Opportunities for Preschoolers [HOP], by Viviene A. Temple and Justen P O’Conner): Locomotive Skills Manipulative Skills Moving to Music Let’s Make CS4L Moving and Growing (Canadian Child Care Foundation) Have a Ball (various resources within) (Best Start Resource Centre Rainbow Fun (City of Toronto) Ready-to-go Activities: 1. Cut out shapes from old carpet (or use pavement chalk to draw the shapes), such as squares, circles and triangles. Place them on the floor (using double sided tape to stop them from moving) just far enough apart so that the child can take a big step from one to the other. Increase the space between the shapes, and encourage the child to jump from one to the other. Play games with the child running around the shapes and then call out instructions such as “Stop on the square,” “Jump over the circle”. Have more than one child try to stand on the shape at the same time. 2. Play Catch – start by rolling the ball to each other; then using different size balls, play catch: beach ball, elephant-skin ball, etc. 3. Follow-the-leader. Take turns with the child being the leader and the follower. When it’s your turn to lead, try making different shapes with your body. Stand as tall as you can with your arms above your head, crouch down small, grow like a flower, or fly like a bird. Try jumping, walking, running and suddenly changing direction, or stopping and starting. Vary speed, effort and level (sometimes low and sometimes high). When the child is leading, encourage her/him to exaggerate their movements. From time to time, have the child do things you can’t (like squeeze through a child sized gap), which will give the child a great sense of achievement. 4. Obstacle courses. Make an obstacle course that invoices crawling under/over, moving in different ways and at different heights (on tip toes, on stomach, etc. 5. Simple races. Running races, hopping races, walking-backwards races, sideways like a crab races - the type of race doesn’t matter, but being safe does. Don’t make the finish-line a wall or solid object that the child can run into - give them time to slow down. Don’t make the races competitive, and where possible, give everyone a chance to win at least some of the time. 6. Get a Beach Ball and write the following things on each of the colours. Then roll the ball and whatever it lands on, do that activity (split into groups if possible) - Dance – Dance and Shout or any other music – free dance or have a routine made up, or pick a known dance (chicken dance, Cha Cha Slide, Harlem Shuffle, etc.) - Have a Ball – have a number of utility balls and beach ball and practice throwing, catching, roll, volley, etc minute Fitness – Choose kid or current music and do a 5-minute fitness class: jogging on the spot, jumping jacks, stride jumps, push-ups, marching on the spot, stretching and deep breathing. - Going to the Zoo – pretend you are going to the zoo. Walk along the space and pretend you get to the X animal’s cage – act out how they move: big elephant foot steps, slithering like a snake, hopping like a bunny or kangaroo, prancing like a pony. - Follow the Leader – Use a sport theme and act out sport skills; play Simon Says using sport/active moves. - Bean bag balance – bean bags – balance on different body parts (elbow, shoulder, head, etc.) Others: Lion King –put on Lion King music and move around the room like animals from Africa (giraffe, elephant, snakes, etc.) Badminton – make badminton racquets out of metal hangers and nylons Beach ball volley ball – play volley ball with a beach ball Paper Skate – put 2 pieces of paper under each foot and skate around the room – forwards, backwards, etc. Make up a hopscotch

69 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Scenarios
Some young children might not like to engage in structured physical activity because of the task of learning and abiding by rules. Strategies: Encourage and provide opportunities for free play or other unstructured forms of physical activity, such as dance. Limit the number of rules and instructions. Allow children to create their own games and make up their own rules Use positive instruction (e.g., “walk” vs. “don’t run”). Provide different types of indoor and outdoor equipment to encourage active play. Ensure that equipment promotes gross motor skills and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Ensure opportunities to be active indoors exist for those intimidated by outdoor play.

70 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Scenarios
Some young children may appear frustrated, cry or show a lack of interest during physical activity. Strategy: Choose times to be active when children are well-fed, rested and alert. Be sure fluids are always available. Watch out for signs of fatigue during physical activity and end the activity before children start losing interest or stop having fun. Schedule physical activity for early in the day. Morning is often the best time for structured activity. Ensure children have sunscreen and are dressed appropriately for the weather (hot or cold).

71 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Scenarios
Children like routine and like to know what to expect in terms of timing, location of activities, etc. Strategy: Make physical activity part of a daily routine, just like lunch and nap time. This way, children will know to expect that it is time to learn a new skill, play, etc. Expose children to different physical activity environments to help develop skills and strategies for adjusting to different situations. Take children for regular walks around the neighbourhood. Encourage parents to walk/cycle their children to preschool/daycare

72 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Scenarios
Some young children are shy or embarrassed to try a new skill or because they have had difficulty with a skill, game, etc. in the past Strategy: Teach the skill in a different way or try a new activity that teaches the same skill. Use toys, rather than equipment to learn a new skill. Build children's self-confidence in physical activity by using praise, encouragement and positive feedback. Do not force a child to perform an activity. Children should never be singled out or embarrassed into physical activity. Allow children to choose the type of activity they are interested in. Be accepting of different body shapes and ability levels. Use cooperative games that do not exclude anyone or ask anyone to sit out.

73 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Scenarios
There may be limited (real or perceived) time for scheduling a planned, dedicated time to be active in a pre-school/day care setting. Strategy: Build physical activity into other aspects of the program. For example: Develop arts and crafts that require children to move around. Encourage children to act out words/scenes in a story while reading a book. Incorporate physical activity into math lessons (e.g., 2+2 = 4 jumping jacks). While teaching the alphabet, encourage children to make the letters with their bodies. While teaching about animals, encourage children to move around the room like the animals they are learning about. Incorporate physical activity into circle time lessons Encourage children to do movements common to the season while learning about days and months of the year (e.g., it is Dec. 20 – encourage children to do 20 snow shovels or 20 big snow shoe steps).

74 Group Brainstorm What do you do to get kids moving inside?
What do you do to get kids moving outside? What do you do to limit sedentary time? (Get discussion going by using questions above. Have participants write notes in their new notebooks. Bring bag of items. Have people pick out of bag and make up a physical activity using that item.)

75 Physical Activity and the Early Years
SECTION 6 Resources

76 Resources Active Healthy Kids Canada: www.activehealthykids.ca
Best Start Resource Center: Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology: Caring for Kids: McMaster University Child Health and Exercise Medicine Program: fhs.mcmaster.ca/chemp ParticipACTION: Alberta Centre for Active Living: Presentation title| Date

77 Resources – Physical Activity Links
Rainbow Fun: A physical activity and healthy eating program for young children Greater Sudbury: Physical activity resource guide for childcare centres Best Start: Have a ball together Mount Royal College: A Hop, Skip and a Jump: Enhancing Physical Literacy

78 Resources Ophea’s Early Learning Cards – Easy-to-implement activities that support H&PE learning areas of the Full Day Kindergarten program. Ophea Alphabet Yoga Cards – Playful poses that teach children the basics of yoga while developing their physical literacy and language skills. PlaySport - An educational website with many great activities designed to teach kids games by playing games! Healthy Opportunities for Preschoolers. Viviene Temple, Justen O’Connor HANDS UP – A three-part illustrated video series on health and physical literacy. Presentation title| Date

79 Resources Developing Policy to Advance Physical Literacy in Child Care Settings in Alberta. Wellspring, December 2012, Volume 23, Number 6. The Alberta Centre for Active Living Canadian Sport for Life Moving and Growing Series. Canadian Child Care Federation and Canadian Institute of Child Health; 2004; Fun and Physical Activity; Toronto Public Health. Other: The Be Fit For Life Network: Move & Play through Physical Literacy cards. Over 75 cards are designed to be used in a variety of applications including the home, school or community settings and focus on Active Start, FUNdamentals, and Learn to Train stages of the Long Term Athlete Development Model. To order the cards Presentation title| Date

80 Sharing Resources Great Ideas Success Stories

81 Wrap-up Questions Evaluation

82 Contributors Dr. Jory Basso, BSc, Dip SIM, CSCS, DC
Chiropractor, Professor Hybrid Health & Fitness Toronto Janet Dawson, CPT, BSc. HE, MSc. Health Promoter Peterborough County-City Health Unit Chris Sherman BHK, B.Ed. Public Health Educator, Chatham-Kent Public Health Unit


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