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Human Growth and Development

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Presentation on theme: "Human Growth and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Growth and Development
Chapter 8 Human Growth and Development

2 Life Stages Infancy: birth to 1 year Early childhood: 1–6 years
Late childhood: 6–12 years Adolescence: 12–20 years Early adulthood: 20–40 years Middle adulthood: 40–65 years Late adulthood: 65 years and older

3 Growth and Development Types
Physical: Body Growth Mental: Mind Development Emotional: Feelings Social: Interactions and Relationships with others Four Types above occur in each stage

4 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst 8 stages of Psychosocial Development Each stage establishes the foundation for the next A basic conflict or need must be met in each stage If a person is not able to resolve the conflict, the person will struggle with the conflict later in life.

5 Infancy Basic Conflict: Trust vs Mistrust Major life event: Feeding
Age: birth to 1 year old Most dramatic and rapid changes Newborn 6-8 lbs inches End of 1st year weight lbs inches Muscles & Nerves Dramatic changes Startle, rooting, sucking, grasp reflex 4-6 months show emotion 4 months recognize caregivers, 6 months shy away from strangers, 12 months interact with familiar people

6 Toddler. Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt
Toddler Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt Major life event: Toilet Training Age: 1 – 3 years 20-25 lbs. 30 inches Run, Climb Grab, developing Short Attention span Self Awareness & recognize their effect on others Accept or defy the limits Self-centered Fear any separation Reassurance without overprotection

7 Preschool. Basic Conflict: Initiative vs Guilt
Preschool Basic Conflict: Initiative vs Guilt Major life event: Independence Age: 3–6 years old Run, Climb, grab freely 1,500 2,500 words. Ask frequent questions Uses imagination Learns right & wrong. Conscience Gain more control over emotions Learn to Trust other people Sociable , friends important Be responsible without feelings of guilt

8 School Age. Basic Conflict: Industry vs Inferiority
School Age Basic Conflict: Industry vs Inferiority Major life event: School Age: 6–12 years old 4-7 lbs. per & 2-3 inches per year Complex motor development Fears replaced with the ability to cope Approval of others, follow behavior of the group Form groups of their own sex Make friends more easily Spend more time with others their own age, less time with parents

9 Adolescence. Basic Conflict: Identity vs Role Confusion
Adolescence Basic Conflict: Identity vs Role Confusion Major life event: Peers Age: 12–18 years old Often traumatic life stage “growth spurt” 25 lbs. gain & several inches can occur in months girls in boys Muscle coordination cannot keep up, clumsiness Puberty Establish identity & independence. Worry about their appearance, ability & relationships Respond to peer group influences Adolescents need reassurance, support, and understanding

10 Eating Disorders Often develop from an excessive concern with appearance Anorexia nervosa Reduces food intake or refuses to eat Bulimia Binge (excessive) eating and then fasting. May induce vomiting or use laxatives to remove food that has been eaten More common in females Usually, psychological or psychiatric intervention is needed to treat these conditions Can occur at any life stage, but frequently begins in adolescence

11 Chemical Abuse Use of alcohol or drugs with the development of a physical and/or mental dependence on the chemical Can occur at any life stage, but frequently begins in adolescence Can lead to physical and mental disorders and diseases Treatment towards total rehabilitation

12 Reasons Chemicals Used
Trying to relieve stress or anxiety Peer pressure Escape from either emotional or psychological problems Experimentation Seeking “instant gratification”

13 Suicide One of the leading causes of death in adolescents
Permanent solution to temporary problem Impulsive nature of adolescents Most give warning signs which include: Withdrawal or moodiness Neglect of personal hygiene Alcohol or drug abuse Lose of interest in hobbies or life interests Injuring one’s body Giving away possessions

14 Reasons for Suicide Depression Grief over a loss or love affair
Failure in school Inability to meet expectations Influence of suicidal friends or parents Lack of self-esteem Increased Risk Family history of suicide A major loss or disappointment Previous suicide attempts Recent suicide of friends, family, or role models (heroes or idols)

15 Early/ Young Adulthood. Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs Isolation
Early/ Young Adulthood Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs Isolation Major life event: Love Relationships Age: 20–40 years old Physical & mental complete, prime childbearing time Most productive life stage Decision making, forming judgments Emotional stresses related to career, marriage, family Take responsibility for their actions, find satisfaction in achievements, accept criticism, profit from mistakes

16 Middle Adulthood (Middle Age) Basic Conflict: Generosity vs Stagnation Major life event: Parenting
Age: 40–65 years of age Physical decline. Hair grey, skin wrinkle, muscle weak, hearing loss, menopause in women Mental development Emotionally contentment & satisfaction or time of crisis Job stability, financial success, good health, end of child rearing Job loss, fear of aging, marital or children problems, aging parents Family relationships decline as children move out and parents die. Marriage may improve with more time or divorce as couples stayed together for the children's sake

17 Late Adulthood. Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs Despair
Late Adulthood Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs Despair Major life event: Reflection on and Acceptance of Life Age: 65 years of age and older Skin dry, wrinkled, thin loose. Brown age spots. Bad posture from loss of cartilage. Bones weak, muscle tone loss, memory loss Alzheimer’s – Memory loss, intellectual function, speech & balance Some elderly happy & enjoy life, lonely, depressed, withdrawn Retirement can lead to loss of self-esteem. Death of spouse or friends. Nursing homes. The elderly need a sense of belonging, self-esteem, financial security, social acceptance, and love

18 Death and Dying Death is “the final stage of growth”
Experienced by everyone and no one escapes Young people tend to ignore it and pretend it doesn’t exist Usually it is the elderly, who have lost others, who begin to think about their own death Terminal Illness -Disease that cannot be cured and will result in death Some patients fear the unknown while others view death as a final peace

19 Research (continued) Dr. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross was the leading expert in the field of death and dying and because of her research She identified five stages of grieving Dying patients and their families and friends may experience these stages Stages may not occur in order Some patients may not progress through them all, others may experience several stages at once

20 Stages of Death and Dying
Denial—refuses to believe Anger—when no longer able to deny Bargaining—accepts death, but wants more time Bargain with God for more time Turn to religion Depression—realizes death will come soon Acceptance—understands and accepts the fact they are going to die

21 Right to Die Since health workers are ethically concerned with promoting life, allowing patients to die can cause conflict “right to die” patients can refuse measures that would prolong life Under these laws specific actions to end life cannot be taken Hospice encourages LIVE promise Learn about end-of-life care Implement advanced directives Voice decisions Engage others about end-of-life care options

22 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow a psychologist An individual must meet the lower needs in order to move to higher needs Physiological Needs Safety & Security Love and Affection Esteem Self-Actualization

23 Needs Physiological Safety Love and Affection Esteem
Food, water, oxygen, shelter Safety Secure environment. Free from anxiety & fear Love and Affection Social acceptance, friendship & to be loved Esteem Feeling important & worthwhile Self Actualization Reach full potential

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