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Chapter 8 Human Growth and Development. Life Stages  Infancy: birth to 1 year  Early childhood: 1–6 years  Late childhood: 6–12 years  Adolescence:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Human Growth and Development. Life Stages  Infancy: birth to 1 year  Early childhood: 1–6 years  Late childhood: 6–12 years  Adolescence:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Human Growth and Development

2 Life Stages  Infancy: birth to 1 year  Early childhood: 1–6 years  Late childhood: 6–12 years  Adolescence: 12–20 years  Early adulthood: 20–40 years  Middle adulthood: 40–65 years  Late adulthood: 65 years and older

3 Growth and Development Types  Physical: Body Growth  Mental: Mind Development  Emotional: Feelings  Social: Interactions and Relationships with others Four Types above occur in each stage

4 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development  Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst  8 stages of Psychosocial Development  Each stage establishes the foundation for the next  A basic conflict or need must be met in each stage  If a person is not able to resolve the conflict, the person will struggle with the conflict later in life.

5 Infancy Basic Conflict: Trust vs Mistrust Major life event: Feeding  Age: birth to 1 year old  Most dramatic and rapid changes  Newborn 6-8 lbs inches  End of 1 st year weight lbs inches  Muscles & Nerves Dramatic changes  Startle, rooting, sucking, grasp reflex  4-6 months show emotion  4 months recognize caregivers, 6 months shy away from strangers, 12 months interact with familiar people

6 Toddler Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt Major life event: Toilet Training  Age: 1 – 3 years  lbs. 30 inches  Run, Climb Grab, developing  Short Attention span  Self Awareness & recognize their effect on others  Accept or defy the limits  Self-centered  Fear any separation  Reassurance without overprotection

7 Preschool Basic Conflict: Initiative vs Guilt Major life event: Independence  Age: 3–6 years old  Run, Climb, grab freely  1,500 2,500 words. Ask frequent questions  Uses imagination  Learns right & wrong. Conscience  Gain more control over emotions  Learn to Trust other people  Sociable, friends important  Be responsible without feelings of guilt

8 School Age B asic Conflict: Industry vs Inferiority Major life event: School  Age: 6–12 years old  4-7 lbs. per & 2-3 inches per year  Complex motor development  Fears replaced with the ability to cope  Approval of others, follow behavior of the group  Form groups of their own sex  Make friends more easily  Spend more time with others their own age, less time with parents

9 Adolescence Basic Conflict: Identity vs Role Confusion Major life event: Peers  Age: 12–18 years old  Often traumatic life stage  “growth spurt” 25 lbs. gain & several inches can occur in months girls in boys  Muscle coordination cannot keep up, clumsiness  Puberty  Establish identity & independence.  Worry about their appearance, ability & relationships  Respond to peer group influences  Adolescents need reassurance, support, and understanding

10 Eating Disorders  Often develop from an excessive concern with appearance  Anorexia nervosa  Reduces food intake or refuses to eat  Bulimia  Binge (excessive) eating and then fasting. May induce vomiting or use laxatives to remove food that has been eaten  More common in females  Usually, psychological or psychiatric intervention is needed to treat these conditions  Can occur at any life stage, but frequently begins in adolescence

11 Chemical Abuse  Use of alcohol or drugs with the development of a physical and/or mental dependence on the chemical  Can occur at any life stage, but frequently begins in adolescence  Can lead to physical and mental disorders and diseases  Treatment towards total rehabilitation

12 Reasons Chemicals Used  Trying to relieve stress or anxiety  Peer pressure  Escape from either emotional or psychological problems  Experimentation  Seeking “instant gratification”

13 Suicide  One of the leading causes of death in adolescents  Permanent solution to temporary problem  Impulsive nature of adolescents  Most give warning signs which include:  Withdrawal or moodiness  Neglect of personal hygiene  Alcohol or drug abuse  Lose of interest in hobbies or life interests  Injuring one’s body  Giving away possessions

14 Reasons for Suicide  Depression  Grief over a loss or love affair  Failure in school  Inability to meet expectations  Influence of suicidal friends or parents  Lack of self-esteem Increased Risk  Family history of suicide  A major loss or disappointment  Previous suicide attempts  Recent suicide of friends, family, or role models (heroes or idols)

15 Early/ Young Adulthood Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs Isolation Major life event: Love Relationships  Age: 20–40 years old  Physical & mental complete, prime childbearing time  Most productive life stage  Decision making, forming judgments  Emotional stresses related to career, marriage, family  Take responsibility for their actions, find satisfaction in achievements, accept criticism, profit from mistakes

16 Middle Adulthood (Middle Age) Basic Conflict: Generosity vs Stagnation Major life event: Parenting  Age: 40–65 years of age  Physical decline. Hair grey, skin wrinkle, muscle weak, hearing loss, menopause in women  Mental development  Emotionally contentment & satisfaction or time of crisis  Job stability, financial success, good health, end of child rearing  Job loss, fear of aging, marital or children problems, aging parents  Family relationships decline as children move out and parents die.  Marriage may improve with more time or divorce as couples stayed together for the children's sake

17 Late Adulthood Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs Despair Major life event: Reflection on and Acceptance of Life  Age: 65 years of age and older  Skin dry, wrinkled, thin loose. Brown age spots. Bad posture from loss of cartilage. Bones weak, muscle tone loss, memory loss  Alzheimer’s – Memory loss, intellectual function, speech & balance  Some elderly happy & enjoy life, lonely, depressed, withdrawn  Retirement can lead to loss of self-esteem. Death of spouse or friends. Nursing homes.  The elderly need a sense of belonging, self-esteem, financial security, social acceptance, and love

18 Death and Dying  Death is “the final stage of growth”  Experienced by everyone and no one escapes  Young people tend to ignore it and pretend it doesn’t exist  Usually it is the elderly, who have lost others, who begin to think about their own death  Terminal Illness -Disease that cannot be cured and will result in death  Some patients fear the unknown while others view death as a final peace

19 Research (continued)  Dr. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross was the leading expert in the field of death and dying and because of her research  She identified five stages of grieving  Dying patients and their families and friends may experience these stages  Stages may not occur in order  Some patients may not progress through them all, others may experience several stages at once

20 Stages of Death and Dying  Denial—refuses to believe  Anger—when no longer able to deny  Bargaining—accepts death, but wants more time  Bargain with God for more time  Turn to religion  Depression—realizes death will come soon  Acceptance—understands and accepts the fact they are going to die

21 Right to Die  Since health workers are ethically concerned with promoting life, allowing patients to die can cause conflict  “right to die” patients can refuse measures that would prolong life  Under these laws specific actions to end life cannot be taken  Hospice encourages LIVE promise  Learn about end-of-life care  Implement advanced directives  Voice decisions  Engage others about end-of-life care options

22 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow a psychologist An individual must meet the lower needs in order to move to higher needs  Physiological Needs  Safety & Security  Love and Affection  Esteem  Self-Actualization

23 Needs  Physiological  Food, water, oxygen, shelter  Safety  Secure environment. Free from anxiety & fear  Love and Affection  Social acceptance, friendship & to be loved  Esteem  Feeling important & worthwhile  Self Actualization  Reach full potential

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