Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the New Testament. Popular Misconceptions about New Testament Unified Book Written by a single author The only writings of the Early Church."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to the New Testament
Popular Misconceptions about New Testament Unified Book Written by a single author The only writings of the Early Church Replacement of the Hebrew Bible Is there anything problematic about the name— New Testament?
Literacy Less that 20% of population could read NT texts read aloud to communities
What is the New Testament? Over 5,000 manuscripts – Gospel Manuscript Gospel Manuscript – Gospel Manuscript Gospel Manuscript – Codex Sinaiticus Codex Sinaiticus Canon contains 27 books – Gospels – Acts of the Apostles – Epistles – Revelation Written between 50 CE-120 CE by many writers Written in Greek, called koine
Dates matter Jesus of Nazareth born 4 BCE Jesus of Nazareth dies 30 CE Epistles of Paul written 1 Thessalonians written 50 CE CE Gospel of Mark written CE Gospel of Matthew written, Gospel of Luke written CE Gospel of John written 95 CE
Gospels What does gospel mean? How would you describe the Gospels?
Synoptic Gospels “Matthew, Mark, Luke repeat stories and sayings of Jesus is nearly identical words.”
Synoptic Problem What is the synoptic problem?
Two Source Theory
Markan Priority? What arguments can be made for dating Mark as the earliest gospel?
Mark’s Gospel How does Mark’s gospel open? How is it’s beginning different from Matthew and Luke? What is the significance of Jesus’ baptism? What are Jewish roots of baptism? Who is John the Baptist?
Matthew’s Gospel What is the purpose of Matthew’s infancy narrative? – Wise men visit Jesus – Herod’s Massacre of Infants – Flight to Egypt (Hoshea 11:1)
Herod the Great
748/a_AEP-PBS a.jpg Masada
Masada, Desert Fortress
How is Luke’s infancy narrative different from Matthew’s narrative?
Luke’s Gospel What are the differences in Luke’s infancy narrative? – Shepherds visit Jesus – No mention of Herod’s attempts to kill Jesus – Presentation at the Temple – Jesus visits the Temple at age 12
Christology Perspective on the nature, teachings, and function of Christ. Compare Luke 2: to Matthew 1: What are the differences in the writers views about Jesus?
How to read the New Testament? Read with fresh eyes Beware of prior assumptions Read from different perspectives: – Literary world: form, style, theme, purpose of the text – Historical world: historical context and setting – Contemporary world: how the text applies to current times? What does it mean today?
Mark’s Gospel Markan Priority Written in CE Written from the perspective of persecuted Gentile-Christian community (Alexandria? Rome?) Eschatological urgency (Mark 1:15)
Pharisees—Separatist Group Name means, “separated ones” Careful observance of the Torah Emphasized eating regulations Did not eat meals with people who did not follow the Torah Hostile towards Greek culture Views as hypocrites in the NT Rose to power after fall of Temple (70 CE) Followed oral law, Mishnah, Talmud
Sadducees—Real Power Players Priests Tended to control the temple High priests was a liaison between Jewish priests and Roman governor Wealthy landowners, well-connected Only viewed the Torah as authoritative Did not believe in angels, demons, or resurrection of the body
Scribes Why would scribes resent Jesus’ teachings in Mark’s gospel?
Gospel of Matthew Written in CE Written to a Jewish community in Galilee Addresses inter-Jewish debates after defeat and fall of temple in 70 CE
Beatitudes in Matthew 5:3-11Beatitudes in Luke 6: ‘Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 ‘Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted. 5 ‘Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. 6 ‘Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. 7 ‘Blessed are the merciful, for they will receive mercy. 8 ‘Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. 9 ‘Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God. 10 ‘Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11 ‘Blessed are you when people revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. 21 ‘Blessed are you who are hungry now, for you will be filled. ‘Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh. 22 ‘Blessed are you when people hate you, and when they exclude you, revile you, and defame you on account of the Son of Man… 24 ‘But woe to you who are rich, for you have received your consolation. 25 ‘Woe to you who are full now, for you will be hungry. ‘Woe to you who are laughing now, for you will mourn and weep. 26 ‘Woe to you when all speak well of you, for that is what their ancestors did to the false prophets.
Gospel of Luke Written in CE Written to a Hellenistic, gentile audience Best written gospel Published as a larger work—Luke-Acts Eager to prove that Jesus followers can be loyal Roman subjects
Gospel of John Written CE Presents a high Christology Jesus as the Word incarnate (made flesh) Severe hostility toward “Jews” May have been expelled from synagogue I am statements