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Studies ATTACHMENT INCLUDING DEPRIVATION, PRIVATION AND DAY CARE.

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Presentation on theme: "Studies ATTACHMENT INCLUDING DEPRIVATION, PRIVATION AND DAY CARE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Studies ATTACHMENT INCLUDING DEPRIVATION, PRIVATION AND DAY CARE

2 Bowlby’s 44 juvenile thieves study  He wanted to discover if ‘affectionless psychopaths’ were more likely to have had early separation from the primary caregiver  Sample – 44 teenagers (31 boys, 13 girls) plus a control group of 44 teenagers attending the clinic for emotional problems (not delinquents / criminals 34 boys, 10 girls)  Data collection included interviews with the teenagers and their mothers.

3 What did he find?  Of 44 delinquents, 14 affectionless psychopaths – 12 of the 14 had been separated from their main carer for more than six months in infancy. 5 of the remaining 30 had been separated for more than six months.  Of the 44 non-delinquents, 0 affectionless psychopaths – 2 of these had been separated for more than six months.

4 What does this suggest?  Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis is supported because a greater proportion of affectionless psychopaths had been separated from their carer in the first two years of life.

5 Evaluation points  The study was based on rich data collected from a variety of sources.  A control group was used for comparison. However  Bowlby himself suggested an additional control group would have been a good idea – children who did not have obvious difficulties.  Only the mother was interviewed but the relationship with the father might have been important.  Separation (deprivation) was seen as the important factor rather than, say, abuse, which may have been relevant.

6 Hodges & Tizard (1989)  Hodges and Tizard carried out a longitudinal study of children who were put into institutional care in infancy.  Between the ages of 2 and 7, they were either adopted or returned to live with their own family.  The institutions provided adequate care but the children had many different caregivers: an average of 24 by the age of 2.

7  The adopted children formed close attachments to their adoptive parents by the age of 8 but this was less true of those returning to their families. The adoptive parents were keen to have a child but some of the natural parents had ambivalent feelings or had other children or financial problems.  The institutionalised children were compared with a control group who had not been in care. Parents did not report particular difficulties. Teachers, however, noted they tended to be attention-seeking, restless and disobedient.

8 Rutter (Romanian orphans)  English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) team with Rutter reported on 111 Romanian children raised in deprived conditions (hospitals or orphanages)  They were compared with 52 adopted children from the UK who had not suffered privation.  The Romanian children were severely affected physically and psychologically.

9 Once adopted  Romanian children began to catch up once adopted, particularly if adopted before 6 months old, although some difficulties remain.  Like Hodges and Tizard’s sample, the children tended to show ‘disinhibited attachment’ such as going off with strangers.  Conclusion – early experiences of privation through institutionalisation have lasting effects although some recovery is possible is adopted at a young age.

10 Schaffer and Emerson(1964)  60 Scottish infants  Development of emotional attachments investigated  Monthly interviews with mothers until the infant was 18 months old  Response to being separated in different situations including being left in a room with a stranger  Attachment measured by protest if separated  Attachment phases established (asocial 0-6 weeks. Indiscriminate attachment phase 6 weeks – about 6 months, specific attachment phase, 7-9 months, multiple attachment phase from 9 months)

11 Day care and aggression  Jay Belsky carried out several studies to investigate the effect of day care on young children.  For example, he studied 1364 children over a period of ten years in 10 day care centres in the States. Caregivers and teachers rated the children’s behaviour.  Of the children in care for more than 30 hours per week, 17% were rated as aggressive to their peers.  Of the children in care for fewer than 10 hours per week, 6% were rated as aggressive.

12  From this and other studies he concluded that spending a long time in day care from an early age could make the parent-infant attachment more insecure and could make children more aggressive and less compliant.  Criticisms of his research included: the use of the Strange Situation to test attachment and not taking the quality of day care into account when looking at aggression.  Other research (e.g. the EPPE project) have shown that day care can be beneficial to social development providing it is high quality.

13 Evaluate Bowlby’s theory Evidence against  Social releasers – evidence against includes child’s temperament (some children emit fewer social releasers)  Critical period – sensitive period a better term (Romanian orphanages)  Innate – possibly learning theory so not innate  Monotropy – Schaffer & Emerson, multiple attachments from about 9 months

14 Day care and aggression  Jay Belsky carried out several studies to investigate the effect of day care on young children.  For example, he studied 1364 children over a period of ten years in 10 day care centres in the States. Caregivers and teachers rated the children’s behaviour.  Of the children in care for more than 30 hours per week, 17% were rated as aggressive to their peers.  Of the children in care for fewer than 10 hours per week, 6% were rated as aggressive.

15  From this and other studies he concluded that spending a long time in day care from an early age could make the parent-infant attachment more insecure and could make children more aggressive and less compliant.  Criticisms of his research included: the use of the Strange Situation to test attachment and not taking the quality of day care into account when looking at aggression.  Other research (e.g. the EPPE project) have shown that day care can be beneficial to social development providing it is high quality.


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