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Strengths, Health, & Thriving

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1 Strengths, Health, & Thriving
Resilience: Positive Adaptation We all know people who have had an incredibly difficult start in life and yet done well. In fact, you may be one of those people. After learning about the brain science and Adverse Childhood Experience, almost everyone wants to learn more about what can be done to promote resilience. We want to know how noticing strengths and acting in ways that promote healthy processes can generate solutions and focus communities on the best that people have to offer. Learning about resilience injects hope and optimism into the dispiriting story of stress and adversity. With this knowledge, leaders have a bold and confident foundation for helping future generations to thrive, even as we know we will be unable to prevent all adversity from affecting their lives. How do we act in ways that help people to have a joyful and fulfilling life despite adversity? The following body of research focuses on those issues. We’ll explore positive experience as a powerful foundation for human thriving, and consider ways in which we can invest in dual-generation, whole family and whole community strategies that hold tremendous promise for reducing ACEs in Washington. Strengths, Health, & Thriving

2 Factors that Influence Health
You probably already believe that experience has a powerful impact on health. You many not know that it’s the most powerful means for helping people to thrive. In fact, only 10% of the factors that influence health are contained in formal health care systems. More than half of the factors that influence health are embedded in the way we live with one another day by day. Dr. Sheldon Cohen determined in 1997 that individuals with more diversified social networks live longer than their counterparts with fewer types of relationships. Their ability to defend against the common cold is strengthened. But how we live with one another goes beyond how we form friendships and social circles of support. How we live with one another includes how we as individuals choose to interact, but it also includes how we form community, how we develop organizations and societal pressures that come back around and influence our health. How we live together includes racism, poverty in a class-based society, and disparities in access to health and education. Together we create the organizations, governance and other systems, and societal patterns that hold a majority influence our health. That’s good news! No matter how big an economic downturn we face, we can always make improvements to the way we interact with one another, and the way we co-develop policies and programs that improve health. A Hopi Elder prophesized about our times, saying: “You have been telling people that this is the Eleventh Hour, now you must go back and tell the people that this is the Hour. And there are things to be considered Where are you living? What are you doing? What are your relationships? Are you in right relation? Where is your water? Know your garden. It is time to speak your truth. Create your community. Be good to each other. And do not look outside yourself for your leader. …We are the ones we have been waiting for.” We all participate every day in setting societal norms that promote resilience. The more we know about positive frameworks for action – the more confident we can be about helping to lead in transformative ways. Source: USDHEW, PHS, CDC. “Ten Leading Causes of Death in US 1975, Georgia Bureau of State Services, Health Analysis and Planning for Preventive Services, p. 35, 1978

3 ACE Reduction: a powerful framework for thriving
Washington is among the first states in the nation to have state-specific data about ACE effects on chronic diseases including heart disease, diabetes, depression and anxiety. As we move from research to new policy and practice, it is important to recognize three critical goals for policy and practice improvement in Washington. First, we must improve the foundations of healthy development, especially the environment of relationships and community conditions that have a powerful impact on developmental adaptation. Communities themselves can be more or less resilient. The Washington State Family Policy Council has clear evidence that, working together, state and local leaders can improve general community capacity and thereby reduce the rates of adverse childhood experience related problems in the community as a whole. Second, we must reduce the median ACE score from one generation to the next. This work includes general community capacity building plus working directly with families and neighborhoods in which parents and emerging adults – youth who will likely be parents in the next few years – with high ACE scores receive trauma sensitive help and support that is specifically geared toward preventing ACEs for their children. Third, we must improve societal response to people with high ACE histories in multiple domains: school, recreation, work, family, neighborhood, etc. Responses must surface strengths and expand opportunity for people with diverse childhood experiences to feel a sense of belonging and be able to contribute to school, work, and community life. One way to think about this is to remember the days before our society had a commitment to accommodation for people with physical disabilities so they could fully participate in community life. Now accommodations like curb-cuts – the ramps that link the sidewalk to the street at crossing locations – are a norm. Throughout Washington, neighbors and professionals are developing the equivalent of curb-cuts as accommodation for high ACE folks.

4 Resilience Occurs at All Levels:
WHAT IS RESILIENCE? The natural human capacity to navigate life well. (HeavyRunner & Marshall, 2003) The capacity to absorb disturbance and re-organize while undergoing change, yet still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, feedbacks. (Walker et al., 2002) The ability of an individual, system or organization to meet challenges, survive, and do well despite adversity. (Kirmayer, 2009) Resilience Occurs at All Levels: Individual Family National, Global, Ecosystem Resilience is a term that comes from the physics of materials. In that context it means the ability to return to original form after having been bent or compressed. For example, bamboo is considered to be resilient because the plant can be bent to the ground, but will spring back, grow well, and be essentially unchanged. But human beings aren’t just materials that can spring back to original form or function after significant loss or attack. We are actually changed by experience through a complex process of adaptation. Adversity brings about a new form and function that fits the new environment. Dr. Ann Masten, a leader in resilience research, explains that in terms of developmental pathways, resilience involves maintaining a developmental trajectory, returning to the original trajectory after a temporary deviation, or shifting to an entirely new trajectory that also represents a healthy life path. In psychology, resilience has been conceptualized in a few different ways, but all of these contain the themes of adversity and “doing well”. Researchers have defined “doing well” and “adversity”– so learning about resilience requires paying attention to several key concepts: What measures of doing well are used to gain insights about resilience? How is adversity defined? How is adversity related to developmental tasks of individuals at various ages and stages? How are adversity and “doing well” related to the history and culture of a community? Resilience is more than the absence of psychopathology. It is not just recovery immediately after crisis. Resilience is like surfing – it requires continuous balance and grace, ability to spontaneously respond to the demands of the unforeseeable dynamics of life, eagerness to learn and use new skills and maintenance of one’s physical and emotional health and one’s spirit for living life with joy, and the practice of seeing each new wave as an opportunity for growth. Before we delve into these and other aspects of the literature on resilience, we’ll take a look at how the resilience research has evolved over the past five decades. Community

5 “Resilience rests, fundamentally, on relationships”.
Phases in Resilience Research Descriptive – What do resilient individuals have in common? Predictive – How questions: identify and understand processes that might lead to resilience, including risk and protective factors. Contextual –Why ages, stages, personal and family history, community context matter for promotion of resilience. Dr. Anne Masten and Dr. Sunya Luther are leaders in resilience research. Both have published extensive literature reviews that help us understand the 50-year history of resiliency research. Dr. Masten describes 4 eras in resilience research: First, scientists looked at individuals who were resilient and studied them to see if we could make generalizations about them; Second, we turned to risk and protective factors; Then scientists began to look at developmental and ecological models. Today we understand that individual resilience, like learning to walk or talk, is a part of a dynamic and complex human developmental process in which family, community, faith and culture influence individual development at the same time as individuals influence family, community, and cultural norms. Some of us come through the developmental process with greater strength than others. That may be attributable, at least in part, to the environment we live in. Resilience can be thought of as a community and cultural process that helps people overcome stress, trauma and other life challenges as we draw from social and cultural networks and practices. Communities themselves can be more or less resilient – they can have a healthy social response to crisis, making changes to the way people organize inside the community, and generating new kinds of interactions with the surrounding environment – including social, economic and political entities. Resilient communities generate organizational structures where members interact in a web of meaningful relationships and where members help and are helped by others. They foster nested social networks that can reduce individual vulnerability and enhance well-being. Resilient communities provide individuals and families with new opportunities to deal with challenges and to co-lead further development of community health. Community resilience is rooted in cultural values and practices but is not rigidly attached to only one standard. A resilient community is able to withstand internal conflict while maintaining the diversity of its individual members, families and groups. Before we consider the processes and factors that promote resilience at the individual, family, and community levels., let’s go back to the simplest of our definitions of resilience: the natural human capacity to navigate life well. Integrative – Encompasses rapid advances in the study of genes, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and the conditions, contexts, and processes that affect positive adaptation throughout the lifespan. “Resilience rests, fundamentally, on relationships”. Suniya Luthar; Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades; 2006, p. 780

6 RESILIENCE AS A DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS
We develop competencies & characteristics that prepare us to be effective in the world we’re growing into. We develop the capacity to adapt in the face of challenges. None of us is perfect—we’ll all have moments when we don’t appear to be very well adapted to the conditions we’re facing. Resilience is complex; it is possible to be resilient in one setting and pathological in another. What do we mean when we say that resilience is a natural human capacity? Essentially, we mean that individuals develop the skills, characteristics and attributes that are necessary to adapt to the environment as it changes and challenges us. We have lots of opportunities to practice our resilience. Every new situation, every challenge, every disappointment allows us to practice our resilience muscles—and with the help of relationships, culture and environment, to build them up. None of us is perfect. We have all had experiences where we didn’t adapt very well. Maybe we got a new boss at work. Or a teenage child brought home a new and terrible girlfriend. Or we got a divorce. And for a time—maybe a long time – we had difficulty doing work, communicating, having an even temper. Maybe we cried or yelled or acted inappropriately. It’s important to recognize that because resilience represents our ability to have and apply skills and attributes when faced with challenges, it occurs along a continuum. It is possible to be perfectly resilient in one setting and to do very poorly in another. It is also possible to be resilient with the core developmental tasks in one life stage, but truly struggle when faced with the developmental tasks of another life stage. Developmental timing of protection and/or exposure to adversity matters; and so does the meaning we make from that exposure. Just as we discussed in the brain science section of this course, early childhood, middle childhood, and the years just before puberty are all times when brain development is particularly sensitive to experience. In a longitudinal study of over 10,000 randomly selected adolescents who graduated from Wisconsin High Schools in 1957, Dr. Robert Hauser found that hospitalization for mental illness as teenagers did not predict which youth would become healthy adults thirty five years later. Instead, the people who attributed a positive meaning to the earlier experience of institutionalization were more healthful and resilient as adults. Lives can take a dramatic turn for the better during the transition to adulthood. And, there are multiple, and sometimes unexpected pathways to resilience. While there are certainly high-risk conditions under which no child can thrive, resilience researchers have observed many good outcomes among children who have experienced poverty, violence, disaster, and trauma. Resilience is common – in various ways, we all experience positive adaptation as an important process in our lives.

7 Developmental Framework for Resilience
Age Related Patterns of Competence Multiple Contexts Age-Appropriate Social Behavior (Developmental Tasks) Interactions Among Biology, Psychology, Social Factors Wholeness Research by Ann Masten and other scientists teaches us that there are four key features in a developmental framework for promoting resilience. Age-related patterns of competence and disorder means we develop new abilities that fit the age and stage of life we are in. At each stage of development we develop new cognitive, psychological and behavioral abilities. For example, at two we develop the ability to speak out for our own views – to say “no”, “mine”, and “me do it”! By about age ten, we become industrious – we learn how to focus our attention for longer periods of time, and master new skills that require practice. The competencies that we develop at each life stage lay the foundation for future competencies as we travel through life. Development occurs in nested contexts of home, school, work, community, and society. These contexts impact individual development. Taken together, some researchers call these contexts the ecology of resilience. As we age, the people around us expect us to be able to behave in an age-appropriate way in social situations. These expectations are called developmental tasks by some researchers. Expectations may be different for girls than for boys, and can differ by culture, and historical period. Success or failure with developmental tasks is judged by people all around us in our everyday lives – peers, parents, teachers, and grocery clerks. And the response we receive in return for our behavior helps us know whether or not we belong. When expectations at home are very different than expectations in other parts of life, resilient people learn to adapt and behave differently depending on the social context. This sounds easy, but it requires highly developed observational skills and social competence. Adults may be able to be more direct in teaching social expectations, and by doing so, be more helpful to children who have experienced trauma or other adversity. The interaction between our biological response to stress and social expectations for behavior and emotional expression is key to resilience. The most powerful influence on behavior and health is the way we live with one another in community – the way we notice what is happening and reach out to help; and the way others notice what is happening and reach to help us. The risk of stress-related disability among returning combat zone veterans, child abuse victims and people with other significant trauma is significantly and positively impacted by a strong social network of friends, neighbors, employers, and people with similar interests in the community. Material support, help with tasks and projects, sharing and advice, and positive interaction are powerful mediators of extreme stress. These must be organized and supported in order to reach the most vulnerable families and children. In their Long-Scan Study of child abuse and neglect cases in multiple states, including Washington, Dr Runyan and Dr. English found that child well being is significantly improved for each additional person that mom feels she can count on. In fact, in families that had an income increase of $15,000/yr had the same level of child well-being improvement as families with one more adult the mom felt she could count on form help. At this time, when an increase in income is not possible for many people, one promising means for improving resilience is to form organized and voluntary systems for helping one another.

8 Developmental Framework for Resilience
Age Related Patterns of Competence Multiple Contexts Age-Appropriate Social Behavior (Developmental Tasks) Interactions Among Biology, Psychology, Social Factors Growth Protection Nourishment Culture, belief and historical context all influence understanding of human development. Western scientific views, while important, are not the only way that human beings understand developmental pathways to resilience. Dr. Gregory Cajete, a Tewa Indian from Santa Clara Pueblo, and author of Native Science: Natural laws of Interdependence, explains that the Tree of Life as metaphor for life, healing, vision and transformation. Four great human developmental stages give meaning and value to each human being throughout life: protection, nourishment, growth, and wholeness. Dr Cajete explains that “Through the shade of the tree we understand protection and see how the Earth provides for human life and wellbeing. Through the fruit of the tree we understand nourishment and learn how we are nourished through the relationships we have with all life forms. As we are nourished, so must we nourish. As the tree grows from seed to sapling, to mature tree and to old tree, we see that growth and change are key dynamics of life. We learn that growth and change reflect self-determination, movement toward true potential through the weather of our lives. And finally, we learn about wholeness through finding and reflecting on the face, heart, and foundation through which life becomes a part of a greater whole. As the Tree is part of a larger ecology, so are we a part of that ecology. Our life process is rooted to a larger past, present, and future ecology of mind and spirit.” Wholeness

9 Relational Experience
Finding meaning Tempering Mastery Reconstructing identity Normalizing Ambivalence Revising Attachment & Belonging Hope Relational Experience Dr. Pauline Boss is a psychologist best known for her work helping those individuals suffering tremendous loss moving toward joyful and fulfilling lives. Her work covers a variety of kinds of losses – from loss of one’s country through resettlement to loss of one’s family in a terrorist bombing. She has studied ambiguous loss – the kind that has no closure, and remains with us throughout life. Individuals do not live in isolation. Whether with their birth family or a chosen family, resilient individuals feel a sense of belonging with those who care for them, join in celebration of major life events, and comfort them when life gets tough. Family resilience is characterized by flexibility and adaptability. Dr. Boss says that resilience is a complex process that occurs in relationships, so it always includes friends, family and community. Having a sense of community is an important part of resilience. One’s community or tribe can help heal family and individual wounds, so promotion of resilience should focus on the network of connections between and among individuals, families, and communities. Interventions should pay special attention to developmental transitions in individual, family and community life. Dr. Boss’s landmark book, Loss, Trauma, and Resilience, describes a healing journey that can be supported and encouraged by professionals, elders, and caring friends. That journey has six features. The first is finding meaning. The ways that people find meaning varies greatly. Some find it through cultural beliefs or religion; others find meaning through a spiritual acceptance of the circle of life or a philosophy of life that helps them live more in the moment. It doesn’t matter so much how we find meaning, but being able to make sense of what happens to us is important. Victor Frankl said that meaning can be found through actions, values and attitudes. Meaningful action is the foundation for making sense of life difficulties. So, what actions help? Naming the problem, doing small good works, engaging in rituals, forgiveness, religion and spirituality, hearing and telling stories, seeking justice, and living into hope are all helpful. What actions or ways of thinking hurt? It is harder to find meaning in the midst of hate, revenge, secrets, violent and sudden loss, and disillusionment. Tempering mastery means expecting to be able to accomplish one’s goals; and, at the same time, accepting that many experiences in life are simply beyond one’s control. Tempering mastery means attending to what one controls, and letting go of what one does not. As we navigate transitions in life, our identity adjusts to new roles, relationships and aspirations. Reconstructing identity means answering questions like: Who am I now? Who is really my family now? What roles am I expected to perform now? To what community do I now belong? Holding flexible boundaries around who is “family” so that you feel belonging, creating rituals and stories that reflect positive family themes; and developing shared values and views with others are all helpful. Discrimination, stigma, forced uprooting, isolation, disconnection, and resisting change are all barriers to reconstructing identity. Normalizing ambivalence means knowing that there may not be clarity about all aspects of life’s traumatic experiences. Being able to bend and recognize one’s mixed feelings, rather than struggle endlessly for answers or expect to only have positive feelings can support resilience. A person may feel angry with a loved one for abandoning her through death, and at the same time reach to people in the community to feel less alone. Revising attachment means renewing connections with relatives, friends and community, even if primary relationships are not the same because of divorce, death, or other reasons. Revising attachment sometimes requires moving on – from a circle of relationships that were a source of joy. Developing ceremonies or rituals, including others in therapy and health-promoting activities, engaging in multiple-family or whole community dialogues, setting up mutual support systems, and creating art and music are all helpful in revising attachment. All of these processes bring one back to hope. Hope-filled action is central to resilience: without hope there is no meaning; without meaning there is no hope. From: Loss, Trauma, and Resilience; Therapeutic Work with Ambiguous Loss; Dr. Pauline Boss; 2006

10 Three Core Protective Systems
Community, Spiritual & Cultural Life Attachment & Belonging Capabilities So, how do we act upon our hope – how do we develop resilience? Three core systems guide positive adaptation. . These powerful systems are protective community, faith, and cultural processes; attachment and belonging with caring and competent people, and individual capabilities. When strengths are developed through the core protective systems – community, attachments, and capabilities – problems are prevented in many facets of life. Children who develop healthy attachments and pro-social behaviors are more likely to do well in school, leading to dual success in peer relations and learning that contribute to positive self identity and confident participation in work and community. According to Dr. Masten, when we nurture the healthy development of these core protective systems, we take the most direct route to help people overcome potential threats and adversities. Let’s take a deeper look at these three core protective systems. What kinds of relationships foster resilience; What are the specific capabilities that matter? “Nurturing the healthy development of these protective systems affords the most important preparation or ‘inoculation’ for overcoming potential threats and adversities in human development. Similarly, damage or destruction of these systems has dire consequences for the positive adaptive capacity of individuals.” Ann Masten, 2009

11 Attachment & Belonging Community, Culture, Spirituality
Capability Intellectual & employable skills Self regulation – self control, executive function, flexible thinking Ability to direct & control attention, emotion, behavior Positive self view, efficacy Attachment & Belonging Bonds with parents and/or caregivers Positive relationships with competent and nurturing adults Friends or romantic partners who provide a sense of security & belonging Community, Culture, Spirituality Faith, hope, sense of meaning Engagement with effective orgs – schools, work, pro-social groups Network of supports/services & opportunity to help others Cultures providing positive standards, expectations, rituals, relationships & supports KEY SYSTEMS FOR Resilience Nourishment Protection Community, culture and spirituality provide human beings with belonging, faith, hope, and a sense of meaning. People living in high capacity communities are less likely to have high Adverse Childhood Experience scores, less drug and alcohol abuse, less depression and serious and persistent mental illness, and fewer problems in school and at work. In the following slides we’ll talk about many aspects of community as a system for guiding resilience. But first, let’s explore the two other systems that guide positive adaptation. Many people talk about the importance of people in their lives – people who recognize and encourage our unique talents, interests and strengths. Relationships with caring and competent people are vital. People who have difficulty with emotional regulation, picking up social cues, problems with addiction and family, and other consequences of developmental trauma, can be challenging friends and mentees. We have to be intentional about building competence in mentors, friends, neighbors, even marriage partners. Skill building, coaching, ability to consult with mental health professionals and other supports may be important supports that increase the likelihood that the relationship will last and contribute to resilience. Relationships that provide security and belonging can only occur when people have the skills and competencies to actually be supportive in times of stress and challenge as well as during celebration and repose. So what’s important in nurturing capabilities? Kids who learn to read fluently by age 10 do better throughout life. There is a great deal of research on why this is true and the findings vary, but learning to read fluently gives us all a stronger foundation for resilience. Knowing this might give us a clue about critical periods for making effective investments. We have to work with compassion for the experience that each child has had. For some children, extra teaching supports will be effective and the child will learn to read fluently. But, as you remember the brain science section of this course, you will recall that the brain’s adaptation to toxic stress can lead to an inability to read fluently – so we must be on the watch for each child’s core gifts. Perhaps a child who doesn’t learn to read fluently has extraordinary relational skills. In that case, adults can nurture those skills and help the child imagine a future in which joy, learning and prosperity are grounded in a relational environment, not an academic one. Self regulation is our ability to gauge what’s going on inside and to keep it under control in order to navigate a social situation. When we can’t—or don’t--read the situation and adapt our behavior to it, the social aspects of life become more difficult. There are a number of strategies for practicing self-regulation. Depending on the cultural environment, these might include belly breathing, practicing awareness of how thoughts are increasing or reducing anxious thoughts, prayer, and other calming practices can help. The states of Massachusetts and Washington are working with school personnel to develop compassionate teaching and discipline methods that help traumatized children and reduce non-academic barriers to success at school. Positive view lets me know I am important and valuable; it helps me to ask for help when I need it. It helps me not to give up. Learning to ask for help, accept help and show appreciation for help are important skills that we may be able to teach directly. Self-efficacy is the belief that what I do influences what happens to me. Trauma teaches us: “Danger can jump on you on any time, no matter what you do” so it’s hard to believe that individual behavior counts for something. That makes it very hard to answer a challenge with effort or to believe in yourself or others. Simple things do help build self efficacy, like giving children choices, assigning chores that have real value for the family or community, and encouraging a child to build skills that are complex and take time to develop. Self-efficacy is a good thing; but the truth is that none of us can control many of the things that happen to us. The death of a loved one, an accident or an unexpected opportunity might throw a wrench into our expectations. So, it’s important to develop relationships with people who help us to find a balance between knowing that our efforts are valuable, and accepting that some things are beyond our control. The most direct route to helping people to overcoming potential threats and adversities is to nurture these three systems throughout the lifespan. Wholeness Growth

12 Community, Culture, Spiritual Life
Prenatal – Infancy Pre-School Middle Childhood Pre-Teen & Teen Years Community, Culture, Spiritual Rituals & Traditions in childhood Spiritual engagement that demands active participation in a community of faith Structure, rules, & responsibility to contribute to family and community Parents/Family has: Spiritual engagement demands active participation in a community of faith Rituals & traditions supporting connection with the land (for some people) Value systems that include notions of personhood, ethics, religion or spirituality Cultural knowledge and practices supporting coherence and a source of stability & support Pre-Conception Pregnancy With Young Children  Moving Toward Mid-Life ADULT Protective Community, Culture, Spiritual Rituals & Traditions Spiritual engagement that demands active participation in a community of faith Rituals & traditions supporting connection with the land (for some people) Value systems that include notions of personhood, ethics, religion or spirituality Cultural knowledge and practices supporting coherence and a source of stability & support The social-ecological model of resilience says that there is an interaction between the individual, their experience, and the context or environment in which that experience occurs. Resilience can be viewed as a community and cultural process. Community is a group of people involved in ongoing social interaction and with psychological ties with each other and to the place they interact. Community can be geographically bounded, or may be geographically dispersed yet strongly connected through a sense of belonging. Communities can be more or less resilient – providing more or less opportunity for people to overcome stress, trauma and other life challenges by drawing from the social and cultural networks and practices of the community. These networks and practices are embedded in the value systems of the community – promotion of resilience requires tapping into those value systems; challenging people to realize core values in their every day actions, and supporting policy and systems change so they can do so. Resilient communities may increase the resilience of individual members because the community environment is conducive to healthy early childhood development and because people can draw from community resources throughout their lives to help during stressful times. The link also may work the other way. If many individuals in a community experience resilience, this can contribute to making the whole community more resilient, since they work together more easily to respond to stressors and celebrate life. Like any healthy family, community dynamics must balance all of the competing demands in order to optimize conditions for everyone – that’s why resilient communities expand leadership and open responsibilities and opportunities for diverse individuals and groups throughout the community. Some researchers, like Dr. Mary Harvey, have found that effective intervention has to be targeted at the interaction between the individual and their context. Communities that are working on the Assets or Communities that Care model, using the Family Policy Council Community Capacity Building model, or are restoring Native language and cultural traditions are doing this type of work. They are changing the community norms, -- the way we live with one another—in order to support resilience in every person in the community.

13 Supporting Attachment & Belonging
Prenatal – Infancy Pre-School Middle Childhood Pre-Teen & Teen Years Attachment & Belonging in childhood Four or fewer children; 2+ years between siblings Maternal competence: proportion of positive interactions with child Close bond with caregiver Parents have circle of people they can count on for help and support Emotional support from friends and family Caregiver sensitivity and responsiveness to infant needs No prolonged separation from parent in first year Sources of support that increase competencies, efficacy, opportunity to develop strengths, gifts and interests, and decrease stressful life Pre-Conception Pregnancy With Young Children  Moving Toward Mid-Life Adult attachment & Belonging Number of stressful life events reported in childhood, adolescence Establish relationship with helper (doula, visitor, etc.) opens door to whole program of help, improves quality in relating with child Find ecological Niche for child – support in family, social network Number of persons the individual turned to in times of crisis Help seeking; social network building (which also helps to mitigate the negative effects of poverty) Rewarded with repeated promotions contributes to sense of pride Competence with developmental tasks, like learning to walk in the early years, developing friendships in middle childhood, and having healthy attachment relationships with romantic partners and one’s own children are all considered in resilience research as indicators of “doing well” after adversity. Resilience doesn’t always extend to every corner of our lives. It’s possible to be resilient in some area—perhaps social skills, while at the same time suffering terribly in another area—perhaps having a substance abuse problem at the same time. It is also possible to be resilient in one phase of life, and then find another phase quite difficult – perhaps excelling in school, but having extreme difficulty parenting. Connection or attachment to competent and caring adults appears to be the lynchpin of good resilience. In a perfect world all children would have healthy attachment to their first caregivers. But this doesn’t always happen. Happily, we have all heard stories of people attaching to healthy, competent adults later on—a coach, a teacher, a mentor of some kind. And one longitudinal study found that healthy attachment in marriage—as an adult—could improve resilience greatly. The relational experience one has in life – whether with an individual or group, can support resilience, even for individuals who have suffered extreme traumas. There are a few broad domains of development that hold true throughout the lifetime. These domains of development have early life foundations – foundations of strength that make success later in life more likely. In these domains, according to Dr. Masten, “a cascade of positive effects spills forth from seemingly small beginnings.” For example, positive relationship with Mom, Dad, or a primary caregiver in infancy builds a foundation for social competence with peers, which, in turn, predicts positive romantic relationships and effective parenting of the next generation. Similarly, “good mental and behavioral health may lead to positive health consequences for other members of society”, according to the Institutes of Medicine in their landmark publication: Preventing Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Youth. Mental wellbeing may lead to improved productivity and functioning at school and work for the individual, and also for peers and one’s family. Once a young person becomes a parent, mental and behavioral well-being becomes a foundation for such well-being in the next generation. Positive adaptation begets positive adaptation for the community as a whole.

14 Nurturing capability Capability in childhood Parental Capability
Prenatal – Infancy Pre-School Middle Childhood Pre-Teen & Teen Years Capability in childhood Developmentally appropriate physical activity Parental involvement in, promotion of, learning Good health & nutrition; Safety Ability to seek comfort, support or inspiration from others Stimulation – sound, sight, touch Play, laughter, exploration Scholastic competence Autonomy, social maturity, self efficacy, mastery motivation Pre-Conception Pregnancy With Young Children  Moving Toward Mid-Life Parental Capability Exercise, e.g. walking at 60% of vital capacity Identifying and using one’s core gifts Good health; Safety Ability to seek comfort, support or inspiration from others Resourceful and realistic in educational and vocational plans Imagine self as mother, dream interaction with child; redefine self Continuing education: academic and vocational skills acquired Practice of seizing opportunities Opening of opportunities Successful adaptation at midlife Everyone experiences adversity and is affected by it. Similarly, everyone experiences processes that build resilience. It is useful to think about the fact that everyone needs and receives help in life. The type, duration, timing and intensity of help we need differs from person to person. This makes sense, given what we know about positive and negative adaptation to life experience. As we learn more about brain science and resilience, families, communities and society will get better and better at generating a best fit between each person and the support he or she needs to optimize resilience. Again, resilience research has two primary concepts: adversity, and doing well. Resilient people develop the ability to use internal and external resources to navigate transitions and difficulties. Without resilience, others might become exhausted, burnt out or unable to function on their own or their family’s behalf without help. We can think about resilience as the ongoing maintenance of balance. Family, community, and society have powerful roles in achieving balance for all individuals in response to changing contexts. Different researchers have defined doing well in different ways. Some think about doing well in terms of internal functioning, others in terms of external functioning. Internal functioning includes psychological well-being, use of a moral framework for decision making, physical and mental health, the ability to self regulate emotive response to stressors, having a positive view of self, motivation, and maturation. External functioning includes developing skills and competencies to be effective in one’s environment at each stage of life. These competencies lead to success in school, work, social and family relationships, and community responsibilities. As people grow older, the skills and competencies required of us include success in romantic relationships, enduring friendships, success at work, financial independence, parenting well, and generative contribution to society. Later in life, we consider skills and competencies that help us to successfully launch children, have an active social life after retirement, life satisfaction and other factors. Dr. Katherine Barnhart is a leading researcher who helps us to learn about infants – the environments, kinds of care, and other factors that matter most in the early years. Pregnant women who imagine themselves as mothers, dream interaction with a baby, and seek comfort and support from others successfully shift identity to motherhood and bond with the baby in utero. This sets in motion a positive adaptive path for mom, her baby, and the family as a whole. Something as simple as a walking buddy who comes every day or two to walk and talk with mom, can make a big difference during the transition to parenthood and beyond. Powerful acts for resilience don’t have to cost a lot of money, they just have to be a right fit with the individuals and families we are seeking to help.

15 Interact in a Cultural Context
Growth Risk & Protection Interact in a Cultural Context Protection Nourishment Compensatory Individuals Protective Challenge Caring, Cohesion, Belief in Each Child Belonging with Peers, School, Circle of Success Family & Community Non-punitive Provisions and Resources to Assist Belief in Societal Values Spirituality Traditional Activities Cultural Traditional Languages Traditional healing Elders Wholeness The challenge model of resilience helps us to learn about strength-building life stressors. Some life experiences, although difficult, help us to learn how to navigate life’s ups and downs. A delicate balance of challenge and support occurs in our lives over the course of years and decades. Challenge comes in the form of internal struggle like illness, mood swings, or fears. Challenge also comes from other people treating us or the people we care most about badly. Challenge factors are ones where exposure to too much or too little is associated with bad outcomes; but exposure to moderate levels of risk help us learn how to overcome future stressors in our lives. People can come through very difficult experiences with new insights or growth – perhaps understanding the importance of one’s own inner strength or the wisdom of historic cultural practices or ritual. These understandings can help to protect us over time. In order to understand resilience in context, we need to consider the risk involved in growing up in that context. For Native people, risk includes historic trauma, forced separation from land, family, and cultural traditions, grief and loss of loved family and community members, and disproportionality in health, safety, and education. Some researchers look specifically at resilience among Indigenous people. They consider how certain protective factors support relative resistance to risks that arise from institutional, historic, and perceived discrimination and trauma. Having a sense of self that is wholly integrated with one’s culture is called enculturation. The degree to which people form identity around, and engage in culturally specific activities, language, healing, intergenerational connection and spirituality is the degree to which we experience enculturation. Youth with high levels of self-esteem and cultural identity report less alcohol and substance abuse and enjoy greater school success. Youth who engage in traditional activities and spiritual practices have lower depressive symptoms. And, in one study, enculturation was the second strongest predictor variable (after drug use) found to be protective against suicidal ideation. For many indigenous people, spiritual values and activities are at the core of belonging and health. Indigenous spirituality is not separate from cultural expression and norms. The exact content of traditional spiritual activities and traditional spiritual values changes from one Tribe or Band to another, and must be defined based on consultation with Tribal Elders. It may not be appropriate for researchers to know and report details of sacred practice and beliefs. But, there are aspects of spiritual and cultural life that clearly contribute to resilience that can be known and supported by everyone. Spirituality is the intrinsic human capacity for understanding one’s self as embedded in something greater than self, including the sacred. Spirituality motivates, and helps us to express our interdependence, connectedness, meaning, purpose, and contribution. Spirituality is widely believed to contribute to resilience at the individual, family and community levels. In a study of over 1,400 Native people ages 15 to 57 years old, Dr. Eva Marie Garroute found that those with a high score of cultural spiritual orientations were half as likely to attempt suicide as those without such an orientation. Other researchers have found strong relationships between cultural continuity – including continuity expressed through Tribal self governance, education, health services, cultural facilities, police and fire – and reduced suicide risk among youth. The continuity and efficacy of the Tribe contributes immensely to the resilience of it’s people. Native traditions, rituals, and elder wisdom celebrate the complexities of the whole of life . They integrate interdependencies of mental, physical, spiritual, historic, and context realities of being human in the ecosystem. These interdependencies may explain resilient family behavior better than any strand of research about specific risk or resilience factors could describe. Perhaps the biggest issue with applying resilience research in Native communities is the notion of resilience as a linear process – a specific predictor leading to a specific outcome. This linear way of thinking is very different than the ways of thinking of most Native people. Unless one understands the world view of a people, we are unlikely to be able to understand resilience in the lives of those people.

16 Neighbors Unite To Build Community Park
Before Walla Walla Commitment to Community Neighbors Unite To Build Community Park In Walla Walla caring is concrete, literally. Bricks and mortar bring community residents together to transform neighborhoods and build public spaces for children and families to convene. Service providers and community organizers meet residents where they are – on the streets, in their homes, and at work – and engage in appreciative conversation about what matters most to the people in the neighborhood. Through this conversation, community members of all ages find their self-efficacy and agency, and are acknowledged and supported. Leadership expansion is based on a fundamental respect for every person’s ability to contribute to a healthier community. Community service providers document and monitor the successes and challenges. Mostly people appreciate the new way people are working together. Walking through the neighborhoods, you are likely to hear comments like “You guys are serious, aren’t you? You’re still coming around. This place is changing!” “You are not coming here telling us what we need or what is good for us. You are giving us an opportunity to help ourselves.” Everyone takes a role that transforms their view of their community and themselves. Graffiti taggers who once filled underpass walls with overlapping and competing designs now facilitate mural painting and offer surveillance to prevent vandalism of their community’s collaborative artistic expression. The community is leveraging the existing skills and knowledge and further developing these assets. High school graduation rates are up, youth violence rates are down, arrest rates for drug and alcohol violations are down, school and home are safer places, and people are working together to establish neighbor-based help for parents and children involved with the child welfare system so that children can safety remain with their parents at home. Facilitators help the community to work together to solve problems and seize opportunity. One example of this is the community garden in the Edith-Carrie Neighborhood. The garden grew from conversations with neighbors about the high cost of groceries. The idea of creating vegetable gardens percolated in the fall of After a snowy winter to mull over the possibility of a garden, twelve families from the neighborhood, along with the outreach organizer, created the community garden in the spring of Families have donated extra produce to the food pantries in town or to other residents. Blue Mountain Action Council, a non profit agency, owns the property where the community garden is located— Carrie St. and 11th Ave. Neighbors share a rototiller, hand tools, rakes and sprinklers. While neighbors prepared the site for the garden, Canoe Ridge Winery Crew volunteered to install a sturdy fence around the perimeter of the property, which, to date, has managed to keep the rabbits out. Neighborhood facilitators and service providers establish trust with residents by building genuine relationships that cross cultural and language barriers. These relationships provide increased attachment among neighbors and service providers; changes in attitude about self, other and authority; and increased initiative and responsibility within the neighborhoods.

17 EXAMPLES OF PROGRAM & POLICY ACTIONS
Parent Trust for Washington Children has incorporated the ACE questions into their work with addicted parents facing court action (DV, termination of parental rights) resulting in: 1) improved outcomes in parenting classes and 2) reduced relapse among parents with 4 or more ACEs. Safe Harbor Crisis Nursery in the Tri-Cities has incorporated ACEs and trauma into its day-to-day strategies and case management resulting in improved outcomes for families. Children of Incarcerated Parents; the Legislature has mandated the executive branch to engage in an initiative to address the needs of children of incarcerated parents. The initiative and its processes are framed to address the likelihood that these children have more than this one ACE. With the help of the Mental Health Transformation Grant and the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), Spokane is exploring the creation/implementation of trauma sensitive practices in public schools. OSPI introduced the Compassionate Schools initiative, which supports local school districts in reducing the non-academic barriers to schools success that are created by trauma (2008). (http://www.k12.wa.us/CompassionateSchools/default.aspx) There are many other examples of how organizations, communities and programs have put the ACE information to work effectively. For example, Parent Trust for Washington Children, which works with parents who have multiple issues, including substance abuse AND domestic violence OR abuse of their own children. These parents are court-ordered to treatment and they are court-ordered to parenting classes. It can be hard to make progress under those conditions. However, Parent Trust has begun to use ACE screen as a very effective tool. On the one hand they use ACEs to help parents understand the source of their own struggles and to motivate parents to prevent ACEs in their own children’s lives. On the other hand, they use ACE information to help predict and prevent relapse. Because people who suffer trauma during childhood can have a lower threshold where stress is experienced as crisis, parents with 4 or more ACEs are considered more vulnerable to relapse when facing certain kinds of stressors. They collect ACE data and other data quarterly and use that information to do relapse prevention. It’s extremely cutting edge work and just one example of how programs are thinking about the application of ACE findings. Another example of leading edge work is the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction’s Compassionate Schools Initiative. The Compassionate Schools Initiative within Learning and Teaching Support provides training, guidance, referral, and technical assistance to schools wishing to adopt a Compassionate Schools Infrastructure. Compassionate Schools benefit all students who attend but focus on students chronically exposed to stress and trauma in their lives. These schools create compassionate classrooms and foster compassionate attitudes of their school staff. The goal is to keep students engaged and learning by creating and supporting a healthy climate and culture within the school where all students can learn. Staff from The Learning and Teaching Support section of OSPI and Dr. Ray Wolpow at the Woodring College of Education at Western Washington University in Bellingham have co-written a 246 page handbook entitled The Heart of Learning and Teaching: Compassion, Resilience, and Academic Success. This publication is a great resource for schools wishing to adopt a compassionate approach to learning and teaching. It includes principles for working with children who have experienced traumatic stress: Offer Unconditional positive regard and encouragement. Always empower, never dis-empower. Required helpfulness: ask students to make regular contributions to the welfare of their families or support groups by helping others deal with common challenges. Increase connections between individuals and any pro-social person— family members, alternative caregivers, communities, peer groups, and school personnel – that can provide external support to foster resiliency. These principles are evident in the work of many whole communities, whether they be school communities, communities of faith, or geographic communities, who are changing the way people live with one another. Let’s take a look at the amazing success in the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe.

18 Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe – Chi-e-Chee (The Workers) Network
In 2008 the Family Policy Council commissioned a study of communities that have had tremendous success improving the high school graduation rate. We wanted to know what these communities are doing . Are there common themes in the work that other communities can learn from? While many communities have had success, four were chosen for study: Kitsap County, Northshore/Shoreline schools in King County, Walla Walla and the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe. Every community uses a unique array of strategies to bring about positive change. But, there are common elements among their approaches. These include: Collaboration among community organizations and schools; Individual attention for students and very young children while working with the whole family; Flexibility and options to help students who are having difficulty; Responsiveness to cultural issues; Sending kids a message that people in the community care about them. In 2007 and 2010 the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe celebrated a 100% high school graduation rate. Statewide, only 53% of Native American Youth graduate from high school on time; only 60% graduate after extended high school years. Complex conditions and historic trauma create challenges and barriers often misunderstood, overlooked, or neglected by majority culture. In Port Gamble S’Klallam, Tribal members view “Culture as Prevention.” Dual generation prevention services and activities of the Tribe are aimed at youth and parents to improve the conditions for academic success and to support changes to community norms. Every Tribal member constitutes the General Council of the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe. One Tribal Council member shares that “As General Council, we all have a say.” The whole community, including Tribal Council members, adult community members, and staff in every department and program, strongly and consistently emphasize that Port Gamble S’Klallam children and youth are expected to graduate from high school. The expectation for graduation is backed with an array of options that helps students who are having trouble, as well as strong affirmations of each child’s strengths. A reciprocal process of listening and improving, reflecting and acting in a way culture instructs and research supports, creates a mechanism for rapid response and individualized solutions. The Port Gamble S’Klallam Chi-e-Chee Network serves the tribe by planning, advising and helping to weave together strengths from all the departments to support youth and families. Collaboration and commitment coalesces in the Port Gamble S’Klallam Chi-e-chee Network. And everyone is included, tribal and non-tribal members alike. Numerous programs focus on developing youth leadership and supports and provide the infrastructure to attract other resources for community wellness. The word Chi-e-Chee means The Workers. Work includes supporting youth, parent and adult education retreats, cultural prevention programming including the Canoe Journey, and social supports for sobriety for all Tribal members. Educational and procedural adaptations have occurred in partnership between the Tribe and the off-reservation school. The Tribe and the schools promote parental involvement in their children’s education. The Tribal Council allows Tribal employees to use three hours a week of paid time to go into the schools – for sharing lunch time, helping in class, and whatever seems right for that parent and child. Parent-teacher conferences are held on the reservation to ease the parents’ burden for staying in touch with how children are doing in school. The Tribe and school agreements create alternatives for learning and credit earning. Students can receive credit for some cultural activities, such as the annual inter-tribal canoes journey that brings together coastal tribes by way of paddling traditional canoes across state and national waters to exchange cultural practices . And some students use work-based learning for half of each day. “Kids know that we care” both through individual staff efforts, and the attention they receive from many adults throughout the community. “It’s not just one person taking interest in them, but many.” Knowing that so many people care about them builds students’ sense of self-worth. And “if a student is struggling, somebody notices.” Assumptions about asking for support have changed. In a focus group, one student said: “it’s easy to seek help – there’s plenty of people to talk to.” Tribal staff and members work together to wrap around students as much as they possibly can, and consider the whole of each child’s life as the foundation for school success. Tribal staff not only offer programs, but will do whatever needs to be done to help students overcome barriers to graduation. They help with transportation if students can’t get to school, and will “knock on doors and get kids out of bed if it’s necessary.” No role is too small, no task too petty. When it comes to the next generation, everyone is involved.

19 Build Capacity To Reduce Adverse Childhood Experience
ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCE DRAFT We Can All Help Build Capacity To Reduce Adverse Childhood Experience Promote Resilience Do these findings raise your sense of hope? Take time to capture your thoughts about promoting resilience – in your self, your family, your neighborhood, at work, and in your life-course. What excites you about how your reflections relate to this emerging understanding of human resilience?

20 Cautions about the resilience approach
Expectation for Thriving Despite Oppression Strength Based ≠ Solutions Attending to Characteristics & Factors that Promote Resilience – Only Part of the Story Our lives happen in the context of our culture and our interaction with family and community We are profoundly impacted by the economy, laws, norms and society as a whole. As we promote resilience, it is important to recognize larger societal patterns that have a powerful impact on health and wellbeing. Dr. Boss cautions that: “Remaining resilient is not always desirable, especially if it is always the same persons who are expected to bend. People with less privilege and power or agency have become great adapters to the whims of others. They are expected to give in to those with higher agency and to fit in without making waves. Resiliency, there is not itself always a sufficient goal. Sometimes fighting back, insisting on radical change, or going into crisis is better than continuing to endure, for example, abuse and injustice. In such cases, we must be supportive of a person’s refusal to continue being adaptive. Rather than focusing on, for example, how people can thrive despite oppression, we should also be looking for ways to reduce discrimination, poverty, traumatic loss, and violence. Although the essential criterion of resilience is health, we must also promote the health of a society and environment in which humans can thrive.” As we work to foster environments that promote resilience, it is important to recognize some experiences clearly arise in life as problems that cannot be solved. Solution-focused interventions may cause us to miss pathways to resilience. We may need to learn to live with unanswered questions, adapt, approximate, and find a way to walk through the dark… and even thrive doing it. Even as we focus on resilience, we must also attend to symptoms that need medical attention or psychiatric treatment. And even though resilience research provides us with lists of factors that are important, these lists should not substitute for deep regard and respect for the wholeness of human beings. Dr. Cajete teaches that Indigenous people understand nature not as a collection of objects, but as a dynamic, ever flowing river of creation inseparable from our perceptions and being. He asserts that creativity is the child of chaos, and that the center of all dynamic forces of life is hope. As we experience the world, so we are also experienced by the world. Human beings bring to community our highest thoughts, our spirit, hope, creativity, and wisdom. We bring our whole selves, not just a collection of factors or characteristics, into relationship with life. It is that very wholeness that the Family Policy Council celebrates with this course, and with our work with children, families, and communities.

21 PARAMETERS FOR INTERVENTION
Pay attention to critical periods and cultural context. Understand resilience as both how we engage with other people and how we interact with our environment. Enhance the relationship between person & context. Embed interventions in familiar to social setting/community contexts. Attend to possibilities for lasting impact & enduring change. Understanding the wholeness may not be easy at first, but when we strip away some learned assumptions, we can connect the dots. Resilience is a complex process that is ongoing throughout life. It’s critical to remember that the effects of maltreatment and other adversities don’t happen all at once. The brain research teaches us that there are critical periods of development when certain kinds of maltreatment have particularly strong effects on certain regions of the brain. We have not yet geared our resilience efforts to these critical periods, but we need to remember them as we move forward. All development happens in a specific context or environment. So when it comes to resilience, we do need to pay attention to culture and cultural context if we are to succeed. Building resilience has at least two components—engaging with other people, and engaging with the situation or environment. We all need skills, attributes and positive characteristics in both if we are to reach our full resilience potential. And therefore, our interventions need to attend to both. According to the research, the most effective strategies for building resilience will require building supports into the environment. For example, some strategies talk about “changing cultural norms” or “changing community norms.” That’s a way of saying that we’re going to build supports into the environment. Standards, ways of treating one another, expectations that help young people acquire the skills, attributes and characteristics they need to adapt to challenges. Resilience is not a simple cause and effect equation in which lots of strength leads directly to good developmental outcomes; instead it involves interactions among multiple processes that give rise to alternate trajectories of development. These trajectories may be unstable, requiring constant input to maintain, or they may be self sustaining. Any intervention should measure multiple outcomes to make sure that a desired effect in one area of life is not being achieved at the cost of another important concern. As we move from research to practice, it might be tempting to put all our eggs into the basket of direct service. But public health research has shown that the lion’s share of the factors that determine health outcomes are embedded in the way we live with one another day by day. Changes in the relational and community environments where people live can be very powerful changes. And, people get it!

22 Enhancing Community Capacity a Dynamic Process of connection
Let’s celebrate the power of community. Peter Block, in his book: The Structure of Belonging says that “A shift in community needs a communal connectedness – a communal structure of belonging that produces the foundation for the whole system to move.” Meg Wheatley is a national and international leader in the areas of Community Resilience, Community Leadership and Transformational Change.  She has been a speaker, consultant, and writer since She has been inside most kinds of organizations – from the Girl Scouts to the U.S. Army, from Fortune 100 companies to small town churches– and lived and worked in many different cultures and countries. She applies the lens of living systems theory to organizations and communities, exploring the question: "How might we organize differently if we understood how Life organizes?“ In her book, A Simpler Way, Dr. Wheatley says that: “Changes in attitude and behavior emerge from our decisions about how to belong together. ” “Through dynamic processes of connection, we choose a shared identity. Every system takes form from the self it has created. It is this self that defines meaning. It is this self that invites people to change or compels them to resist. Identity is at the core of every organization, fueling its creation.” And, Gregory Cajete talks about community in his book: Native Science: Natural Laws of Independence. He notes that: “Community is a living, spiritual entity, supported by every responsible adult.” In Washington state, thousands of volunteers and professionals have worked on building healthier communities . Their work has been systematic and profoundly impactful. Let’s take a look at a model that improves community, family, and individual health and safety.

23 General Community Capacity Development Model
Family Policy Council General Community Capacity Development Model General Community Capacity is: capacity to not only sustain programs, but also to identify new community problems as they arise, and develop ways of addressing them. General Capacity Development is a dynamic process that enhances the infrastructure, skills, and motivation of a community – changing the way we live with one another day-to-day. Literature strongly supports the importance of general capacity building in the process of promoting effective prevention. (Livet, 2008) Communities can be more or less resilient. They are impacted by the resilience of individual members – and they influence those members as well. So how do we promote community resilience? How do we build the capacity of the community to identify and develop ways of addressing important matters as they arise – whether they be problems or cause for celebration? How do we engage with people in a community, whether they be people who are struggling, or people who find ease in everyday life? Healthy processes in community may be unstable, requiring constant input to maintain, or they may be self sustaining. The Family Policy Council’s model for community capacity development puts into place self sustaining processes that provide increasing opportunity for people to overcome stress, trauma and other life challenges by drawing from healthy social and cultural networks and practices in the community. The model challenges people to realize core values in their everyday actions, and supports policy and system change so they can do so. The Family Policy Council model is consistent with, and informed by, work in the fields of physics, poverty relief, community psychology, cellular biology, ecology, Native Science, and the ancient traditions of welcoming and naming community members. The model has all the key elements of a living system – one that adapts to changing conditions while maintaining core functions, protection of diversity, and specialization. But, the Family Policy Council model for Community Capacity Building is not theoretical. It is grounded in a dozen years of observation and measurement. It is characterized by results-focused interaction among and between funders, community leaders, families, and individuals throughout the state of Washington. The Family Policy Council Capacity Building Model carries research evidence that improvements in four elements of the model lead to reduced rates of many major social problems. What is most important about the model is it’s reinforcing positive adaptation at the community level – adaptation that turbo-charges other investments in child and family resilience. Each phase in the model compels the next phase to occur. Good programming alone may not reduce the overall rates of major social problems; good programming coupled with higher community capacity does. Community capacity building derives its power from shifts the norms in the community as a whole. Increased community capacity improves population mental, physical and behavioral health, prosperity and well-being. The Family Policy Council model for Community Capacity Building is sustainable, cheap, and accessible to every community. When people come together to address issues that matter most to them, their interactions naturally lead to greater opportunity – to exchange knowledge, resources, ideas, and skills . Expanded opportunity leads to a new kind of stability – one that is curious, flexible, open to the talents of all, and creative of shared identity – a powerful force for resilience. Shared identity and stability open the possibility for more people to step forward to share in leadership. At the Fmaily Policy Council we think that everyone who wants to help at this time is a leader. Shared identity in a stable community where opportunity exists for everyone – these conditions invite shared leadership. Leadership expansion is a leverage point in the dynamics of community capacity building. Funders who invest in expanding leadership are likely to receive high levels of return on investment. People who step up to provide leadership - whether with one person or an entire community – become powerful drivers of resilience.

24 The Family Policy Council’s local affiliates, Community Networks invest in: bringing the community together; facilitating a commitment to common ground; learning, managing and improving the meta system of supports for families; leadership development and improving lives. They invest in building the capacity of the community to reduce the rates of Adverse Childhood Experience, and improve resilience in all generations. A wave of national research demonstrates that community capacity engagement makes a big difference when it comes to our toughest social problems. A recent study of Family Policy Council Community Networks shows when Community Capacity elements grow, more and more different social problem rates come down. The research sows a strong (.82) correlation between Family Policy Council community capacity building and better-than-state trends in child abuse, youth substance abuse, youth violent crime, dropping out of school, teen pregnancy, family violence, and other problems of major significance. It’s hard work, but it’s not magic. It’s science that’s been noticed at the national level and proven in Washington’s communities. Social problems like child abuse, substance abuse and teen parentage present difficult value issues. For example: Where, exactly, is the line between disciplining and child abuse? When, if ever, should parental rights be terminated? What is the line between experimentation and addiction with alcohol? When is the right time to have a baby? Reasonable people disagree on tough issues like these. Comprehensive community change is what happens when neighbors, businesses, non-profits and government come together. With assistance, tough questions become the hook to connect and weave local determination. Problems are recognized in the community. Problems can not be outsourced to the government. People establish agreement to common ground, and meaningful action begins. You probably remember in the resilience literature that meaningful action is critical to healing from traumatic loss. The Family Policy Council’s model invites everyone to be involved in meaningful action. It requires reflective observation, learning, and application of new knowledge to improve system dynamics. This model for general community capacity building supports people with the courage to take on the toughest of societal problems. Let’s look at the leverage point in the Community Capacity Building Model – the place where we can get the most from our investment of time, effort, and money.

25 This model is powerful because success in one phase propels success in the next. It is a virtuous cycle that has the power to improve population health.

26 Virtuous Reinforcing Capacity Building - Sustainable Thriving
This model is powerful because success in one phase propels success in the next. It is a virtuous cycle that has the power to improve population health. Family, community residents & service providers, and funders each have roles and responsibilities in general community capacity building that are summarized in this diagram. We work in concert to produce a dynamic of capacity building that has the power to reduce the rates of major social problems . Working in concert, we can dramatically improve resilience. The Family Policy Council community capacity building model helps us to identify where, in the cycle of capacity building, we should invest our time, energy, resources, and commitment. Leadership expansion is the key to sustainable community capacity building. When leaders come from all classes, social and ethnic backgrounds, and when community leaders are continuously creating new roles for new leaders who give and receive from their participation, community capacity is most likely to expand. Leadership that is characterized by reciprocity – not only by sacrifice or expert standing – is especially powerful. And, opening new roles for leaders is fulfilling work for people who have been in leadership roles in the past. Well meaning outsiders often come to a community offering new resources – new information, new skills, new funds or programs that conform to an outside model of what works. Those investments come into the natural local cycle at a time when leadership has already expanded around matters of importance to local people . Outside resources distract people who have come together with ideas, hopes, possibility, and willingness to exchange valuable locally-held assets. Unless there’s a great fit with local aspirations, bringing new resources into the “learning and opportunity” part of the cycle (on the right side of the diagram on this slide) can actually interrupt the dynamics of community capacity building. Resources inserted in the wrong part of the cycle force people to adjust to fit the outside resource instead of putting their time, money, effort into emerging local solutions that are attracting support and generating hope and energy. When funders or program administrators experience local people as having chaotic or unorganized processes, it is prudent to consider whether their natural cycle of human organization has been interrupted. In the Family Policy Council capacity building model, the state partners bring resources in support of what local people are saying would matter at this time. In order for community to be a more health promoting place, people have to believe that their thoughts, priorities, commitments and insights are important and worthy of action. So, funders and program proponents need to let people know that they are willing to act upon what local people believe will matter most. You probably recall that Dr. Pauline Boss asserts that hope-filled action is at the core of resilient communities. Funders that fuel locally-generated solutions are actively participating in hope-filled action.

27 People relate all the time
People relate all the time. So it may seem strange to make a model for sustaining positive interaction among families. But some forms of interaction have healing effects within communities and families. The cycles of community capacity building apply within and among families. People have an instinctive need to be together. And, when we are together, we can find one another’s strengths and act upon them. The skills of appreciative conversation and questioning can be learned and practiced. When people intentionally come together in conversation with an eye toward discovering what is important to self and others, learning and opportunity will naturally arise. Our combined talents and skills provide educational, economic and other opportunities – something as simple as one person needing a book in order to complete a community college course and another person lending that book can be an important opportunity that arises from being together. When we share perspectives, cultural differences, common values, or simple interest in one another, we naturally build hope and a sense of shared identity. It becomes easier for us to ask for and receive help. It becomes easier for us to notice how we can help others. Families become more stable when there is reciprocity – a give-and-receive flow of interaction that benefits all. As we experience more hope and a deep understanding of the people who live nearby, we are more likely to offer contributions to the community as a whole. And those contributions are an important form of leadership that fuels capacity building. A great example of this type of work is the Community Café Initiative in Washington State that is sponsored by the Thurston County Community Network, Council for Children and Families, and a group of parents who have engaged hundreds of other parents in conversation about family strengths. Parent and community volunteers have committed themselves to reweaving the social fabric for all of our children, one conversation at a time. Conversations are guided by questions that allow participants to grow collective wisdom about strengthening families, leadership and the parent partnerships required to make protection in all of its forms an inalienable right for children. At the neighborhood level, parents and community members gather with each other in diverse settings and languages, share a home cooked meal together, and build relationships. Their conversations are facilitated by trained hosts, who are parents themselves. This simple process can suddenly turn the most disorganized social networks into communities rich with social capital and leadership capacity. Moreover, because the five essential protective factors used in the approach are grounded in human values and not cultural ones, this approach resonates in any community and social service system. Hosts who design cafés represent the constituency of the attendees – in fact, many times parents who attend a café sign up to be trained as hosts so they can lead more events in their neighborhoods. Parents receive a stipend to design and customize trainings. There is also a mentor option for new hosts and a national monthly conference call to support Community Café practice. Most of the hosts work full time and earn low wages that leave their families wanting for food, medical care and other necessities. Many speak English as a second language. Parent leaders build relationships with local and state organizations, write grants and letters, learn computer skills, design conversations, implement evaluations, give public presentations, mentor other parents, and perform a whole myriad of other jobs that constitute the kind of community leadership that builds resilience. Once group safety is established, parents say that they feel comfortable talking about things they may normally keep inside. Some typical stories include a young Korean speaking mother who was feeling overwhelmed with her sons “disobedience,” but felt that she didn’t have “the words to explain” her situation. With the advice of teachers in the school and other parents who have shared a similar experience, she sought the necessary medical help and her child was determined to have a form of autism. She now talks about “feeling hopeful” again. A group of Spanish speaking families participated in a Community Café focused on the challenges of having Spanish speaking children who receive academic instruction in English. Parents were concerned about their children’s social and emotional health. Community leaders began seeking out volunteers to sponsor Spanish speaking homework clubs and student mentorship programs. Spanish speaking homework clubs became available for both parents and children. One mother, after attending a series of cafes, declared that “I will reach out to others in my community more so that I can continue to gather resources and help from others. I definitely want to offer help to others in return.”

28 As more people become engaged with others in their community, the health of the community as a whole begins to improve. Community health is a dynamic condition – constantly adapting to changing circumstance. When we talk about building community capacity we are talking about promoting positive adaptation at the community level. The Family Policy Council model for community capacity building helps us to understand the dynamics of healthy communities, and also can help us to identify where a community may be stuck – so we can effectively interact with people to get the ball rolling again. When people come together in ways that feel safe and build ongoing relationships, people begin to share matters of importance to them. These matters are often grounded in core values, and represent the hopes and aspirations of the community. Healthy communities attract conversation about issues that really matter to the people who live there. Conversation leads to action that is focused to realize the community vision for better lives. Some groups may get stuck talking about surface issues – issues that are really not very important to anyone, but do fill the time. When this happens it is important that someone who is trusted call the question: What are we avoiding by talking about these issues that aren’t really very important to us? As people work together, they naturally form structures and processes in order to get things done. You have heard the phrase ‘form follows function.’ People begin to organize themselves in new and improved ways. They develop ways of getting work done that are innovative, attract unusual resources like in-kind donations of labor, space, materials and expertise, and honor the unique contributions that people have to offer. Essentially, they form structures that support shared leadership and attract new leaders who want to contribute because they feel a sense of shared identity and belonging with others. Community capacity is inherently sustainable. That is because each phase in the development of capacity naturally invites the next phase into being. All the phases work together as a dynamic and living system. When people are laying the path to a healthier community at the same time that they are walking that path, community capacity is in a state of emergence. Emergence is a word used in the field of systems thinking. Emergent properties are characteristics of the whole system that cannot be found in any single element of that system. Capacity is an emergent property in community. Community capacity comes not from adding the elements of the community conditions, structures, and processes, but from the mutual interactions among all of these. Community capacity is a form of social capitol, and contains elements of innovation, learning, adaptation, health and vitality.

29 Capacity Building has powerful effects
Foundations for Healthy Development Improve Five or more different problem rates come down (http://www.fpc.wa.gov/publications/technicalpaper-ver3.pdf) ACE Score Is Reduced from One Generation to the Next The average ACE score of youth transitioning into adulthood and parenthood is reduced in high capacity communities. Fewer people have 3 or more ACEs, thus preventing many health problems (http://www.fpc.wa.gov/publications/Relationship%20between%20ACEs%20and%20%20BH%20and%20PH%20%206%2024%2010.FINAL.pdf) Improved Social Responses to High ACE People Result in Better Life Course In high capacity communities, youth who have experienced Adverse Childhood Experiences are much less likely to use alcohol, marijuana and tobacco; thereby dramatically reducing their risk for disease, disability and problems at work, home and community (http://www.fpc.wa.gov/publications/FPC_High%20Risk%20Protect%20Youth_Nov%2009.pdf & Since 1997 Family Policy Council Community Networks have worked collaboratively with families, community-based organizations, and state managers to develop higher levels of community capacity and to reduce the rates of seven major social problems. These are: child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, youth violence, youth suicide, teen pregnancy, youth substance abuse and dropping out of school. The Family Policy Council monitors the rates of these and related problems over time. Communities vary greatly in the number and severity of problems they face and in the resources available to solve them. Problem severity – having many problems with rates that fall in the worst quartile of rates statewide – can complicate community work to improve the lives of children and families because problems are interrelated, multigenerational, and can seem overwhelming. Recent studies on successful public health interventions indicate that building community capacity increases the scope of interventions, the effectiveness of evidence based programs and extends the scale of efforts in a sustainable way so that they can actually reduce community-wide rates of children and family problems. Research shows that there is probably a tipping point when community capacity improvements rise to a high level, and at that level, five or more different problem rates come down all at once. To learn about the relationship between community capacity improvement and problem rate reduction, the Family Policy Council measures four dimensions of community capacity and conducts analysis on the degree to which improved community capacity scores are related to reduced problem rates. The four dimensions of community capacity that are measured are shared focus on matters of importance, learning and innovation, results-based decision making, and leadership expansion. These represent key features of the four quadrants on the Family Policy Council capacity building model. Published reports on the relationship between community capacity improvement and problem reduction can be found on the Family Policy Council website. These include a reduction in problem severity – the number of problems occurring at very high rates – reductions in the rates of all seven social problems the Family Policy Council seeks to reduce, reduction in the number of young adults, ages 18 to 34 with 3 or more Adverse Childhood Experiences, and improvements in drug, alcohol and tobacco use among youth with two or more ACEs.

30 Attachment & Belonging Community, Culture, Spirituality
Family Policy Council Resilience Measures Capability Attachment & Belonging One question in BRFSS indicates attachment & belonging, and gives clues about community capacity: How often do you get your social/emotional needs met? Community, Culture, Spirituality Family Policy Council Community Capacity Dynamics model + decade of measurement quantify neighborhood/community transformation outcomes MEASURES Focus Learning Leadership Results In 1994 the Family Policy Council developed a model for measuring community capacity The measurement is based on biennial reporting that is collaboratively generated by families, neighbors, and professionals from many fields, and is confirmed in a public meeting where anyone can suggest changes to the report. The reports explain the strategies that the community used to improved child and family life – everything from changing the school climate and improving the quality of parent education to organizing neighbors to help one another in practical ways like building a new ramp to a home with a disabled child. Community leaders explain what they tried, how they view the connections among the strategies, what results they measured and how they interpret the data they collected. A review of Resilience literature shows that the Family Policy Council measures are consistent with the largest qualitative study and the largest quantitative study of resilience. Of most importance is the community report about what they learned from their work and how they will apply that learning in the upcoming years. The community reports are compiled and used as a basis for community capacity measurement. Rate trends among 25 indicators of major social problems – like termination of parental rights due to child abuse, youth arrests for violent crimes, and youth dropping out of school – are also considered as part of the measurement process. Then, people who have no vested interest in the results of the scoring are recruited to read the reports. Each report is read by four or more readers, who provide a score for four categories, each of which represents a key feature of the four quadrants on the Family Policy Council Capacity Building model: 1) Do people come together to identify and focus on the most important needs of their community? 2) Do people learn and generate new opportunities to improve child and family life? 3) Are new people helping to lead the efforts – people with varying ethnicities, income levels, experience with the service system, and roles within the community – is leadership expanding? 4) Are there promising results – what does the data say about how the local strategies might be impacting child and family life? After each reader has scored the reports, teams of readers come together to discuss the scores. Readers share what they saw as strengths, what they saw as weaknesses, and their ideas for improvement. Team members have the option to adjust scores, as they hear from the other readers, but they don’t have to. Then scores are combined, creating a composite score. The Family Policy Council has scores from over a decade of work across the state. Since community capacity builds over time – no community has instant success – the Family Policy Council combines multiple years to obtain a reliable snapshot of community capacity for each six-year period of time. That six year score is used in the Family Policy Council research about the link between higher community capacity and the rates of seven major social problems and the prevalence of adverse childhood experience in young adults. Why young adults? Since ACEs happen in childhood, we are looking at only the generation that the communities could have affected during the past dozen years since the commencement of the Network efforts to build community capacity. That would be the 18 to 34 year old group in the state’s survey of adult health called the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.

31 Neighbors Unite To Build Community Park
Before Walla Walla Commitment to Community Neighbors Unite To Build Community Park In Walla Walla caring is concrete, literally. Bricks and mortar bring community residents together to transform neighborhoods and build public spaces for children and families to convene. Service providers and community organizers meet residents where they are – on the streets, in their homes, and at work – and engage in appreciative conversation about what matters most to the people in the neighborhood. Through this conversation, community members of all ages find their self-efficacy and agency, and are acknowledged and supported. Leadership expansion is based on a fundamental respect for every person’s ability to contribute to a healthier community. Community service providers document and monitor the successes and challenges. Mostly people appreciate the new way people are working together. Walking through the neighborhoods, you are likely to hear comments like “You guys are serious, aren’t you? You’re still coming around. This place is changing!” “You are not coming here telling us what we need or what is good for us. You are giving us an opportunity to help ourselves.” Everyone takes a role that transforms their view of their community and themselves. Graffiti taggers who once filled underpass walls with overlapping and competing designs now facilitate mural painting and offer surveillance to prevent vandalism of their community’s collaborative artistic expression. The community is leveraging the existing skills and knowledge and further developing these assets. High school graduation rates are up, youth violence rates are down, arrest rates for drug and alcohol violations are down, school and home are safer places, and people are working together to establish neighbor-based help for parents and children involved with the child welfare system so that children can safety remain with their parents at home. Facilitators help the community to work together to solve problems and seize opportunity. One example of this is the community garden in the Edith-Carrie Neighborhood. The garden grew from conversations with neighbors about the high cost of groceries. The idea of creating vegetable gardens percolated in the fall of After a snowy winter to mull over the possibility of a garden, twelve families from the neighborhood, along with the outreach organizer, created the community garden in the spring of Families have donated extra produce to the food pantries in town or to other residents. Blue Mountain Action Council, a non profit agency, owns the property where the community garden is located— Carrie St. and 11th Ave. Neighbors share a rototiller, hand tools, rakes and sprinklers. While neighbors prepared the site for the garden, Canoe Ridge Winery Crew volunteered to install a sturdy fence around the perimeter of the property, which, to date, has managed to keep the rabbits out. Neighborhood facilitators and service providers establish trust with residents by building genuine relationships that cross cultural and language barriers. These relationships provide increased attachment among neighbors and service providers; changes in attitude about self, other and authority; and increased initiative and responsibility within the neighborhoods.

32 EXAMPLES OF PROGRAM & POLICY ACTIONS
Parent Trust for Washington Children has incorporated the ACE questions into their work with addicted parents facing court action (DV, termination of parental rights) resulting in: 1) improved outcomes in parenting classes and 2) reduced relapse among parents with 4 or more ACEs. Safe Harbor Crisis Nursery in the Tri-Cities has incorporated ACEs and trauma into its day-to-day strategies and case management resulting in improved outcomes for families. Children of Incarcerated Parents; the Legislature has mandated the executive branch to engage in an initiative to address the needs of children of incarcerated parents. The initiative and its processes are framed to address the likelihood that these children have more than this one ACE. With the help of the Mental Health Transformation Grant and the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), Spokane is exploring the creation/implementation of trauma sensitive practices in public schools. OSPI introduced the Compassionate Schools initiative, which supports local school districts in reducing the non-academic barriers to schools success that are created by trauma (2008). (http://www.k12.wa.us/CompassionateSchools/default.aspx) There are many other examples of how organizations, communities and programs have put the ACE information to work effectively. For example, Parent Trust for Washington Children, which works with parents who have multiple issues, including substance abuse AND domestic violence OR abuse of their own children. These parents are court-ordered to treatment and they are court-ordered to parenting classes. It can be hard to make progress under those conditions. However, Parent Trust has begun to use ACE screen as a very effective tool. On the one hand they use ACEs to help parents understand the source of their own struggles and to motivate parents to prevent ACEs in their own children’s lives. On the other hand, they use ACE information to help predict and prevent relapse. Because people who suffer trauma during childhood can have a lower threshold where stress is experienced as crisis, parents with 4 or more ACEs are considered more vulnerable to relapse when facing certain kinds of stressors. They collect ACE data and other data quarterly and use that information to do relapse prevention. It’s extremely cutting edge work and just one example of how programs are thinking about the application of ACE findings. Another example of leading edge work is the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction’s Compassionate Schools Initiative. The Compassionate Schools Initiative within Learning and Teaching Support provides training, guidance, referral, and technical assistance to schools wishing to adopt a Compassionate Schools Infrastructure. Compassionate Schools benefit all students who attend but focus on students chronically exposed to stress and trauma in their lives. These schools create compassionate classrooms and foster compassionate attitudes of their school staff. The goal is to keep students engaged and learning by creating and supporting a healthy climate and culture within the school where all students can learn. Staff from The Learning and Teaching Support section of OSPI and Dr. Ray Wolpow at the Woodring College of Education at Western Washington University in Bellingham have co-written a 246 page handbook entitled The Heart of Learning and Teaching: Compassion, Resilience, and Academic Success. This publication is a great resource for schools wishing to adopt a compassionate approach to learning and teaching. It includes principles for working with children who have experienced traumatic stress: Offer Unconditional positive regard and encouragement. Always empower, never dis-empower. Required helpfulness: ask students to make regular contributions to the welfare of their families or support groups by helping others deal with common challenges. Increase connections between individuals and any pro-social person— family members, alternative caregivers, communities, peer groups, and school personnel – that can provide external support to foster resiliency. These principles are evident in the work of many whole communities, whether they be school communities, communities of faith, or geographic communities, who are changing the way people live with one another. Let’s take a look at the amazing success in the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe.

33 Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe – Chi-e-Chee (The Workers) Network
In 2008 the Family Policy Council commissioned a study of communities that have had tremendous success improving the high school graduation rate. We wanted to know what these communities are doing . Are there common themes in the work that other communities can learn from? While many communities have had success, four were chosen for study: Kitsap County, Northshore/Shoreline schools in King County, Walla Walla and the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe. Every community uses a unique array of strategies to bring about positive change. But, there are common elements among their approaches. These include: Collaboration among community organizations and schools; Individual attention for students and very young children while working with the whole family; Flexibility and options to help students who are having difficulty; Responsiveness to cultural issues; Sending kids a message that people in the community care about them. In 2007 and 2010 the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe celebrated a 100% high school graduation rate. Statewide, only 53% of Native American Youth graduate from high school on time; only 60% graduate after extended high school years. Complex conditions and historic trauma create challenges and barriers often misunderstood, overlooked, or neglected by majority culture. In Port Gamble S’Klallam, Tribal members view “Culture as Prevention.” Dual generation prevention services and activities of the Tribe are aimed at youth and parents to improve the conditions for academic success and to support changes to community norms. Every Tribal member constitutes the General Council of the Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe. One Tribal Council member shares that “As General Council, we all have a say.” The whole community, including Tribal Council members, adult community members, and staff in every department and program, strongly and consistently emphasize that Port Gamble S’Klallam children and youth are expected to graduate from high school. The expectation for graduation is backed with an array of options that helps students who are having trouble, as well as strong affirmations of each child’s strengths. A reciprocal process of listening and improving, reflecting and acting in a way culture instructs and research supports, creates a mechanism for rapid response and individualized solutions. The Port Gamble S’Klallam Chi-e-Chee Network serves the tribe by planning, advising and helping to weave together strengths from all the departments to support youth and families. Collaboration and commitment coalesces in the Port Gamble S’Klallam Chi-e-chee Network. And everyone is included, tribal and non-tribal members alike. Numerous programs focus on developing youth leadership and supports and provide the infrastructure to attract other resources for community wellness. The word Chi-e-Chee means The Workers. Work includes supporting youth, parent and adult education retreats, cultural prevention programming including the Canoe Journey, and social supports for sobriety for all Tribal members. Educational and procedural adaptations have occurred in partnership between the Tribe and the off-reservation school. The Tribe and the schools promote parental involvement in their children’s education. The Tribal Council allows Tribal employees to use three hours a week of paid time to go into the schools – for sharing lunch time, helping in class, and whatever seems right for that parent and child. Parent-teacher conferences are held on the reservation to ease the parents’ burden for staying in touch with how children are doing in school. The Tribe and school agreements create alternatives for learning and credit earning. Students can receive credit for some cultural activities, such as the annual inter-tribal canoes journey that brings together coastal tribes by way of paddling traditional canoes across state and national waters to exchange cultural practices . And some students use work-based learning for half of each day. “Kids know that we care” both through individual staff efforts, and the attention they receive from many adults throughout the community. “It’s not just one person taking interest in them, but many.” Knowing that so many people care about them builds students’ sense of self-worth. And “if a student is struggling, somebody notices.” Assumptions about asking for support have changed. In a focus group, one student said: “it’s easy to seek help – there’s plenty of people to talk to.” Tribal staff and members work together to wrap around students as much as they possibly can, and consider the whole of each child’s life as the foundation for school success. Tribal staff not only offer programs, but will do whatever needs to be done to help students overcome barriers to graduation. They help with transportation if students can’t get to school, and will “knock on doors and get kids out of bed if it’s necessary.” No role is too small, no task too petty. When it comes to the next generation, everyone is involved.

34 Build Capacity To Reduce Adverse Childhood Experience
ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCE DRAFT We Can All Help Build Capacity To Reduce Adverse Childhood Experience Promote Resilience Do these findings raise your sense of hope? Take time to capture your thoughts about promoting resilience – in your self, your family, your neighborhood, at work, and in your life-course. What excites you about how your reflections relate to this emerging understanding of human resilience?

35 Cautions about the resilience approach
Expectation for Thriving Despite Oppression Strength Based ≠ Solutions Attending to Characteristics & Factors that Promote Resilience – Only Part of the Story Our lives happen in the context of our culture and our interaction with family and community We are profoundly impacted by the economy, laws, norms and society as a whole. As we promote resilience, it is important to recognize larger societal patterns that have a powerful impact on health and wellbeing. Dr. Boss cautions that: “Remaining resilient is not always desirable, especially if it is always the same persons who are expected to bend. People with less privilege and power or agency have become great adapters to the whims of others. They are expected to give in to those with higher agency and to fit in without making waves. Resiliency, there is not itself always a sufficient goal. Sometimes fighting back, insisting on radical change, or going into crisis is better than continuing to endure, for example, abuse and injustice. In such cases, we must be supportive of a person’s refusal to continue being adaptive. Rather than focusing on, for example, how people can thrive despite oppression, we should also be looking for ways to reduce discrimination, poverty, traumatic loss, and violence. Although the essential criterion of resilience is health, we must also promote the health of a society and environment in which humans can thrive.” As we work to foster environments that promote resilience, it is important to recognize some experiences clearly arise in life as problems that cannot be solved. Solution-focused interventions may cause us to miss pathways to resilience. We may need to learn to live with unanswered questions, adapt, approximate, and find a way to walk through the dark… and even thrive doing it. Even as we focus on resilience, we must also attend to symptoms that need medical attention or psychiatric treatment. And even though resilience research provides us with lists of factors that are important, these lists should not substitute for deep regard and respect for the wholeness of human beings. Dr. Cajete teaches that Indigenous people understand nature not as a collection of objects, but as a dynamic, ever flowing river of creation inseparable from our perceptions and being. He asserts that creativity is the child of chaos, and that the center of all dynamic forces of life is hope. As we experience the world, so we are also experienced by the world. Human beings bring to community our highest thoughts, our spirit, hope, creativity, and wisdom. We bring our whole selves, not just a collection of factors or characteristics, into relationship with life. It is that very wholeness that the Family Policy Council celebrates with this course, and with our work with children, families, and communities.

36 PARAMETERS FOR INTERVENTION
Pay attention to critical periods and cultural context. Understand resilience as both how we engage with other people and how we interact with our environment. Enhance the relationship between person & context. Embed interventions in familiar to social setting/community contexts. Attend to possibilities for lasting impact & enduring change. Understanding the wholeness may not be easy at first, but when we strip away some learned assumptions, we can connect the dots. Resilience is a complex process that is ongoing throughout life. It’s critical to remember that the effects of maltreatment and other adversities don’t happen all at once. The brain research teaches us that there are critical periods of development when certain kinds of maltreatment have particularly strong effects on certain regions of the brain. We have not yet geared our resilience efforts to these critical periods, but we need to remember them as we move forward. All development happens in a specific context or environment. So when it comes to resilience, we do need to pay attention to culture and cultural context if we are to succeed. Building resilience has at least two components—engaging with other people, and engaging with the situation or environment. We all need skills, attributes and positive characteristics in both if we are to reach our full resilience potential. And therefore, our interventions need to attend to both. According to the research, the most effective strategies for building resilience will require building supports into the environment. For example, some strategies talk about “changing cultural norms” or “changing community norms.” That’s a way of saying that we’re going to build supports into the environment. Standards, ways of treating one another, expectations that help young people acquire the skills, attributes and characteristics they need to adapt to challenges. Resilience is not a simple cause and effect equation in which lots of strength leads directly to good developmental outcomes; instead it involves interactions among multiple processes that give rise to alternate trajectories of development. These trajectories may be unstable, requiring constant input to maintain, or they may be self sustaining. Any intervention should measure multiple outcomes to make sure that a desired effect in one area of life is not being achieved at the cost of another important concern. As we move from research to practice, it might be tempting to put all our eggs into the basket of direct service. But public health research has shown that the lion’s share of the factors that determine health outcomes are embedded in the way we live with one another day by day. Changes in the relational and community environments where people live can be very powerful changes. And, people get it!

37 Enhancing Community Capacity a Dynamic Process of connection
Let’s celebrate the power of community. Peter Block, in his book: The Structure of Belonging says that “A shift in community needs a communal connectedness – a communal structure of belonging that produces the foundation for the whole system to move.” Meg Wheatley is a national and international leader in the areas of Community Resilience, Community Leadership and Transformational Change.  She has been a speaker, consultant, and writer since She has been inside most kinds of organizations – from the Girl Scouts to the U.S. Army, from Fortune 100 companies to small town churches– and lived and worked in many different cultures and countries. She applies the lens of living systems theory to organizations and communities, exploring the question: "How might we organize differently if we understood how Life organizes?“ In her book, A Simpler Way, Dr. Wheatley says that: “Changes in attitude and behavior emerge from our decisions about how to belong together. ” “Through dynamic processes of connection, we choose a shared identity. Every system takes form from the self it has created. It is this self that defines meaning. It is this self that invites people to change or compels them to resist. Identity is at the core of every organization, fueling its creation.” And, Gregory Cajete talks about community in his book: Native Science: Natural Laws of Independence. He notes that: “Community is a living, spiritual entity, supported by every responsible adult.” In Washington state, thousands of volunteers and professionals have worked on building healthier communities . Their work has been systematic and profoundly impactful. Let’s take a look at a model that improves community, family, and individual health and safety.

38 General Community Capacity Development Model
Family Policy Council General Community Capacity Development Model General Community Capacity is: capacity to not only sustain programs, but also to identify new community problems as they arise, and develop ways of addressing them. General Capacity Development is a dynamic process that enhances the infrastructure, skills, and motivation of a community – changing the way we live with one another day-to-day. Literature strongly supports the importance of general capacity building in the process of promoting effective prevention. (Livet, 2008) Communities can be more or less resilient. They are impacted by the resilience of individual members – and they influence those members as well. So how do we promote community resilience? How do we build the capacity of the community to identify and develop ways of addressing important matters as they arise – whether they be problems or cause for celebration? How do we engage with people in a community, whether they be people who are struggling, or people who find ease in everyday life? Healthy processes in community may be unstable, requiring constant input to maintain, or they may be self sustaining. The Family Policy Council’s model for community capacity development puts into place self sustaining processes that provide increasing opportunity for people to overcome stress, trauma and other life challenges by drawing from healthy social and cultural networks and practices in the community. The model challenges people to realize core values in their everyday actions, and supports policy and system change so they can do so. The Family Policy Council model is consistent with, and informed by, work in the fields of physics, poverty relief, community psychology, cellular biology, ecology, Native Science, and the ancient traditions of welcoming and naming community members. The model has all the key elements of a living system – one that adapts to changing conditions while maintaining core functions, protection of diversity, and specialization. But, the Family Policy Council model for Community Capacity Building is not theoretical. It is grounded in a dozen years of observation and measurement. It is characterized by results-focused interaction among and between funders, community leaders, families, and individuals throughout the state of Washington. The Family Policy Council Capacity Building Model carries research evidence that improvements in four elements of the model lead to reduced rates of many major social problems. What is most important about the model is it’s reinforcing positive adaptation at the community level – adaptation that turbo-charges other investments in child and family resilience. Each phase in the model compels the next phase to occur. Good programming alone may not reduce the overall rates of major social problems; good programming coupled with higher community capacity does. Community capacity building derives its power from shifts the norms in the community as a whole. Increased community capacity improves population mental, physical and behavioral health, prosperity and well-being. The Family Policy Council model for Community Capacity Building is sustainable, cheap, and accessible to every community. When people come together to address issues that matter most to them, their interactions naturally lead to greater opportunity – to exchange knowledge, resources, ideas, and skills . Expanded opportunity leads to a new kind of stability – one that is curious, flexible, open to the talents of all, and creative of shared identity – a powerful force for resilience. Shared identity and stability open the possibility for more people to step forward to share in leadership. At the Fmaily Policy Council we think that everyone who wants to help at this time is a leader. Shared identity in a stable community where opportunity exists for everyone – these conditions invite shared leadership. Leadership expansion is a leverage point in the dynamics of community capacity building. Funders who invest in expanding leadership are likely to receive high levels of return on investment. People who step up to provide leadership - whether with one person or an entire community – become powerful drivers of resilience.

39 The Family Policy Council’s local affiliates, Community Networks invest in: bringing the community together; facilitating a commitment to common ground; learning, managing and improving the meta system of supports for families; leadership development and improving lives. They invest in building the capacity of the community to reduce the rates of Adverse Childhood Experience, and improve resilience in all generations. A wave of national research demonstrates that community capacity engagement makes a big difference when it comes to our toughest social problems. A recent study of Family Policy Council Community Networks shows when Community Capacity elements grow, more and more different social problem rates come down. The research sows a strong (.82) correlation between Family Policy Council community capacity building and better-than-state trends in child abuse, youth substance abuse, youth violent crime, dropping out of school, teen pregnancy, family violence, and other problems of major significance. It’s hard work, but it’s not magic. It’s science that’s been noticed at the national level and proven in Washington’s communities. Social problems like child abuse, substance abuse and teen parentage present difficult value issues. For example: Where, exactly, is the line between disciplining and child abuse? When, if ever, should parental rights be terminated? What is the line between experimentation and addiction with alcohol? When is the right time to have a baby? Reasonable people disagree on tough issues like these. Comprehensive community change is what happens when neighbors, businesses, non-profits and government come together. With assistance, tough questions become the hook to connect and weave local determination. Problems are recognized in the community. Problems can not be outsourced to the government. People establish agreement to common ground, and meaningful action begins. You probably remember in the resilience literature that meaningful action is critical to healing from traumatic loss. The Family Policy Council’s model invites everyone to be involved in meaningful action. It requires reflective observation, learning, and application of new knowledge to improve system dynamics. This model for general community capacity building supports people with the courage to take on the toughest of societal problems. Let’s look at the leverage point in the Community Capacity Building Model – the place where we can get the most from our investment of time, effort, and money.

40 This model is powerful because success in one phase propels success in the next. It is a virtuous cycle that has the power to improve population health.

41 Virtuous Reinforcing Capacity Building - Sustainable Thriving
This model is powerful because success in one phase propels success in the next. It is a virtuous cycle that has the power to improve population health. Family, community residents & service providers, and funders each have roles and responsibilities in general community capacity building that are summarized in this diagram. We work in concert to produce a dynamic of capacity building that has the power to reduce the rates of major social problems . Working in concert, we can dramatically improve resilience. The Family Policy Council community capacity building model helps us to identify where, in the cycle of capacity building, we should invest our time, energy, resources, and commitment. Leadership expansion is the key to sustainable community capacity building. When leaders come from all classes, social and ethnic backgrounds, and when community leaders are continuously creating new roles for new leaders who give and receive from their participation, community capacity is most likely to expand. Leadership that is characterized by reciprocity – not only by sacrifice or expert standing – is especially powerful. And, opening new roles for leaders is fulfilling work for people who have been in leadership roles in the past. Well meaning outsiders often come to a community offering new resources – new information, new skills, new funds or programs that conform to an outside model of what works. Those investments come into the natural local cycle at a time when leadership has already expanded around matters of importance to local people . Outside resources distract people who have come together with ideas, hopes, possibility, and willingness to exchange valuable locally-held assets. Unless there’s a great fit with local aspirations, bringing new resources into the “learning and opportunity” part of the cycle (on the right side of the diagram on this slide) can actually interrupt the dynamics of community capacity building. Resources inserted in the wrong part of the cycle force people to adjust to fit the outside resource instead of putting their time, money, effort into emerging local solutions that are attracting support and generating hope and energy. When funders or program administrators experience local people as having chaotic or unorganized processes, it is prudent to consider whether their natural cycle of human organization has been interrupted. In the Family Policy Council capacity building model, the state partners bring resources in support of what local people are saying would matter at this time. In order for community to be a more health promoting place, people have to believe that their thoughts, priorities, commitments and insights are important and worthy of action. So, funders and program proponents need to let people know that they are willing to act upon what local people believe will matter most. You probably recall that Dr. Pauline Boss asserts that hope-filled action is at the core of resilient communities. Funders that fuel locally-generated solutions are actively participating in hope-filled action.

42 People relate all the time
People relate all the time. So it may seem strange to make a model for sustaining positive interaction among families. But some forms of interaction have healing effects within communities and families. The cycles of community capacity building apply within and among families. People have an instinctive need to be together. And, when we are together, we can find one another’s strengths and act upon them. The skills of appreciative conversation and questioning can be learned and practiced. When people intentionally come together in conversation with an eye toward discovering what is important to self and others, learning and opportunity will naturally arise. Our combined talents and skills provide educational, economic and other opportunities – something as simple as one person needing a book in order to complete a community college course and another person lending that book can be an important opportunity that arises from being together. When we share perspectives, cultural differences, common values, or simple interest in one another, we naturally build hope and a sense of shared identity. It becomes easier for us to ask for and receive help. It becomes easier for us to notice how we can help others. Families become more stable when there is reciprocity – a give-and-receive flow of interaction that benefits all. As we experience more hope and a deep understanding of the people who live nearby, we are more likely to offer contributions to the community as a whole. And those contributions are an important form of leadership that fuels capacity building. A great example of this type of work is the Community Café Initiative in Washington State that is sponsored by the Thurston County Community Network, Council for Children and Families, and a group of parents who have engaged hundreds of other parents in conversation about family strengths. Parent and community volunteers have committed themselves to reweaving the social fabric for all of our children, one conversation at a time. Conversations are guided by questions that allow participants to grow collective wisdom about strengthening families, leadership and the parent partnerships required to make protection in all of its forms an inalienable right for children. At the neighborhood level, parents and community members gather with each other in diverse settings and languages, share a home cooked meal together, and build relationships. Their conversations are facilitated by trained hosts, who are parents themselves. This simple process can suddenly turn the most disorganized social networks into communities rich with social capital and leadership capacity. Moreover, because the five essential protective factors used in the approach are grounded in human values and not cultural ones, this approach resonates in any community and social service system. Hosts who design cafés represent the constituency of the attendees – in fact, many times parents who attend a café sign up to be trained as hosts so they can lead more events in their neighborhoods. Parents receive a stipend to design and customize trainings. There is also a mentor option for new hosts and a national monthly conference call to support Community Café practice. Most of the hosts work full time and earn low wages that leave their families wanting for food, medical care and other necessities. Many speak English as a second language. Parent leaders build relationships with local and state organizations, write grants and letters, learn computer skills, design conversations, implement evaluations, give public presentations, mentor other parents, and perform a whole myriad of other jobs that constitute the kind of community leadership that builds resilience. Once group safety is established, parents say that they feel comfortable talking about things they may normally keep inside. Some typical stories include a young Korean speaking mother who was feeling overwhelmed with her sons “disobedience,” but felt that she didn’t have “the words to explain” her situation. With the advice of teachers in the school and other parents who have shared a similar experience, she sought the necessary medical help and her child was determined to have a form of autism. She now talks about “feeling hopeful” again. A group of Spanish speaking families participated in a Community Café focused on the challenges of having Spanish speaking children who receive academic instruction in English. Parents were concerned about their children’s social and emotional health. Community leaders began seeking out volunteers to sponsor Spanish speaking homework clubs and student mentorship programs. Spanish speaking homework clubs became available for both parents and children. One mother, after attending a series of cafes, declared that “I will reach out to others in my community more so that I can continue to gather resources and help from others. I definitely want to offer help to others in return.”

43 As more people become engaged with others in their community, the health of the community as a whole begins to improve. Community health is a dynamic condition – constantly adapting to changing circumstance. When we talk about building community capacity we are talking about promoting positive adaptation at the community level. The Family Policy Council model for community capacity building helps us to understand the dynamics of healthy communities, and also can help us to identify where a community may be stuck – so we can effectively interact with people to get the ball rolling again. When people come together in ways that feel safe and build ongoing relationships, people begin to share matters of importance to them. These matters are often grounded in core values, and represent the hopes and aspirations of the community. Healthy communities attract conversation about issues that really matter to the people who live there. Conversation leads to action that is focused to realize the community vision for better lives. Some groups may get stuck talking about surface issues – issues that are really not very important to anyone, but do fill the time. When this happens it is important that someone who is trusted call the question: What are we avoiding by talking about these issues that aren’t really very important to us? As people work together, they naturally form structures and processes in order to get things done. You have heard the phrase ‘form follows function.’ People begin to organize themselves in new and improved ways. They develop ways of getting work done that are innovative, attract unusual resources like in-kind donations of labor, space, materials and expertise, and honor the unique contributions that people have to offer. Essentially, they form structures that support shared leadership and attract new leaders who want to contribute because they feel a sense of shared identity and belonging with others. Community capacity is inherently sustainable. That is because each phase in the development of capacity naturally invites the next phase into being. All the phases work together as a dynamic and living system. When people are laying the path to a healthier community at the same time that they are walking that path, community capacity is in a state of emergence. Emergence is a word used in the field of systems thinking. Emergent properties are characteristics of the whole system that cannot be found in any single element of that system. Capacity is an emergent property in community. Community capacity comes not from adding the elements of the community conditions, structures, and processes, but from the mutual interactions among all of these. Community capacity is a form of social capitol, and contains elements of innovation, learning, adaptation, health and vitality.

44 Capacity Building has powerful effects
Foundations for Healthy Development Improve Five or more different problem rates come down (http://www.fpc.wa.gov/publications/technicalpaper-ver3.pdf) ACE Score Is Reduced from One Generation to the Next The average ACE score of youth transitioning into adulthood and parenthood is reduced in high capacity communities. Fewer people have 3 or more ACEs, thus preventing many health problems (http://www.fpc.wa.gov/publications/Relationship%20between%20ACEs%20and%20%20BH%20and%20PH%20%206%2024%2010.FINAL.pdf) Improved Social Responses to High ACE People Result in Better Life Course In high capacity communities, youth who have experienced Adverse Childhood Experiences are much less likely to use alcohol, marijuana and tobacco; thereby dramatically reducing their risk for disease, disability and problems at work, home and community (http://www.fpc.wa.gov/publications/FPC_High%20Risk%20Protect%20Youth_Nov%2009.pdf & Since 1997 Family Policy Council Community Networks have worked collaboratively with families, community-based organizations, and state managers to develop higher levels of community capacity and to reduce the rates of seven major social problems. These are: child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, youth violence, youth suicide, teen pregnancy, youth substance abuse and dropping out of school. The Family Policy Council monitors the rates of these and related problems over time. Communities vary greatly in the number and severity of problems they face and in the resources available to solve them. Problem severity – having many problems with rates that fall in the worst quartile of rates statewide – can complicate community work to improve the lives of children and families because problems are interrelated, multigenerational, and can seem overwhelming. Recent studies on successful public health interventions indicate that building community capacity increases the scope of interventions, the effectiveness of evidence based programs and extends the scale of efforts in a sustainable way so that they can actually reduce community-wide rates of children and family problems. Research shows that there is probably a tipping point when community capacity improvements rise to a high level, and at that level, five or more different problem rates come down all at once. To learn about the relationship between community capacity improvement and problem rate reduction, the Family Policy Council measures four dimensions of community capacity and conducts analysis on the degree to which improved community capacity scores are related to reduced problem rates. The four dimensions of community capacity that are measured are shared focus on matters of importance, learning and innovation, results-based decision making, and leadership expansion. These represent key features of the four quadrants on the Family Policy Council capacity building model. Published reports on the relationship between community capacity improvement and problem reduction can be found on the Family Policy Council website. These include a reduction in problem severity – the number of problems occurring at very high rates – reductions in the rates of all seven social problems the Family Policy Council seeks to reduce, reduction in the number of young adults, ages 18 to 34 with 3 or more Adverse Childhood Experiences, and improvements in drug, alcohol and tobacco use among youth with two or more ACEs.

45 Attachment & Belonging Community, Culture, Spirituality
Family Policy Council Resilience Measures Capability Attachment & Belonging One question in BRFSS indicates attachment & belonging, and gives clues about community capacity: How often do you get your social/emotional needs met? Community, Culture, Spirituality Family Policy Council Community Capacity Dynamics model + decade of measurement quantify neighborhood/community transformation outcomes MEASURES Focus Learning Leadership Results In 1994 the Family Policy Council developed a model for measuring community capacity The measurement is based on biennial reporting that is collaboratively generated by families, neighbors, and professionals from many fields, and is confirmed in a public meeting where anyone can suggest changes to the report. The reports explain the strategies that the community used to improved child and family life – everything from changing the school climate and improving the quality of parent education to organizing neighbors to help one another in practical ways like building a new ramp to a home with a disabled child. Community leaders explain what they tried, how they view the connections among the strategies, what results they measured and how they interpret the data they collected. A review of Resilience literature shows that the Family Policy Council measures are consistent with the largest qualitative study and the largest quantitative study of resilience. Of most importance is the community report about what they learned from their work and how they will apply that learning in the upcoming years. The community reports are compiled and used as a basis for community capacity measurement. Rate trends among 25 indicators of major social problems – like termination of parental rights due to child abuse, youth arrests for violent crimes, and youth dropping out of school – are also considered as part of the measurement process. Then, people who have no vested interest in the results of the scoring are recruited to read the reports. Each report is read by four or more readers, who provide a score for four categories, each of which represents a key feature of the four quadrants on the Family Policy Council Capacity Building model: 1) Do people come together to identify and focus on the most important needs of their community? 2) Do people learn and generate new opportunities to improve child and family life? 3) Are new people helping to lead the efforts – people with varying ethnicities, income levels, experience with the service system, and roles within the community – is leadership expanding? 4) Are there promising results – what does the data say about how the local strategies might be impacting child and family life? After each reader has scored the reports, teams of readers come together to discuss the scores. Readers share what they saw as strengths, what they saw as weaknesses, and their ideas for improvement. Team members have the option to adjust scores, as they hear from the other readers, but they don’t have to. Then scores are combined, creating a composite score. The Family Policy Council has scores from over a decade of work across the state. Since community capacity builds over time – no community has instant success – the Family Policy Council combines multiple years to obtain a reliable snapshot of community capacity for each six-year period of time. That six year score is used in the Family Policy Council research about the link between higher community capacity and the rates of seven major social problems and the prevalence of adverse childhood experience in young adults. Why young adults? Since ACEs happen in childhood, we are looking at only the generation that the communities could have affected during the past dozen years since the commencement of the Network efforts to build community capacity. That would be the 18 to 34 year old group in the state’s survey of adult health called the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.


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